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NuMBEK 1 — January 1911 

The Contributions of Albert Miller Lea to the History of 

Iowa Clifford Powell 3 

Andersonville and the Trial of Henry Wirz 

John Howard Stibbs 33 

The Baconian Club of Iowa City 57 

Some Publications 114 

Americana — General and Miscellaneous 114 

Western 121 

lowana , 123 

Historical Societies 131 

Notes and Comment 144 

Contributors 149 

Number 2 — April 1911 

The Establishment and Organization of Townships in John- 
son County Clarence Ray Aurner 155 

The Attitude of Congress Toward the Pioneers of the West 

1820-1850 Kenneth W. Colgrove 196 

Some Publications 303 

Americana — General and Miscellaneous 303 

Western 311 

lowana 312 

Historical Societies 319 

Notes and Comment 330 

Contributors 332 


Number 3 — July 1911 

The Expedition of Zebulon Montgomery Pike to the Sources 

of the Mississippi Ethyl Edna Martin 335 

The Settlement of Woodbury County 

Frank Harmon Garver 359 

The Territorial Convention of 1837 385 

Proceedings of a Council with the Chippewa Indians 408 

Some Publications 438 

Americana — General and Miscellaneous 438 

Western 445 

lowana 446 

Historical Societies 453 

Notes and Comment 468 

Contributors 472 

Number 4 — October 1911 

The Work of the Thirty-Fourth General Assembly of Iowa 

Frank Edward Horack 475 

The History of the Codes of Iowa Law 

Clifford Powell 493 

The Coming of the Hollanders to Iowa 

Jacob Yan der Zee 528 

Some Publications 575 

Americana — General and Miscellaneous 575 

Western 581 

lowana 585 

Historical Societies 592 

Notes and Comment 605 

Contributors 607 

Index 609 



VOL. IX — 1 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 


[This essay was awarded the seventy-five dollar prize offered in 1909 by the 
Iowa Society of the Colonial Dames of America for the best essay in Iowa 
history. The essay has been revised for publication. — Editor.] 

The contributions of Albert Miller Lea to the literature 
of Iowa history are neither voluminous nor critical. They 
consist chiefly of a small book of forty-five pages, two maps, 
and two reports ; but, having been written during the forma- 
tive period of beginnings, they have an historical impor- 
tance which is out of proportion to their critical character. 
The little book gave the State its name ; the reports were 
the bases of legislation and large appropriations by Con- 
gress ; and the maps served as guides to settlers for a long 
period of years. 

Albert Miller Lea was a Lieutenant in the United States 
Army and an accomplished civil engineer — a man of varied 
attainments and remarkable foresight. He was born in 
1807 at Lea Springs — a place not far distant from Knox- 
ville, Tennessee. His father was a merchant who at one 
time held the position of Register of the Land Office in the 
State of Franklin f and his mother was one Clara Wisdom, 
who is described by her son Albert as a *'wise and prudent'' 

1 The writer desires to express his thanks to Professor Benj. F. Shambaugh 
for the assistance and helpful suggestions given in the preparation of this 
essay, to Mr. A. N. Harbert of Cedar Rapids for the use of his materials relat- 
ing to Albert M. Lea, and to Br. Louis Pelzer and Mr. Kenneth Colgrove for 
kindly reading and criticising the essay. 

2 Jowa Historical Becord, Vol. VIII, No. 1, Jantiary, 1892, p. 201. 

Lea also describes his father as positive, dictatorial, domineering, and 
sagacious. ' ' 


The early education of Lieutenant Lea was received in 
the common schools of Knoxville. Later he entered college, 
and was within one session of graduation when he was com- 
pelled to give up his studies on account of poor health. 
Within a year, however, he had regained his health and in 
1827 received an appointment to the Military Academy at 
West Point.^ Four years later, on July 1, 1831, Lieutenant 
Lea graduated from this institution (ranking fifth in a class 
of thirty-seven) and was assigned, after a short furlough,, 
to the United States Army.^ 

The commission to the Military Academy proved to be 
the turning point in Lea's career; for instead of becoming 
a planter and land owner, as did many of his associates,^ 
he entered the army, came west, and directed several large 
engineering undertakings,^ giving the best part of his life 
in the service of the Government. The three years follow- 
ing his graduation were spent in going from one part of the 
country to another on various topographical and scientific 

^lowa Historical Hecord, Vol. VIII, No. 1, January, 1892, pp. 201, 202. 

Lea received this appointment from Senator H. L. White, who was a com- 
petitor of Martin Van Buren in 1836. 

* Letter to Senator Wm. B. Allison from the Eecord and Pension,, 
January 15, 1904. 

Albert Miller Lea was a cadet at the United States Military Academy 
from July 1, 1827, to July 1, 1831, when he was graduated and appointed 
brevet 2nd Lieutenant of Artillery. He was transferred to the 7th Infantry 
August 11, 1831, and was promoted 2nd Lieutenant March 4, 1833; was 
appointed 2nd Lieutenant, 1st Dragoons, July 1, 1834, to rank from March 
4, 1833, and his resignation was accepted to take effect May 31, 1836." 

Lea was on leave of absence from February 1, 1836, to the date of his 
resignation. This letter is in the collection of Mr, A. N. Harbert of Cedar 
Eapids, Iowa, 

s Among the engineering services performed were the following: 

A. Drew plans for first locomotive ever constructed by the Baldwins. 

B. Famoui survey of the B. & O. E, E. where a cut was constructed by the 
use of geologic bedding. 

C. Survey of the Tennessee Eiver, 

See lovja Ilistorical Record, Vol, VIII, No. 1, January, 1892, for a complete- 


duties.® This kind of work, which carried him from the 
Great Lakes to the Gulf and from Oklahoma to the moun- 
tains of Tennessee, gave him a vast amount of valuable 
information concerning the pioneers and the West. Finally, 
however, he was ordered for a second time to Fort Gibson,*^ 
there to attach himself to the First United States Dragoons 
— a regiment formed at the close of the Black Hawk War. 

Upon his arrival at Fort Gibson in the autumn of 1834, 
Lea was ordered by Colonel Henry Dodge to a point near 
the present site of Bellevue, Nebraska, to pay the Indians 
a certain amount of merchandise which was due them.^ 

When he had completed this task he returned to Fort Gib- 
son only to find that his company, with two others, was lo- 
cated at a new post^ on the Upper Mississippi, hundreds of 
miles away. He immediately set out to join his command, 
taking the last boat of the season going north from St. 
Louis, and in a few days reached the town of Keokuk. The 
present prosperous city was then only **a substantial stone 
building, used as a trading station, the only house on the 
west bank for many miles below and three hundred miles 
above. This was Lea's first view of the country to 
which, within two years, he was to give the name **Iowa". 
A few days later he reported at Fort Des Moines, near the 
present town of Montrose, where he took charge of his 

On the 9th of March, 1835, orders^ ^ were received by 

^ Iowa Historical Becord, Vol. VIII, No. 1, January, 1892, p. 202. 

7 Lieutenant Lea first reported at Fort Gibson in 1832. — See Iowa Historical 
Becordy Vol. VIII, No. 1, January, 1892, pp. 200-205. 

8 For a full account, see an article entitled Early Explorations in Iowa in the 
Iowa Historical Becord, Vol. VI, No. 4, October, 1890, p. 538. 

9 This new post was Fort Des Moines No. 1. — See Annuls of Iowa, Third 
Series, Vol. Ill, Nos. 5-6, April-July, 1898, p. 351. 

10 Iowa Historical Becord, Vol. VI, No. 4, October, 1890, p. 541. 

11 Annals of Iowa, Third Series, Vol. Ill, Nos. 5-6, April-July, 1898, p. 355. 


Lieutenant Colonel Kearney to proceed with his command 
up the Des Moines Eiver to a certain point near the Eac- 
coon Forks and from there in a northeasterly direction to 
the Mississippi. From the latter place the command was 
to march westward until the Des Moines Eiver was again 
reached, when a return should be made to Fort Des Moines. 
Accordingly, on June 7, 1835, the troop, consisting of about 
150 mounted men, started on the march for the purposes 
of exploration and of impressing the Indians with the power 
of the United States government.^ ^ ^^s on this expedi- 
tion that Lieutenant Lea voluntarily assumed the duties 
of topographer and chronicler" and to this fact we owe 
many fine descriptions of the original condition of the Iowa 
prairies as well as the Notes on Wisconsin Territory. 

The line of march followed as nearly as possible the 
divide between the Des Moines and Skunk rivers. Being in 
the springtime, the ground was still very wet and soft, ow- 
ing to the excessive rainfall. The troop proceeded slowly, 
covering only from fifteen to twenty miles a day.^^ But 
with the single discomfort of excessive rainfall, it was an 
ideal time of the year to make the trip, as the weather in 
other respects was favorable to both men and horses. The 
scenery, too, was magnificent; and Lieutenant Lea wrote 
that ^'the grass and streams were beautiful and strawber- 
ries so abundant as to make the whole tract red for miles 
Game was also plentiful, and wild fowl was a part of nearly 
every meal. At a place near the present site of the city of 
Oskaloosa **a small herd of buffalo '^^^ was encountered. 

12 Annals of Iowa, Third Series, Vol. Ill, Nos. 5-6, April- July, 1898, p. 355. 
■i^Iowa Historical Becord, Vol. VI, No. 4, October, 1890, p. 546 

Iowa Historical Becord, Vol. VI, No. 4, October, 1890, p. 547. 
-i^' Iowa Historical Becord, Vol. VI, No. 4, October, 1890, p. 547. 

Iowa Historical Becord, Vol. VI, No. 4, October, 1890, p. 548. 



Concerning this incident Lieutenant Lea wrote : **It was the 
first and only time I have seen the lordly beast in his home, 
and probably the last time he appeared in that region. ''^"^ 
The various pests were in evidence then as now, for at one 
place Lea declares that after my tent was pitched we 
killed four rattlesnakes within it, and the next day I had 
a bath in a pool, occupied by mosquitos so large that I 
pressed one in my journal, and carried for years as a 
specimen of the luxuriant growth of the plains. ' ' 

When the expedition had proceeded as far as the place 
where Boone is now located, the order was given to march 
in a northeasterly direction to the Mississippi,^^ where a 
steamboat with fresh supplies awaited their arrival. After 
a rest of a few days on the banks of the Mississippi near 
Lake Pepin in Minnesota, the march was again taken up, 
this time directly westward to the district of the lakes of 
Minnesota. One of these. Lake Albert Lea,^^ perpetuates 
the name of the Lieutenant. This region was one **of 
lakes and open groves of oak, beautiful as English parks' - ; 
and when writing of it in later years Lieutenant Lea de- 

17 This same incident is mentioned in a journal of this march in the follow- 
ing words : 

* ' [Wednesday, June the Twenty-Fourth] 
24 Marched 25 miles & encamped on the banks of the Iway a small 
stream 30 yards broad. This day for the first this season we saw Buffalo. 
Killed 5 or 6 — many of our men are recruits from the North & never saw 
a Buffalo before & therefore to them a Buffalo chase was something remark- 
able. This day was spent in eating Buffalo beef & sleep. ' ' — The Iowa Jour- 
nal OF History and Politics, Vol. VII, No. 3, July, 1909, p. 368. 

18 Jowa Historical Becord, Vol. VI, No. 4, October, 1890, p. 548. 

19 Iowa Historical Becord, Vol. VI, No. 4, October, 1890, p. 548. 

Near the present site of Boone the troop camped *'one night near a flint 
and gravel covered conical peak, sixty feet above the plain '\ This is easily 
found to-day, a short way south of Boone. 

20 This lake was named by Mr. J, N. Nicollet, a surveyor, and also a friend 
of Lea. — See Executive Documents, Bocument No. 52, 2nd Session, 28th Con- 
gress, Vol. II, p. 73. Also Iowa Historical Becord, Vol. VI, No. 4, October, 
1890, p. 549. 


clared, that Possibly, some day, I may again ride over that 
trail ; and I might well wish that my freed spirit could leave 
this green earth with the impression made just fifty-five 
years ago, as I gazed and sketched, when halted for our 
noon rest on the shaded and grassy shore of Lake Albert 
Lea. ^ Finally, the Des Moines headwaters were reached 
and the march turned southward, entering the present State 
in the neighborhood of Swea City.^^ 

By slow degrees the troop made its way to the Eaccoon 
Forks,^^ near a place where the capital of Iowa is now lo- 
cated, but which at that time was simply **a grassy and 
spongy meadow with a bubbling spring in the midst. ' At 
this place, too. Lieutenant Lea was ordered to descend the 
Des Moines Eiver in a canoe,^^ to take soundings, and to 
report upon the practicability of navigating keel boats over 
its course. This proved to be a very arduous task; but 
Lieutenant Lea reached the Fort several days before the 
main body of troops, who returned leisurely by land in the 
latter part of August.^^ 

After writing his report upon the Des Moines Eiver, 
Lieutenant Lea resigned from the army and hastened to 
Baltimore where he published the Notes on Wisconsin Ter- 
ritory, Two years later, in 1838, he again came to the Iowa 

21 Iowa Historical Becord, Vol. VI, No. 4, October, 1890, p. 549. 

22 The exact location can not be deffinitely stated. The route was on the 
west side of the river in this locality. 

23 A journal, kept during this campaign, may be found in The Iowa Journal 
OF History and Politics, Vol. VII, No. 3, July, 1909, p. 331. 

24 Iowa Historical Becord, Vol. VI, No. 4, October, 1890, p. 549. 

25 Iowa Historical Becord, Vol. VI, No. 4, October, 1890, p. 550 ; Annals of 
Iowa, Third Series, Vol. Ill, p. 356, also an article by General Parrott on p. 374. 

In a letter to Hon. T. S. Parvin, written April 4, 1890, Lieutenant Lea says: 
"I made a survey, in a canoe, of Des Moines river, from Rac[c]oon down, in 
1835. ' ' 

2«Soc map in Lea's Notes on Wisconsin Territory. 


-country as the United States Commissioner to determine 
the boundary between the State of Missouri and the Terri- 
tory of Iowa.2'^ When this task was completed Lieutenant 
Lea entered the employ of large corporations in the capacity 
of chief engineer.^^ At the outbreak of the Civil War he 
followed his old friend Eobert E. Lee into the Confederacy, 
where he completed four years of active service.^^ When 
peace was eventually declared, he was practically ruined 
financially ; and in this condition he sought a new country, 
moving to Corsicana, Texas, where he lived until his death 
in 1890. 

The contributions of Albert M. Lea to the literature of 
Iowa history are based upon his two trips to the Iowa 
country: (1) the march of the Dragoons in 1835; and (2) 
his work as a member of the boundary commission of 1838. 
Upon both occasions Lieutenant Lea left a report and a 
map ; and these occupy a prominent place in the earliest lit- 
erature of the Commonwealth. 


The first of Lea's contributions in point of time is the 
Report on the Des Moines River which was made in 1835. 
Upon arriving at Fort Des Moines after the campaign with 
the Dragoons, Lieutenant Lea made a comprehensive re- 
port which included, besides the general conclusions, all the 
soundings, measurements, and notes of important features 

Executive Docwments, House Document No. 38, 3rd Session, 27th Con- 
gress. This document is also found in the Iowa Historical Becord, Vol. II, No. 
1, January, 1886, p. 193. 

28 Lieutenant Lea was for a number of years City Engineer of Knoxville, 
Tennessee, and later of Galveston, Texas. — See Lea's Autobiography in Iowa 
Historical Record, Vol. VIII, No. 1, January, 1892, p. 200. 

29 The best account of this period of Lieutenant Lea 's life is found under 
the title of Colonel Lea's Beminiscences, a series of articles published in The 
Freedom County Standard, of Albert Lea, Minnesota, from January to May, 


from the Eaccoon to the Mississippi. Unfortunately this 
report, which was written in 1835 (and which was the first 
contribution relating to Iowa penned by Lea) can not be 
found. It seems to have been used as a basis for legisla- 
tion ; for in speaking of the report its author says : * ' The 
manuscript was published by Congress in 1835-6 without 
the map, and the original is in Adjutant-General's office. 
It was the foundation of all the appropriations for Des 
Moines under the care of my classmate, Sam E. Curtis. 
The evidence of the commanding officer also states that the 
report was actually transmitted; for in the order book of 
Lieutenant-Colonel Kearney we find this statement: ^^I 
send you his [Lea's] report. 

Despite this seemingly conclusive evidence of its existence, 
the document, which related to the Des Moines Eiver, its 
characteristics, its commercial and economic value, has not 
been located either in the records of the War Departments^ 
or among the papers of the office of the Adjutant-General 
of the State of lowa.^^ Its historical importance can noty 
therefore, be estimated. 

It was in connection with this report that Lieutenant Lea 
drew a map which was used, with some changes, in his Notes 
on Wisconsin Territory. In speaking of the making of this 

30 Letter written on April 4, 1890, by Albert M. Lea to Honorable T. S. 

31 Order of Lieutenant-Colonel Kearney. — Pound in an article prepared by 
the War Department for Annals of Iowa, Third Series, Vol. Ill, p. 356. 

32 Letter from War Department, December 3, 1908. 

''The report made by Lieutenant Albert M. Lea, of the 1st U. S. Dragoons, 
in 1835, relative to the Des Moines river is not found in the Department."' 
Also a letter from the War Department to W. B. Allison on August 23, 1904: 
"An exhaustive examination of the records on file in this office has resulted 
in failure to find any report made by Albert M. Lea. ' ' 

33 Letter written to A. N. Harbert by Adjutant-General M. H. Byers on 
July 20, 1901: "There are no reports from him [A. M. Lea] on file and in- 
deed his name is not found on any papers on file." 


map Lieutenant Lea says: Without delay, I mapped tlie 
river and wrote a report on its character and capabilities, 
which was forwarded to the Adjutant-General ; and then it 
occurred to me that I could get an outline of the region be- 
tween the Mississippi and Missouri, and by filling it in 
with my sketches, the whole route having been carefully 
meandered, as I did the river, I could make a map that 
would interest the public, gain me some reputation and per- 
haps a little money. ' ' When the map was finished, however, 
the post commander. Lieutenant Colonel Kearney, sent for 
it and even refused its maker a copy. The next year, after 
much difficulty. Lieutenant Lea obtained a copy of his map 
from the proper officials in Washington and had it litho- 
graphed for the Notes on Wisconsin Territory, 


The second and perhaps the most important of Lea's 
contributions to the literature of Iowa history is the Notes 
on Wisconsin Territory — a small book of forty-five pages. 
When in 1836 Lieutenant Lea returned to Baltimore from 
his campaign with the Dragoons so many inquiries for in- 
formation concerning the western country were addressed 
to him^^ that he decided to write a concise and accurate 
account of the land to which so many immigrants were 
bound and over which the Dragoons had made their march. 

Such a task was an easy undertaking for Lieutenant Lea, 
since he had secured much information of the West during 
his travels and his services with the army. The demand, 
too, for a book of this kind promised to be large, as hun- 
dreds of settlers were flocking to the western country. Ac- 
cordingly, Lea wrote an account of the region which was 

Early Explorations in Iowa in the Iowa Historical Eecord, Vol. V, No. 
4, October, 1890, p. 550. 

35 Lea 's Notes on Wisconsin Territory, the preface. 


then a part of the original Territory of Wisconsin and lying 
west of the Mississippi Eiver. 

When this was finished the author went to Washington, 
D. C, where, after much persuasion he managed to secure 
a copy of the map which has been described above and 
which had been made at the close of the march in the year 
1835. The map and manuscript were then taken to Phila- 
delphia where the book was published. Lea later described 
the publication of this valuable book in this manner : — ' ' One 
thousand copies with the map were put up by my friend, 
H. S. Tanner, to whom I paid thirty-seven and a half cents 
per copy, and put them on sale at a dollar. Being quite 
ignorant of the book trade I assumed the sales myself, sent 
a few copies by mail, and five hundred in a trunk as freight 
to Arthur Bridgman of Burlington, an accomplished mer- 
chant. The last I heard of them was on a little steamboat 
stranded on a sandbank in the Ohio."^^ The book indeed 
is quite rare, and less than a score of copies are known to be 
in existence.^^ 

The book is small, three and a half by six inches, bound 
in pale blue board cover, and contains, besides a map of the 
country described, forty-five finely printed pages. The full 
title of this interesting little contribution is Notes On The 
Wisconsin Territory; particularly with reference to the 
Iowa District or Black Hawk Purchase, It was written, as 
the author declares in the preface, **to place within the 
reach of the public, correct information in regard to a very 

8« Iowa Historical Eecord, Vol. VI, No. 4, October, 1890, p. 552. 

37 A partial list of the owners of these books is the following: L. A. Brewer, 
Cedar Rapids; T. J. Fitzpatrick, Iowa City; Mr. Blair, Kossuth; The Masonic 
Library, Cedar Rapids; The Davenport Academy of Science, Davenport; His- 
torical Department of Iowa, Des Moines; State Historical Society, Iowa City; 
and A. N. Harbert, Cedar Rapids. 

Mr. Earl Swcm, Assistant State Librarian of Richmond, Virginia, can fur- 
nish a complete list of the owners of copies of this book. 


interesting portion of the Western Country The con- 
tents, too, are confined to subjects which would interest **the 
emigrant, the speculator, and the legislator. ' A more 
complete work was planned, but the author never had the 
inclination nor the desire to finish it."*^ 

The Notes on Wisconsin Territory consists of three 
general chapters or divisions. The first division gives a 
general description of the country ; the second part explains 
the water courses, the local divisions, and the form of gov- 
ernment ; while in the last chapter the reader finds a descrip- 
tion of the various towns, landings, and roads. 

The country to which the author limited himself was a 
part of the original Territory of Wisconsin which he chose 
to call the **Iowa District" — a strip of land about 190 
miles in length, 50 miles wide near each end, and 40 miles 
wide near the middle opposite to Eock Island; and would 
make a parallelogram of 180 by 50 miles equivalent to 9000 
square miles. This strip of country had been practically 
unsettled before the year 1832, being alternately in the pos- 
session of various tribes of Indians, but chiefly of the Sacs 
and Foxes. At the close of the Black Hawk War in 1832 this 
country was obtained from the Indians and the date of the 
latter 's removal placed at June 1, 1833. The treaty of 
cession was made at Davenport, General Scott being the 
chief negotiator on the part of the United States.*^ As a 
result the ceded area was popularly known as Scott's Pur- 
chase" or, later, as the Black Hawk Purchase". 

The treaty was barely signed when several families and 
miners, who had been hovering on the east bank of the 

38 Lea's Notes on Wisconsin Territory, the preface. 
39 Lea's Notes on Wisconsin Territory, the preface. 

40 Lea 's Notes on Wisconsin Territory, the preface. 

41 Lea's Notes on Wisconsin Territory, Chap. I, p. 8. 

42 Salter's Iowa: The First Free State in the Louisiana Purchase, p. 155. 


Mississippi, crossed over and established themselves on the 
choicest parts of the District; but these people **were dis- 
possessed by order of government".*^ Nevertheless many 
white families remained and some even went so far as to 
put in crops.** 

The climate of the Iowa District is first described, the dif- 
ferent seasons and their varying aspects beautifully pic- 
tured. The winds were of especial importance in the opinion 
of the author, being as fresh and bracing as the sea-breezes 
and very much less chilling. **The prevailing winds*', he 
writes, **are from the southwest. I have known the wind 
at Eock Island, to remain constant in that quarter for three 
weeks successively''.*^ The salubriousness of the climate 
was variable according to the locality. Lea thought that 
from the mouth of the Des Moines until the great bend of 
the Mississippi was reached there was liable to be much 
fever; but from Eock Island northward he knew of no 
healthier place in the world. 

The descriptions of the various seasons furnish one of 
the most interesting parts of the book, and also an oppor- 
tunity for comparison with the seasons of the present day. 
As a proof that winter is not changing to any appreciable 
extent, the description by Lieutenant Lea, written seventy- 
three years ago, may be cited. '^The Winter' \ he declares, 
^^is generally dry, cold, and bracing; the waters are all 
bridged with ice; the snow is frequently deep enough to 
afford good sleighing."*^ 

Spring was the least desirable of any of the seasons, being 
^^a succession of rains, blows, and chills." The same char- 
acteristics were in evidence then as now, for Lea writes 

43 Lea's Notes on Wisconsin Territory, p. 8. 

44 Shambaugh 's History of the Constitutions of Iowa, p. 38. 

45 Lea's Notes on Wisconsin Territory, p. 8. 
4« Lea 's Notes on Wisconsin Territory, p. 9. 


that *'We have no gradual gliding from cold to warm; it is 
snowy — then stormy — then balmy and delightful. ' ^^"^ 

Summer was a season in which all the conditions were 
favorable to a rapid growth of vegetation. The appear- 
ance of the country during this season was very beautiful, 
as all the grasses and flowers grew luxuriantly. 

Autumn, however, was described by Lieutenant Lea as 
being **the most delightful of all the seasons of the year." 
His description of this season, written in 1836, would apply 
to-day with equal truthfulness. **The heat of the summer 
is over by the middle of August ; and from that time till De- 
cember, we have almost one continuous succession of bright 
clear delightful sunny days. Nothing can exceed the beauty 
of Summer and Autumn in this country, where, on one hand, 
we have the expansive prairie strewed with flowers still 
growing; and on the other, the forests which skirt it, pre- 
senting all the varieties of colour incident to the fading 
foliage of a thousand different trees. '^^^ 

The soil and the character of the country are presented 
in detail, and the writer gives his opinions as to the best 
crops for the various soils. Indian corn, he believes, was 
* ^peculiarly adapted'^ to the low lands of this district. 

^^The general appearance of the country' declares Lea, 
*'is one of great beauty. It may be represented as one 
grand rolling prairie, along one side of which flows the 
mightiest river in the world and through which numerous 
navigable streams pursue their devious way to the ocean' '.^^ 
In another place this same area is claimed by the author to 
be superior, all things considered, to any other part of the 
United States.^^ 

47 Lea's Notes on Wisconsin Territory, p. 9. 

48 Lea 's Notes on Wisconsin Territory, p. 10. 
49 Lea's Notes on Wisconsin Territory, p. 11. 
50 Lea's Notes on Wisconsin Territory, p. 12. 


The distribution of timber, water, and prairie was one of 
the unique features of this District. The beauty of the 
country seemed to have charmed Lieutenant Lea, for at the 
close of his description of its general appearance he writes : 

Could I present to the mind of the reader that view of this 
country that is now before my eyes, he would not deem my assertion 
unfounded. He would see the broad Mississippi with its ten thou- 
sand islands, flowing gently and lingeringly along one entire side 
of this District, as if in regret at leaving so delightful a region ; he 
would see half a dozen navigable rivers taking their sources in 
distant regions, and gradually accumulating their waters as they 
glide steadily along through this favoured region to pay their 
tribute to the great Father of Waters"; he would see innumer- 
able creeks and rivulets meandering through rich pasturages, where 
now the domestic ox has taken the place of the untamed bison ; he 
would see here and there neat groves of oak, and elm, and walnut, 
half shading half concealing beautiful little lakes that mirror back 
their waiving branches ; he would see neat looking prairies of two 
or three miles in extent, and apparently enclosed by woods on all 
sides, and along the borders of which are ranged the neat hewed 
log cabins of the emigrants with their fields stretching far into the 
prairies, where their herds are luxuriating on the native grass; 
he would see villages springing up, as by magic, along the banks 
of the rivers, and even far into the interior ; and he would see the 
swift moving steam-boats, as they ply up and down the Mississippi, 
to supply the wants of the settlers, to take away their surplus pro- 
duce, or to bring an accesion to this growing population, anxious 
to participate in the enjoyment of nature's bounties, here so liber- 
ally dispensed.^i 

The mineral resources were described as abundant, com- 
prising coal, lead, limestone, zinc, and clay. Lea believed 
these were the greatest assets of the country. The chief 
mineral wealth at that time, however, was in the lead indus- 
try which was in a thriving condition in and near Dubuque, 
**Here'', writes Lea, ^^are capital, western enterprise, for- 

61 Lea's Notes on Wisconsin Territory, p. 12. 


eign experience, and Yankee ingenuity combined ; and they 
have brought to their assistance the powers of both water 
and steam. The smelting establishments have recently 
been much improved and are now conducted with scientific 
accuracy, yielding seventy or eighty per cent of lead from 
the native sulphuret.''^^ 

The larger game was rapidly beginning to disappear 
when this book was written, but the writer mentions deer, 
* * some bear ' and buffalo. The wild turkey, grouse and the 
wild duck were the most numerous of the wild fowls ; and 
fish of all varieties were found in the numerous rivers. 
Spearing the fish in the rapids was a favorite sport and 
large strings of pike, pickerel, catfish, and trout were to be 

Agricultural products, being least in importance at this 
time, are only briefly mentioned. The chief product then, 
as now, was corn or maize, of which the yellow varieties 
were considered the most certain and produced from forty 
to seventy-five bushels per acre. Wheat and oats were very 
easily grown, the latter usually yielding from sixty to 
seventy-five bushels per acre.''^^ Potatoes, too, were one 
of the most important crops of the period. The stock-rais- 
ing industry was still unknown, and Lea predicted that 
**The growing of stock of various kinds will doubtless be 
extensively pursued, as few countries afford more facilities 
for such purposes — a prophecy which has been abun- 
dantly fulfilled. 

Lea estimated that the population in 1835 was sixteen 
thousand, representing every State in the Union. No 
higher compliment could have been paid them than the one 
given in the Notes on Wisconsin Territory, **The char- 

52 Lea's Notes on Wisconsin Territory, p. 41. 
53 Lea's Notes on Wisconsin Territory, p. 13. 
54 Lea's Notes on Wisconsin Territory, p. 13. 

VOL. IX — 2 


acter of this population is such", says the author, ^^as is 
rarely found in our newly acquired Territories. With very 
few exceptions there is not a more orderly, industrious, ac- 
tive, painstaking population west of the Alleghanies, than is 
this in the Iowa District. . . . For intelligence, I boldly 
assert that they are not surpassed, as a body, by an equal 
number of citizens of any country in the world ".^^ Even 
in the mining camps very little disorder was found, and 
*^the District is forever free from slavery' — a condition 
which was a blessing in the judgment of the author. 

^*The trade of the District", writes Lea, *4s confined al- 
most entirely to the grand thorough-fare of the Mississippi". 
There were ten or twelve steamboats which carried the lead 
and farm products to St. Louis, which was the only market 
of any importance. It took three or four days for one of 
these boats to run from St. Louis to the Lead Mines and as 
a consequence there was a boat each way daily. The rail- 
road was several hundred miles from Iowa at this time but 
we are told that a railroad was being pushed westward from 
New York along ^Hhe southern shore of Lake Erie" to Chi- 
cago and thence to the Mississippi. *'This work", writes 
Lea, would place the center of the Iowa District within 
sixty hours of the city of New York ; and if any of the * down- 
easters' think this project chimerical, let them take a tour 
of a few weeks to the Upper Mississippi, and they will 
agree with me, that it is already demanded by the interests 
of the country. "^''^ 

To the student of Iowa history the Notes on Wisconsin 
Territory is also interesting since it gives the first unofficial 
account of the organization of the District, which in 1835 
was composed of the two counties of Dubuque and Demoine. 

Lea's Notes on Wisconsin Territory, p. 14. 
ce Lea's Notes on Wisconsin Territory, p. 14. 
57 Lea's Notes on Wisconsin Territory, p. 17. 


At tlie time of the writing of tlie book the govermnent of 
the District was in disorder. The Territory of Michigan 
had assumed the form of a State government ; and the Ter- 
ritory of Wisconsin, to which the Iowa District was later 
attached, was not yet formed. The Claim Association^ 
too,^^ which was an extra-legal institution, is described by 
the author as an organization made by the people of the 
District who ^^have entered into an agreement to support 
each other in their claims against any unjust action of the 
government or against any attempt at improper speculation 
by capitalists at a distance. And those who know the po- 
tency of such leagues will feel perfectly assured, that what- 
ever is protected by this one, will be safe from molesta- 
tion. '^^^ 

Decidedly the most interesting part of the first chapter, 
as well as of the whole book, is the references made to the 
name **Iowa". It is now agreed that it was the publica- 
tion of this book which brought the name '^lowa'' into gen- 
eral use. One prominent writer precisely summarizes this 
opinion in the statement: **It cannot of course be said with 
absolute certainty that the name *Iowa District' was used 
for the first time in this book. On the contrary it is alto- 
gether probable that this was not the case. But since the 
name was fixed and made generally prevalent through the 
publication of Lieutenant Lea's book and map, it is proper 
and accurate to say that Lieutenant Lea is the father of the 
expression * Iowa District' ".^^ 

The manner in which Lea came by the name *^Iowa" is 
given in the book itself. The name was not taken, as some 

58 For a full account of the Claim Association see Shambaugh 's Claim Asso- 
ciation of Johnson County; and also Shambaugh History of the Constitutions 
of Iowa. 

59 Lea's Notes on Wis&onsin Territory, p. 18. 

60 See article by Benjamin F. Shambaugh in Annuals of Iowa, Third Series,. 
Vol. Ill, p. 641. 


have claimed, from Iowa County in Wisconsin. On this 
point Lieutenant Lea tells us that ^^the District under re- 
view has been often called * Scott's Purchase ^ and it is 
sometimes called the * Black Hawk Purchase*, but from the 
extent and beauty of the Iowa Eiver which runs centrally 
through the District, and gives character to most of it, the 
name of that stream being both euphonious and appropriate 
has been given to the District itself 

The name as applied to the river was spelled **Ioway*'^2 
and extends back a hundred years or more when the French 
spelled it **Aouway". In later years, after the State was 
formed, Lieutenant Lea tried to have the spelling changed 
to **Ioway'^ which as he declares ''it ought to have been'\^^ 

His descriptions of the waterways furnish the student 
with much valuable information, as most of the streams have 
the same names as in 1835, very few having been changed 
since fhen. The Skunk Eiver, however, bore at that time 
the more dignified name of Chicaqua,^* and the Iowa was 
oftentimes known as the Bison or Buffalo.^^ 

The Mississippi is given the most attention as that river 
was the great thoroughfare of the period. Next in impor- 
tance is the Des Moines Eiver and its tributaries, which are 
also described in detail. The various bends, rapids, and 
fording places are outlined, and any deposits of minerals 
or stone are also mentioned. The contiguous lands and 
their value for future settlement are described and esti- 

The Iowa Eiver was the favorite of Lieutenant Lea and he 

01 Lea's Notes on Wisconsin Territory, p. 8. 

«2 Annals of Iowa, Third Series, Vol. Ill, p. 641. 

«3 Letter of A. M. Lea to Editor H. G. Day of Albert Lea, Minnesota, dated 
January 1, 1890. — In collection of Mr. A. N. Harbert of Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 
fi4 See the map in Lea's Notes on Wisconsin Territory. 
(i^'FiGe the map in Lea's Notes on Wisconsin Territory. 


never mentions it without becoming enthusiastic. He de- 
clares *4t presents to the imagination the finest picture on 
earth." Other rivers which the writer describes are the 
^^Pine'', the ^^Wabesapinica", the Great Mequoquetoia", 
the ^^Tetes des Morts", and the **Penaca or Turkey river '\ 
Other small creeks and sloughs are also mentioned, which 
had no importance except as landmarks. 

Two tracts of land which were the subjects of much spec- 
ulation are discussed by Lea. The first of these is the 

Half -Breed Tract", a portion of land lying in the angle 
between the Des Moines and the Mississippi rivers. The 
history of this tract is related from the time of the treaty 
of 1824 with the Sauk and Fox Indians. Not only is the soil 
of this tract described, but the various small streams are 
mentioned, the conditions of its inhabitants explained, and 
the validity of the land titles discussed. 

The second tract is that strip of land known as **The 
Indian Eeserve ", or * * Keokuk's Eeserve ' \ This comprised 
a strip of land along the Iowa Eiver containing four hun- 
dred square miles. At this time the Indians had removed 
in large numbers and the whites were eagerly awaiting a 
chance to seize upon some of the choicest parts of the Dis- 

The descriptions of the towns are of exceeding interest, 
since the struggling little villages of that day are now in 
many instances thriving cities ; while in other cases no rem- 
nant remains of what promised to be prosperous and weal- 
thy communities. Keokuk was a town which derived its 
chief importance from the rapids in the Mississippi, for all 
boats were forced to stop and change their freight.^^ The 
town lots were held in common by the owners of the **Half- 
Breed Tract". 

66 Lea's Notes on Wisconsin Territory f p. 35. 

Ni I i li I 


Fort Des Moines, now no longer in existence, was then an 
important place.^^ A good landing was located here, and 
much fine farming country was close by. A legend claimed 
that this was the location of an old French settlement ; and 
some remains of such a settlement were to be found. 

Madison (Fort Madison) was located upon the site of old 
Fort Madison, which had been burned during the War of 
1812. This town had been laid out in 1835 and gave great 
promise of growth.^^ 

Burlington was a town of four hundred inhabitants and 
was beginning to boom. Lots were being bought and sold 
with remarkable briskness, and the town impressed one as 
a rich business center.^^ 

lowa,*^^ ^^a town to be laid ouf , and located at the great 
bend of the Mississippi, between Davenport and Muscatine, 
is mentioned as the future metropolis of the District.'''^ 
* * Should the seat of Government of the future State of Iowa 
be located on the Mississippi, it would probably be fixed at 
Iowa. . . . And if it be located in the interior, it must be 
near the Iowa river '^ This proved to be the case, as the 
seat of government was located at Iowa City.'^^ 

Considerable attention is given to Davenport, **a town 

«7 Lea's Notes on Wisconsin Territory, p. 35. 
68 Lea 's Notes on Wisconsin Territory, p. 35. 
69 Lea's Notes on Wisconsin Territory, p. 36. 

70 Lea's Notes on Wisconsin Territory, p. 37. 

Lieutenant Lea had bought a large strip of land at the mouth of the Pine 
River and had platted the District. Later he organized a ferry and immigra- 
tion company, but lacked the necessary capital to carry his project through. 
A letter written by Lieutenant Lea's daughter, Lida L, Lea, on January 5, 
1904, says: *'He [A. M. Lea] had some 'wild lands' for which he refused 
$30,000 and afterwards forgot — in other business enterprises, — and allowed 
to be sold for the taxes". — See Acts of the Territorial Assembly of Iowa 
for 1840-1841 for the Articles of Incorporation, Chapter 63. 

71 Lea's Notes on Wisconsin Territory, pp. 37, 38. 

72 This forecast is typical of those made by Lea and shows the accuracy 
and care usually exhibited in his writings. 


just laid out on a reserve belonging to Antoine Leclaire"J^ 
The most interesting part of the description of this town 
has historical significance in regard to the location of the 
capital city. *^The town'', says Lea, *4s laid out on a lib- 
eral scale, with a view to its becoming a large city. Three 
public squares have been reserved from sale, one of which, 
it is supposed by the proprietors, will be occupied by the 
public buildings of the future State of Iowa ; for they con- 
fidently predict that the seat of Government of this forth- 
coming commonwealth will be no other than the city of 
Davenport itself. Nous verrons^\'^^ 

Dubuque (or Du Buque as it was then spelled) was the 
most prosperous of any of these towns for besides a 
population of over 1200 it had twenty-five dry goods stores, 
numerous groceries, four taverns, a court house, a jail, and 
three churches. It was claimed that the art of mining was 
**more skilfully practised at these mines than in any other 
part of the world ".'^^ 

Many other towns are mentioned which have long since 
ceased to exist. Among this class of towns was Catfish, a 
small town laid out in 1832 in the region of the mines south 
of Dubuque. 

Eiprow was another small town of which Lieutenant Lea 
declared **here are some of the finest smelting establish- 
ments in the world.'' 

Kasey's, a town to be laid out by a gentleman bearing 
that name, was on the present site of the city of Muscatine, 
As this was close to the town of Iowa, in which Lea was in- 
terested, the town of Kasey's was not given a very allur- 
ing write-up. 

73 Lea's Notes on Wisconsin Territory, p. 39. 

74 Lea's Notes on Wisconsin Territory, p. 39, 

75 Lea's Notes on Wisconsin Territory, p. 41. 

76 Lea's Notes on Wisconsin Territory, p. 41. 



In connection with the Notes on Wisconsin Territory is a 
map of the District of which mention has already been 
made ; and this was one of the two maps of the Iowa coun- 
try drawn by Lieutenant Lea. It is **a Map of Wisconsin 
Territory, compiled from Tanner's map of United States, 
from surveys of public lands and Indian boundaries, from 
personal reconnoissance and from original information de- 
rived from explorers and traders "J'^ Among the latter was 
Captain Nathan Boone, a son of the famous Daniel Boone 
and an intimate friend of Lieutenant Lea."^^ It was largely 
through Boone's aid that Lea secured the information con- 
cerning the river courses and the Indian lands which made 
the map one of the most accurate of the period."^^ 

The map is interesting, in the first place, from a mechan- 
ical standpoint. It is small, about 16 by 22 inches, and 
very finely drawn. The coloring is excellently done in 
bright shades^^ and the engraving is perfect. Upon it we see 
some of the roads then in existence, all the towns, and a 
few of the winding Indian trails. We can also see the 
streams with their old-time spelling — although most of the 
rivers bear the same names as at present. 

77 Lea had not traveled over western Iowa, which at that time had never 
been explored, and it was necessary to use the information of trappers and 

78 Nathan Boone was Captain of Company H of the First United States 
Dragoons. In 1832 he had surveyed the Neutral Strip, a tract of land forty 
miles wide which divided the Sioux and the Sac and Fox tribes of Indians. — 
Annals of Iowa, Third Series, Vol. VII, p. 436. 

79 Other maps of this District during this period are John Plumbe 's and 
J. H. Colton's maps of 1839; J. H. Colton's and Jesse Williams' maps of 
1840; Newhairs map of 1841; Willard Barrow's map of 1845.— See The 
Iowa Journal op History and Politics, Vol. I, p. 82. 

80 The coloring of the early maps was in very bright shades and their lasting 
qualities were very great. 


One of the most interesting features of the map is the 
route taken by the Dragoons in 1835.^1 This is very clearly 
shown, with the camping places, the distances covered daily, 
and any peculiar geographical formations plainly marked. 
Among the latter is a high mound located a short distance 
below the present city of Boone.^^ ^ large part of the pres- 
ent States of Missouri, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Minnesota 
is also outlined. The completeness, the accuracy, and the 
simplicity of the map caused it to be generally used both 
by the governments^ and by individuals. 


Next in importance to the Notes on Wisconsin Territory 
as a contribution to the literature of Iowa history is the 
report made by Lieutenant Lea as United States Commis- 
sioner to locate the Iowa-Missouri boundary. When the 
Territory of Iowa was created by an act of Congress on 
June 12, 1838,^* a controversy with the State of Missouri 
had already arisen concerning the boundaries of the two 
jurisdictions. Accordingly, on the 18th of June Congress 
passed an act which empowered the President of the United 
States to cause the southern boundary of Iowa to be ascer- 
tained and marked.s^ This act provided for the appointment 
of a commissioner who should work with a commissioner 
from the Territory of Iowa and one from the State of 
Missouri. Following the provisions of this law. President 
Van Buren appointed Lieutenant Lea as Commissioner for 

81 This route covered over 1100 miles. — See Iowa Historical Becord, Vol. VI, 
No. 4, October, 1890, p. 535. 

82 See note 18 above. 

83 Iowa Eistorical Becordt Vol. VI, No. 4, October, 1890, p. 550. cf . note 92. 

84 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. V, p. 235. 

85 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. V. p. 248. 


the United States and Governor Lucas appointed Dr. 
James Davis.^^ But Governor Boggs of Missouri failed 
to appoint a man to represent his State. 

As soon as Lieutenant Lea received his appointment he 
hastened to St. Louis, arriving there on September 1, 1838.^^ 
After securing the necessary amount of help and instru- 
ments he came north to Keokuk, and there he met the Iowa 
commissioner. These two spent most of the winter in ex- 
amining and surveying the country, and in going over the 
various documents connected with the history of the con- 
troversy.^^ Finally, on the 19th of January, 1839, Lieuten- 
ant Lea submitted his report to the General Land Office. 
It was printed as an Executive Document and used exten- 
sively in the debates in Congress.^^ 

This report is remarkable in many respects, and for some 
years was the most important and most widely known work 
of Lieutenant Lea. It is concise, gives a full and accurate 
history of the land in dispute, and states clearly the issues 
which Congress must decide. 

After an introduction outlining the work done by the com- 
missioners, a history of the tract in dispute is given.^^ It 

69 Executive Documents, House Document No. 38, Third Session, 27th Con- 
gress, p. 5 ; also Gue 's History of Iowa, Vol. I, p. 175. 

87 Gue 's History of Iowa, Vol. I, p. 175. 

88 Iowa Historical Becord, Vol. VIII, No. 1, January, 1892, p. 204. 

89 Among these documents may be noted the following : Act creating State 
of Missouri; Act creating Territory of Missouri; several important letters; 
copies of a Spanish Land Grant. The latter is a copy of one of the four land 
grants made by the Spanish Government from territory now vrithin the limits 
of the State of Iowa. It is signed by the Governor, Zenon Trudeau, and reads : 

*'St. Louis, le 30 Mars, 1799. 
' ' II est permis k Mr. Louis Honor6 d s *6tablir au haut du rapide de la riviere 
Des Moines.*' 

00 See filei of the Congressional Globe for this period, 1838-1848. 
91 Beport <yn the Iowa-Missouri Boundary in the Iowa Historical Becord, Vol. 
II, No. 1, January, 1886, p. 193. 


relates how in 1808 the Osage Indians ceded this land, com- 
prising the northern part of Missouri, to the United States 
government. A few years later, in 1816, Colonel John C. 
Sullivan surveyed these lands and ran a line which was 
commonly considered the northern boundary of Missouri. 
This line started at the **01d Northwest Corner'', a point 
one hundred miles due north of the mouth of the Kansas 
Eiver, and was supposed to run due east to the **Des 
Moines Eapids''. But owing to carelessness in correcting 
the needle, the line run by Colonel Sullivan was two and 
one-half degrees north of east when the Des Moines River 
w^as reached.^2 

Four years later, in 1820 when the people of Missouri 
formed a State, they used the words *Ho correspond with 
the Indian boundary line"^^ in their petition to Congress; 
and thus the dispute arose. Missouri claimed that the **Des 
Moines Rapids'' were in the River Des Moines, while Iowa 
<}laimed that the phrase referred to those rapids above Keo- 
kuk in the Mississippi or **Les rapids de la riviere Des 
Moines ' ' of the French period. 

Four lines at once presented themselves for the considera- 
tion of the commissioners; and these were carefully ex- 
amined. First, there was the old Indian boundary or Sulli- 
van's line which extended west to the Missouri River. Sec- 
ond, there was the parallel of latitude passing through the 
Old Northwest Corner of the Indian boundary. Third, there 
was the parallel of latitude passing through the Des Moines 
rapids in the Mississippi. And fourth, there was the paral- 
lel of latitude passing through the rapids in the Des Moines 
River at the Great Bend, near the present site of Keosauqua. 

92 Eeport on the Iowa-Missouri Boundary in the Iowa Historical Becordf Vol. 
II, No. 1, January, 1886, p. 194. 

93 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. Ill, p. 545. 


The first line appeared to be the just one and the line 
conunonly used; but it did not conform to the law, which 
called for a parallel of latitude''.^* And though the other 
three lines were parallels of latitude, yet they failed to pass 
through the required rapids or the Old Northwest Corner. 
Lieutenant Lea concluded that the old Indian boundary, or 
Sullivan's line, *4s the equitable and proper northern 
boundary of the State of Missouri; but that the terms of 
the law do not allow the Commissioner to adopt that line/'^^ 

This report on the Missouri-Iowa boundary caused much 
discussion in Congress. The committee to which it was re- 
ferred was unable to settle the question, and for a period 
lasting over ten years it was a subject of much debate in 
both houses. Congress at last found itself unable to settle 
the question and the case was taken to the United States 
Supreme Court, where the opinions and sound judgment of 
Lea, as exhibited in the report, were affirmed by the deci- 
sions^ handed down by Mr. Justice Catron, who said in part : 
*'This court doth therefore see proper to decree, and accord- 
ingly order, adjudge, and decree, that the true and northern 
boundary line of the State of Missouri and the true southern 
line of the State of Iowa, is the line run and marked in 
1816 by John C. Sullivan ' '.^t 

A map of the Iowa country accompanies the report and 
is the second drawn of this section by Lieutenant Lea.^^ It 
is large, about 24 by 36 inches in size, and shows northern 
Missouri and the lower one-third of Iowa. The most in- 
teresting features of the map are the different lines which 

»4 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. Ill, p. 545. 

05 Executive Documents, House Document No. 38, 3rcl Session, 27th Con- 
gress. Also Imva Historical Eecord, Vol. II, No. 1, January, 1886, p. 193. 

06 Found in 7 Howard 660. 
»7 7 Howard 679. 

^» Executive Documents, House Document No. 38, 3rcl Session, 27tli Con- 


were in dispute. These lines are so drawn that the issues 
present themselves without a word of explanation. The map 
is decidedly superior to the one which is found in the Notes 
on Wisconsin Territory in that it is more accurately drawn, 
the rivers, too, having their permanent names by this time. 


Those already mentioned comprise the most important 
contributions of Albert Miller Lea to the literature of Iowa 
history; but there are some other writings of lesser impor- 
tance which should be noticed. Among these lesser contribu- 
tions the most important is the autobiography of Lieutenant 
Lea^^ which was published in the Iowa Historical Record. 
This contribution explains some of the conditions which ex- 
isted at the time of Lea's work in Iowa and gives a graphic 
account of Iowa pioneer life.^^^ An article of nearly the 
same importance is also found in the same publication and 
is entitled Early Explorations in lowa}^^ This gives in a 
conversational manner the story of the march of the Dra- 
goons in 1835, and is considered by most students as the 
best account of the march ever written.^ 

99 A longer autobiography was prepared by Lieutenant Lea for the Minne- 
sota Historical Society and published by the Albert Lea, Minnesota, Freeborn 
County Standard, on March 13, 1879. 

100 Iowa Historical Eecord, Vol. VIII, No. 1, January, 1892, p. 200. 

101 Iowa Historical Becord, Vol. VI, No. 4, October, 1890, p. 535. 

102 A J ournal. An important and very valuable document came to light in 
the autumn of 1908 at Madrid, Iowa, where it was claimed that Albert M. Lea 
was the author. The title of the document was the ''Journal of different 
Marches Made by the Dragoons in the years 1834 and 5 with some remarks 
It was in a faded handwriting, signed ''L — and agreed so perfectly with 
the known facts that very few questioned its authorship by Lieutenant Lea. 
But upon close examination of the manuscript many features came to light 
which proved beyond a doubt that it was not written by the gifted Lieutenant. 
In the first place, the journal of 1834, which describes day by day the march 
of the Dragoons into the Pawnee country, could not possibly have been written 


In 1890 Lieutenant Lea wrote a series of articles for a 
paper pnblislied in Albert Lea, Minnesota, which deal not 
only with the early history of Iowa, but also relate to the 
Civil War and to incidents in the life of the author.^ Some 

by Lea for he did not join that regiment until its return to Fort Gibson in 
the autumn of 1834. 

The Journal of 1835, moreover, was not written by Lieutenant Lea, for it 
gives a daily account of the marches from the Eaccoon Forks to Fort Des 
Moines No. 1. Since Lieutenant Lea covered this distance in a canoe upon 
the Des Moines Eiver, and was not with the troops over that portion of the 
march, it was an impossibility for him to keep such a record. 

There are also other evidences in the body of the text to prove that it did 
not owe its authorship to Lieutenant Lea. Nor is external evidence lacking to 
prove this statement; for the handwriting, the rhetoric, the orders of the com- 
manding officers, all go to show that Albert M. Lea did not write these journals. 

However, the fact that they were written by an unknown man, who signed 
himself **L — does not in the least lessen their value. They compare accu- 
rately with the known and reliable sources concerning the march, such as the 
map in the Notes on Wisconsin Territory and the account given by Lea in a 
magazine article. In fact they touch upon phases overlooked by Lieutenant Lea 
himself and must be considered as a valuable addition to the literature of the 
early history of Iowa. 

The Journal has been edited by Louis Pelzer and published in full in the 
July, 1909, number of The loviTA Journal of History and Politics. 

Lieutenant Lea has described his trip from the present site of Des Moines 
to Fort Des Moines No. 1, in the Iowa Historical Becord, Vol. VI, No. 4, 
October, 1890, p. 550, in these words: ''The next morning, a bright Sunday, 
I got orders to reconnoitre the Des Moines river, by descending it in a canoe, 
to ascertain the practicability of navigation with keel boats, with a view to 
the establishment of a military port. A goodly Cottonwood was selected, my 
men set to work with a will, and at sunrise Tuesday I bade adieu to the camp, 
and aided by a soldier and an Indian, started on my toilsome task, sounding 
all shoals, taking courses with a pocket compass, estimating distances from 
bend to bend by the time and rate of motion, sketching every notable thing, 
occasionally landing to examine the geology of the rocks, and sleeping in the 
sand despite the gnats and mosquitoes. We made the trip without an accident, 
and leaving our canoe with Capt. White at the trading house, we footed it 
to the fort, where we arrived many days before the main body, who returned 
leisurely by land, and arrived in fine order, without the less of a man, a 
horse, a tool, or a beef, which were fatter than at the starting, after a march 
of eleven hundred miles." 

103 Freeborn County Standard, Albert Lea, Minnesota, edited by H. G. Day. 

104 Lea was an intimate friend of President Jefferson Davis; and he claimed 
relationship to General Eobert E. Lee. In the early part of the war, however, 


of these articles are especially valuable as they give the 
Indian's side of the Black Hawk War,^^^ just as Lieutenant 
Lea heard it from the lips of Black Hawk himself. In an- 
other of these same articles we are told of the formation 
of the United States Dragoons.^^^ A cavalry regiment of 
five companies was formed at the close of the Black Hawk 
War, and this, declares Lea, * Vas the cause and neucleus of 
the First United States Dragoons". 

The last of these lesser contributions^^ ^ is a letter by 
Lieutenant Lea, which deserves special mention as it throws 
some light on the name **Iowa". It appears that the name 
was spelled **Ioway" by the earliest settlers; but in order 
to satisfy their desires for Latin endings, George W. Jones, 
the Territorial Delegate to Congress,^^^ and Lieutenant Lea 
agreed to spell it *^Iowa". Several years later, after the 
State had been formed, the original spelling seemed pref- 
erable ; and in this letter the writer asks his friends to re- 
vert to the old spelling of **Ioway". 

The contributions of Albert M. Lea^^^ are not numerous; 

Lieutenant Lea incurred the disfavor of Jefferson Davis and never rose higher 
than the rank of Major. 

At the battle of Galveston, Albert M. Lea fought against his son, who was 
a Lieutenant on a Federal gunboat. The younger Lea was slain and the article 
telling of this battle is the most pathetic story ever written by Albert M. Lea. 

105 Lea, accompanied by General Parrott, visited the lodge of Black Hawk. 

106 Article published in the Freeborn County Standard on January 30, 1890. 

107 Letter written to H. G. Day of Albert Lea, Minnesota, on January 1, 1890, 
preserved in collection of Mr. A. N. Harbert. 

108 For a complete history of the Territorial Delegate see an article by Ken- 
neth W. Colgrove entitled The Iowa Territorial Delegates in The Iowa Journal 
OF History and Politics, Vol. VII, No. 2, April, 1909, p. 230. 

109 Lieutenant Lea was a very careful writer and most of his writings agree 
perfectly with official records and documents. The map in the Notes on 
Wisconsin Territory, however, was based to a considerable extent upon data 
furnished by Capt. Nathan Boone; and a comparison of this map with the 
present map of the State shows its defects. — See Iowa Historical Becord, Vol. 
VI, No. 4, October, 1890, p. 550. 


neither are they in the best sense critical. The author 
did not realize the part they would play nor the influence 
they would exert. They are, however, remarkable in many 
respects. They give us real pictures of the virgin Iowa 
prairies, of the streams, and the homes of the pioneers. 
They were in most respects accurate and reliable, concise 
and clear. These contributions though few in number are 
prized by all students of Iowa history. They are, indeed, 
the most enduring monuments to the life and memory of 
Albert Miller Lea. 

^ ^ ^ Clifford Powell 

Iowa City, Iowa 


[In 1884 Ex-Lieutenant Governor Benj. F. Gue of Iowa visited tlie iite 
of Andersonville Prison and compiled from the cemetery register the number 
of burials of Iowa soldiers in the cemetery. He found the names of two 
hundred Iowa men, representing twenty-eight regiments. The names of th^e 
men, with company and regiment, were published in the Iowa State Begister 
of April 16, 1884. The list was republished, together with a description of the 
prison stockade, in the Annals of Iowa,, Third Series, Vol. I, pp. 65-87. — 

I have been introduced to you as the sole survivor^ of 
the Court that tried Captain Henry Wirz, the keeper of 
the Andersonville Prison, and I have been asked to tell you 
something of the prison and its management. Were it not 
for reasons herein given my preference would be to say 
nothing on the subject, not because I would shirk the re- 
sponsibility of having participated in the trial of Wirz^ 
but because for more than fifty days during his trial I sat 
and listened to the terrible story of the sufferings and death 
of our brave boys at Andersonville, and when the end was 

1 This paper was read by General John Howard Stibbs at Iowa City, Iowa,, 
on May 30, 1910. The military record of General Stibbs as shown in Vol. I 
of the Historical Begister and Dictionary of the United States Army is a» 
follows: Mustered into the United States Service as Captain of Twelfth Iowa 
Infantry Volunteers, November 25, 1861; as Major, May 2, 1863; as Lieutenant 
Colonel, September 25, 1863; as Colonel, September 18, 1865; as Brevet Colonel 
United States Volunteers, March 13, 1865, for distinguished gallantry in the 
battles before Nashville, Tennessee; Brevet Brigadier General, United States 
Volunteers, March 13, 1865, for meritorious services during the war; and was: 
honorably discharged, April 30, 1866. For a more detailed sketch of General 
Stibbs, see below under Contributors * 

2 Since the preparation of this paper it has been learned that the Judge Ad- 
vocate, General N. P. Chipman, who prosecuted the case against Captain Wirz, 
is still living as a resident of Sacramento, California. 

VOL IX — 3 



reached I felt that I would like to banish the subject from 
my mind and forget, if I could, the details of the terrible 
crime committed there. 

On innumerable occasions since the Civil War I have 
been urged, and at times tempted, to say or write some- 
thing in relation to the trial of Wirz, but it has always 
seemed to me a matter of questionable propriety. The 
record of the trial had been published to the world; and 
on occasions when the action of the Court has been criti- 
cised, or condemned, I have felt that it was the duty of 
our friends to defend those who had served as members 
of the Court rather than that we should speak for ourselves. 
Then, too, I have been in doubt as to the extent of my 
obligation, taken when I was sworn as a member of the 
Court, and as a result I have remained silent on the subject 
for nearly forty-five years; but as time passed and one 
after another of those who served with me passed off the 
stage, leaving me the sole survivor of the Court, and after 
a monument was erected to perpetuate the memory of Wirz 
and he was proclaimed a martyr who had been unfairly 
tried and condemned, I concluded to lay aside all question 
of propriety and obligation and accede to the request of 
some of my Iowa friends who were urging me to prepare 
a paper. I will add that one of my chief reasons for yield- 
ing in this matter was that I wanted to describe the per- 
sonnel of the Court ; to tell who and what the men were who 
composed it ; and to tell, as I alone could tell, of the unani- 
mous action of the Court in its findings. 

I will not attempt to describe fully the horrors of Ander- 
sonville, but will simply give you an outline description 
of the place and the conditions existing there. With that 
picture before you, your own imagination will supply the 


In the fall of 1863 the rebel prisons in the vicinity of 
Richmond had become overcrowded, and a new prison was 
located with a view, as was claimed at the time, of making 
more room for our men and of placing them as far as pos- 
sible from our lines, where they could be cared for by a 
comparatively small guard and where provisions were most 
accessible. But the evidence presented before the Wirz 
Commission satisfied the Court beyond a doubt that while 
this prison was being made ready, if not before, a conspir- 
acy was entered into by certain persons, high in authority 
in the Confederate service, to destroy the lives of our men, 
or at least subject them to such hardships as would render 
them unfit for further military service. 

Andersonville is situated on the Southwestern Eailroad 
about sixty miles south from Macon, Georgia. In 1864 the 
place contained not more than a dozen houses. The country 
round about was covered with a heavy growth of pine tim- 
ber, and in the midst of this timber, a short distance from 
the station, the prison was laid out. Planters in the neigh- 
borhood were called upon to send in their negro men ; and 
with this force trenches were dug inclosing an area of 
eighteen acres, which subsequently was enlarged to about 
twenty-seven acres. The timber was cut down and the 
trees trimmed and set into the trenches, forming a stockade 
about eighteen feet high. Inside the stockade, about twenty 
feet from the wall, was established a dead-line, formed by 
driving small stakes in the ground and nailing on top of 
them a strip of board; and the orders were to shoot down 
without warning any prisoner whp crossed this line. Every 
tree and shrub within the inclosure was cut down, and it 
contained no shelter of any kind. Colonel W. H. Persons, 
who was the first commandant, ordered a lot of lumber with 
which to build barracks for the men; but before any work 


was done he was succeeded by Brigadier General Jolin H. 
"Winder, and the lumber was used for other purposes. Al- 
though there was a steam saw-mill within a quarter of a 
mile and four mills within a radius of twenty miles, no 
buildings or shelters of any kind were erected within the 
inclosure while our men remained there, save two barren 
sheds at the extreme north end of the stockade which were 
used for hospital purposes. On the outside of the stock- 
ade, and near its top, there were built a series of platforms 
and sentry boxes at intervals of about one hundred feet 
in which guards were continually posted. They were so 
close together that the guards could readily communicate 
with each other ; and from where they were posted they had 
an unobstructed view of the interior of the prison. At a 
distance of sixty paces outside the main stockade, a second 
stockade, about twelve feet high, was built, and the inter- 
vening space was left unoccupied. This was designed as 
an additional safeguard against any attempt of the pris- 
oners to escape. Surrounding the whole was a cordon 
of earthworks in which seventeen guns were placed and kept 
continually manned. The guard consisted of a force of 
from three to five thousand men, chiefly home guards, and 
they were encamped west of and near to the stockade. A 
creek having its source in a swamp or morass, less than 
half a mile from the stockade, ran from west to east 
through the place at about the center. The water in this 
creek was not wholesome at its source, and before it reached 
the stockade there was poured into it all the filth from the 
camp of the Confederate guard, the hospitals, and cook 
houses; and to this was added all the filth and excrement 
originating within the prison pen. For a time this creek 
was the only source from which our men obtained water; 
but in time the creek bed and fully an acre or more of land 


bordering it became a putrid mass of corruption, into which 
the men waded knee-deep to secure water from the running 
stream. In this extremity many of the men set to work 
and with their knives and pieces of broken canteens they 
dug wells, some of them seventy feet deep, and thereafter 
such as were fortunate enough to have an interest in a well 
were supplied with wholesome water. 

When the place was first occupied the ground was cov- 
ered with the stumps of the trees that had been cut down ; 
but there was such a scarcity of wood with which to cook 
their food and warm their numb fingers that our men went 
to work with their knives and the rude implements at hand 
and cut out the stumps, digging far into the ground to secure 
the roots, until not a vestige of a stump remained. 

On February 15, 1864, the first lot of prisoners, 860 of 
them, were turned into the stockade. In April following, 
the number had increased to 9577; which number was 
doubled a month later; and in August, 1864, there were 
more than 33,000 men within the inclosure. 

Think of it! Picture it if you can! A great barren 
field so filled with men that there was scarcely room enough 
for all of them to lie down at the same time — without a 
shelter of any kind to shield them from a southern sun or 
frequent rain ; without a seat on which to rest their weary 
bodies when too tired to stand; without blankets, and in 
many instances without sufficient clothing to cover their 
nakedness; with scant rations of the coarsest food, many 
times uncooked ; and with nothing to do but to stand around 
waiting for death, or a possible exchange. Is it a wonder 
that men became sick under such conditions'? The wonder 
to me is that any one of them lived through it. Here the 
question is suggested. What means were provided for the 
care and treatment of our men when they became sick? 


As a prelude to my answer I will state that during the 
trial of Wirz one hundred and forty-six witnesses were 
sworn, and of this number nearly one hundred had been 
confined as prisoners in the stockade. One after another 
they told their experiences as prisoners and of the condi- 
tions existing in and about the stockade, until we had the 
picture complete from their standpoint ; and had there been 
no other evidence in the case, the story told by their com- 
bined testimony might with some show of fairness have 
been discredited because of the fact that all had been suf- 
ferers and supposedly were prejudiced and biased. But 
we had other witnesses, two score or more of them, who 
had been in the Confederate service and were at the prison 
as guards, officers, surgeons, etc., and some of them had 
made official reports, telling of the horrible condition of the 
prison and its inmates. A number of these reports were 
found and introduced as evidence before the Court, and 
the parties who made them were called in to testify con- 
cerning what they had written. This evidence served to 
corroborate in the fullest particular all that had been tes- 
tified to by those who had been prisoners concerning the 
general conditions in the prison. I feel that it will answer 
my purpose if I quote from their testimony alone in my ef- 
forts to place before you a comprehensive picture of Ander- 
sonville as it existed in the summer of 1864. 

In August, 1864, Dr. Joseph Jones, an ex-surgeon of the 
Confederate army whom Jefferson Davis, in an article pub- 
lished in Belford's Magazine in January, 1890, referred to 
as being eminent in his profession, and of great learning 
and probity was sent to Andersonville to investigate and 
report his observations ; and his official report made to Sur- 
geon General Moore was very full and complete. In it he 
gave a minute description of the stockade, and the hospital 


adjacent; of the number of prisoners and their crowded 
condition ; of the lack of food, fuel, shelter, medical attend- 
ance, etc. ; of the condition of the men in the stockade and 
in the hospital; of the deaths and death rate; and in fact, 
as I remember, he went over the entire ground. His report 
was introduced in evidence, and identified by him when 
called as a witness. He frankly admitted that he did not 
go to Andersonville with a view of ameliorating the suffer- 
ings of the prisoners, but purely in the interest of science 
for the benefit of the medical department of the Confeder- 
ate armies'', and that his report was intended for the sole 
use of the Surgeon General. I will quote briefly from his 
report. On pages 4340 and 4341 of the Record, he says : 

I visited two thousand sick within the stockade, lying under some 
long sheds which had been built at the northern portion for them- 
selves. At this time only one medical officer was in attendance, 
whereas at least 20 medical officers should have been employed.^ 

Further on, after referring to the sheds in the stockade 
which were open on all sides, he says on page 4348 of the 

The sick lay upon the bare boards, or upon such ragged blankets as 
they possessed, without, as far *as I observed, any bedding or even 
straw. Pits for the reception of feces were dug within a few feet of 
the lower floor, and they were almost never unoccupied by those suf- 
fering from diarrhoea. The haggard, distressed countenances of these 
miserable, complaining, dejected, living skeletons, crying for medi- 
cal aid and food, .... and the ghastly corpses, with their glazed 
eye balls staring up into vacant space, with the flies swarming down 
their open and grinning mouths, and over their ragged clothes, in- 
fested with numerous lice, as they lay amongst the sick and dying, 
formed a picture of helpless, hopeless misery which it would be im- 
possible to portray by words or by the brush.* 

3 Copied from tlie Trial of Henry Wirz, Executive Documents, 2nd Session, 
40th Congress, No. 23, pp. 623, 624. 

4 Copied from the Trial of Henry Wirz, Executive Documents, 2nd Session, 
40th Congress, No. 23, p. 626. 


Again, referring to the hospital inclosure of less than five 
acres he says on pages 4350, 4351, and 4354 of the Record : 

The patients and attendants, near two thousand in number are 
crowded into this confined space and are but poorly supplied with 
old and ragged tents. Large numbers of them were without any 
bunks in the tents, and lay upon the ground, ofttimes without even 
a blanket. No beds or straw appeared to have been furnished. The 
tents extend to within a few yards of the small stream, the eastern 
portion of which .... is used as a privy and is loaded with excre- 
ments; and I observed a large pile of corn bread, bones, and filth 
of all kinds, thirty feet in diameter and several feet in height, 
swarming with myriads of flies, in a vacant space near the pots 
used for cooking. Millions of flies swarmed over everything and 
covered the faces of the sleeping patients, and crawled down their 
open mouths, and deposited their maggots in the gangrenous wounds 
of the living, and the mouths of the dead. Mosquitoes in great 
numbers also infested the tents, and many of the patients were so 
stung by these pestiferous insects, that they resembled those suffer- 
ing with a slight attack of the measles. 

The police and hygiene of the hospital was defective in the ex- 
treme Many of the sick were literally encrusted with dirt 

and filth and covered with vermin. When a gangrenous wound 
needed washing, the limb was thrust out a little from the blanket, 
or board, or rags upon which the patient was lying, and water 
poured over it, and all the putrescent matter allowed to soak into 
the ground floor of the tent. ... I saw the most filthy rags which 
had been applied several times, and imperfectly washed, used in 
dressing recent wounds. Where hospital gangrene was prevailing, 
it was impossible for any wound to escape contagion under these 

These statements of Dr. Jones were fully corroborated 
by Doctors B. G. Head, W. A. Barnes, G. G. Eoy, John C. 
Bates, Amos Thornburg, and other surgeons who were on 
duty at Andersonville. Dr. G. G. Eoy when called on to 
describe the appearance and condition of the men sent from 

8 Copied from the Trial of Henry Wirz, Executive Documents^ 2nd Session, 
40th Congress, No. 23, pp. 626, 627. 


the stockade to the hospital said on pages 485 and 486 of 
the Record : 

They presented the most horrible spectacle of humanity that I 
ever saw in my life. A good many were suffering from scurvy and 
other diseases; a good many were naked .... their condition gen- 
erally was almost indescribable. I attributed that condition to long 
confinement and the want of the necessaries and comforts of life, 
and all those causes that are calculated to produce that condition 
of the system where there is just vitality enough to permit one to 
live. . . . The prisoners were too densely crowded. . . . There 
was no shelter, except such as they constructed themselves, which 
was very insufficient. A good many were in holes in the earth 
with their blankets thrown over them ; a good many had a blanket 
or oil-cloth thrown over poles; some were in tents constructed by 
their own ingenuity, and with just such accommodations as their 
own ingenuity permitted them to contrive. There were, you may 
say, no accommodations made for them in the stockade.^ 

The death register kept at the prison during its occu- 
pancy, and still in existence at the Andersonville cemetery, 
gives, supposedly, the cause of death in the case of each man 
who died at the prison. I have found upon examination 
of six hundred names, taken haphazard, the cause of death 
was given as follows : Diarrhoea and Dysentery, 310, Scro- 
butus, 205 ; Anasarca, 20 ; and all other causes 65 — total, 600. 

I think it proper to say, however, that the Court, in de- 
liberating on the evidence heard during the trial, were 
unanimous in the conclusion that the death register would 
better have represented the facts if in a very large per- 
centage of cases the death cause had been shown by the one 
word Starvation — the causes named being simply compli- 

The evidence presented to the Court showed conclusively 
that the food furnished our men in the stockade, in quality 

6 Copied from the Trial of Henry Wirz, Executive Documents, 2nd Session, 
40th Congress, No. 23, p. 82. 


and quantity, was not sufficient to sustain life for an in- 
definite time. I will not attempt to show specifically the 
rations furnished the men in the stockade; but will give a 
couple of extracts from the testimony of Confederate sur- 
geons, showing the kind and amount of food provided for 
the men in the hospital, and will leave you to draw your 
own conclusions. 
Doctor John C. Bates, on page 125 of the Record, said: 

The meat ration was cooked at a different part of the hospital; 
and when I would go up there, especially when I was medical 
officer of the day, the men would gather around me and ask me 
for a bone. ... I would give them whatever I could find at my 
disposition without robbing others. I well knew that an appropria- 
tion of one ration took it from the general issue; that when I 
appropriated an extra ration to one man, some one else would fall 
minus. ... I then fell back upon the distribution of bones. They 
did not presume to ask me for meat at all. . . . they could not be 
furnished with any clothing, except that the clothing of the dead 
was generally appropriated to the living. . . . there was a partial 
supply of fuel, but not sufficient to keep the men warm and pro- 
long their existence. Shortly after I arrived there I was appointed 
officer of the day ... it was my duty as such to go into the various 
wards and divisions of the hospital and rectify anything that needed 
to be cared for. ... As a general thing, the patients were desti- 
tute; they were filthy and partly naked. . . . The clamor all the 
while was for something to eat.^ 

Doctor J. C. Pelot in an official report directed to the 
Chief of his Division, dated September 5, 1864, and filed 
as Exhibit No. 9 of the Record, said : 

The tents are entirely destitute of either bunks, bedding or straw, 
the patients being compelled to lie on the bare ground. I would 
earnestly call attention to the article of diet. The corn bread re- 
ceived from the bakery being made up without sifting, is wholly 

7 Copied from the Trial of Henry Wirz, Executive Documents, 2nd Session, 
40th Congress, No. 23, p. 28. 


unfit for the use of the sick; and often (in the last twenty-four 
hours) upon examination, the inner portion is found to be per- 
fectly raw. The meat (beef) received for the patients does not 
amount to over two ounces a day, and for the past three or four 
days no flour has been issued. The corn bread cannot be eaten 
by many, for to do so would be to increase the diseases of the 
bowels, from which a large majority are suffering, and it is there- 
fore thrown away. All their rations received by way of sustenance 
is two ounces of boiled beef and half pint of rice soup per day. 
Under these circumstances, all the skill that can be brought to bear 
upon their cases by the medical officer will avail nothing.® 

The foregoing I think is quite enough to convince you 
that our men were left to suffer all the horrors of the 
stockade, with practically no medical treatment or atten- 
tion, until their condition became such that their removal 
to the hospital was only a stepping stone from the stockade 
to the cemetery. 

Immediately after the place was occupied our men be- 
gan to die. In April, 1864, as shown by the Confederate 
records, there were 592 deaths; and in August following 
2992 of our brave boys passed to their final resting place. 
In one day, August 23rd, 127 of them answered the final call. 
Some of them in desperation deliberately crossed the dead- 
line, and were shot down; while others who had become 
crazed and demented by their sufferings, blindly blundered 
across the fatal line, and they too were killed without a 
challenge. The records show that 149 died from gunshot 
wounds. "We can only guess at the number of these who 
were killed on the deadline, but the evidence showed that 
deaths from that cause were of frequent occurrence. Only 
a part of these men were taken to the hospital for treat- 
ment; fully one-half died in the stockade without having 

8 Copied from the Trial of Henry Wirz, Executive Documents, 2nd Session, 
40tli Congress, No. 23, pp. 37, 38. 


received medical aid, and their comrades carried them to 
the gate where they were thrown, one on top of another, on 
a wood rack, hauled out to the burying ground, and placed 
in trenches where, during the occupancy of the prison, more 
than 13,000 of our men were buried — more than twenty- 
eight per cent of the entire number of those confined in the 
stockade. This statement, appalling as it may appear, 
does not represent by any means the aggregate loss of life 
sustained by our men as a result of the cruel treatment im- 
posed on them at Andersonville. Evidence presented be- 
fore the Court showed conclusively that fully 2,000 of our 
men died after leaving the prison, and while on their way 
home; and we know as a natural result that hundreds, 
possessed of barely enough life and strength to enable them 
to endure the journey home, must have died within a few 
days, weeks, or months after reaching home. 

This is only part of the horrible story, but it is enough. 
And now some one asks, could these horrors have been pre- 
vented or averted? I reply, yes — scarcely having patience 
to answer the question. This prison was located in one of 
the richest sections of the State of Georgia. Supplies were 
abundant, the prison was surrounded with a forest, and 
yet some of our men froze to death for lack of fuel, which 
they would gladly have gathered had they been permitted 
to do so. Among those confined in that stockade were men 
possessed of all the training and ability necessary to con- 
struct anything from a log cabin to a war-ship; and they 
would have considered it a privilege to have done all the 
work necessary to enlarge the stockade, build barracks, and 
provide a supply of pure water had they been provided 
with tools and materials and given the opportunity. I am 
convinced beyond a doubt, that the lives of more than three- 
fourths of those who died at Andersonville might have been 



saved with proper care and treatment ; and to this opinion 
I will add that of Acting Assistant Surgeon J. C. Bates, an 
educated gentleman who had been a medical practitioner 
since 1850 and who was on duty at Andersonville for a 
number of months. He was asked by the Judge Advocate 
to state from his observation of the condition and surround- 
ings of our prisoners — their food, their drink, their ex- 
posure by day and by night, and all the circumstances which 
he had described — his professional opinion as to what pro« 
portion of deaths occurring there were the result of the cir- 
cumstances and surroundings which he had narrated. And 
his reply was as follows : 

I feel myself safe in saying, that 75 per cent of those who died, 
might have been saved, had those unfortunate men been properly 
cared for as to food, clothing, bedding, etc.® 

In order to make the situation at Andersonville plain to 
you I will say that J ohn H. Winder was a General who never 
was given command of troops in the field. He was the spe- 
cial and particular friend and protege of Jefferson DaviSy 
who early in the war made him a Brigadier General and 
assigned him to duty in Eichmond, Virginia, as Provost 
Marshal and Superintendent of Military Prisons, in which 
capacity he made himself notorious by his harsh and brutal 
treatment of prisoners committed to his care. No words 
of mine would more fittingly describe this man's character 
than his own language used in his celebrated order. No. 13, 
about which much has been said and written. When Gen- 
eral Kilpatrick's command moved in the direction of Ander- 
sonville, in July, 1864, and it was expected that in his raid 
he would reach the prison, the following order was issued : 

9 Copied from the Trial of Henry Wirs, Executive Documents, 2nd Session^ 
40th Congress, No. 23, p. 38. 


Headquarters, Confederate States, Military Prison 
Andersonville, July 27, 1864 
The Officer on duty and in charge of the Battery of Florida 
Artillery, at the time, will upon receiving notice that the enemy 
has approached within seven miles of this Post, open fire upon 
the stockade with grape shot, without reference to the situation 
beyond these lines of defense. It is better that the last Federal be 
exterminated than be permitted to burn and pillage the property 
of loyal citizens, as they will do if allowed to make their escape 
from the prison. 

By Order of John H. Winder, 

W. S. Winder, Brigadier General, 

Assistant Adjutant General. 

General Winder had much to do with the location of the 
prison at Andersonville. First, his son, Captain W. S. 
Winder, was sent out to locate and construct the prison; 
and while so employed, as was shown by competent evi- 
dence, when it was suggested to him that he leave standing 
some of the trees in the stockade, he replied: **That is 
just what I am not going to do ; I will make a pen here for 
the damned Yankees, where they will rot faster than they 
can be sent.'' He served as Assistant Adjutant General on 
his father's staff. 

On March 27, 1864, Captain Henry Wirz, who was a mem- 
ber of General Winder's staff, was sent from Eichmond 
with orders to assume command of the prison proper; and 
one of his first acts was to establish and construct the dead- 
line, which prior to that time had not existed. On April 10, 
1864, General Winder made his first appearance at Ander- 
sonville and assumed command of the post and the county 
in which it was situated; and among his first formal pub- 
lished orders was one assigning Captain Henry Wirz to 
the superintendence, management, and custody of the pris- 
oners at Andersonville. 


When General Winder left Eichmond to assume com- 
mand at Andersonville the Richmond Examiner had this to 
say of him : * ' Thank God that Eichmond is at last rid of old 
Winder ; God have mercy upon those to whom he has been 
sent.'* This, I think, is enough to convince you that from 
the outset our men at Andersonville were at the mercy of 
one who by his cruelty and barbarism had already made 
himself obnoxious to the better element. 

Now, in answer to the question whether it was clearly 
shown that the horrible conditions existing at Anderson- 
ville were made known to those high in authority in the 
Confederate government, I will say that the Court listened 
to a mass of evidence upon this point. The report of Doc- 
tor Jones was sent to the Surgeon General ; and other re- 
ports, from time to time, had been made to those in author- 
ity, in which the horrors and needs of the prison were set 
forth. I will refer to only one other witness. After the 
capture of Eichmond there was discovered a report made 
by Colonel D. T. Chandler, Assistant Adjutant General and 
Inspector General of the Confederate army, dated at Ander- 
sonville, August 5, 1864, in which he gave a very graphic 
description of the conditions existing at Andersonville and 
of the sufferings of our men ; and he recommended immedi- 
ate action to relieve the suffering of the prisoners, offer- 
ing many practical suggestions. In closing his report he 

My duty requires me respectfully to recommend a change in the 
officer in command of the Post, Brig. General John H. Winder, 
and the substitution in his place of some one who unites both energy 
and good judgment with some feeling of humanity and considera- 
tion for the welfare and comfort (so far as is consistent with their 
safe keeping) of the vast number of unfortunates placed under his 
control; some one who at least will not advocate deliberately and 
in cold blood the propriety of leaving them in their present eon- 


dition until their number has been sufficiently reduced by death 
to make the present arrangements suffice for their accommodation ; 
who will not consider it a matter of self-laudation and boasting 
that he has never been inside of the stockade, a place the horrors 
of which it is difficult to describe, and which is a disgrace to civi- 
lization ; the condition of which he might, by the exercise of a little 
energy and judgement, even with the limited means at his com- 
mand, have considerably improved.^** 

On the back of this report was endorsed the following : 
Adjutant and Inspector General's Office, August 18, 1864. Re- 
spectfully submitted to the Secretary of War. The condition of 
the prison at Andersonville is a reproach to us as a nation. The 
Engineer and Ordinance Departments were applied to, and author- 
ized their issue, and I so telegraphed General Winder. Col. Chand- 
ler's recommendations are coincided in. By Order of General 

(Signed) R. H. Chilton, A. A. & I. G. 

Following this was another endorsement : 

These reports show a condition of things at Andersonville, which 
call very loudly for the interposition of the Department, in order 
that a change be made. 

(Signed) J. A. Campbell, 
Assistant Secretary of War. 

And finally there was endorsed: Noted — File. J. A. 
S." The initials are those of James A. Seddon, Secretary 
of War. 

This original report was introduced before our Court, 
and Colonel Chandler was brought there to testify concern- 
ing it. He was an officer who had been educated at West 
Point, a polished gentleman in manner and speech ; and his 
testimony, given in a frank, straightforward way, made a 
deep impression on the Court. He swore that he wrote 
the report and that the statements embodied in it were true. 

10 Copied from the Trial of Henry Wirz, Executive Documents, 2nd Session, 
40th Congress, No. 23, p. 227. 


He told of his very minute inspection of the stockade, of 
his measurements and computations, showing the amount 
of space allowed each inmate, and of the horrors he en- 
countered on every hand. The picture he drew of the 
place served to confirm the stories of the men who had been 
held there as prisoners. He told of calling on Winder and 
remonstrating with him regarding the care of the prison, 
and of Winder's infamous language in connection there- 
with. He said that when he mailed his report to the Secre- 
tary of War he confidently expected that General Winder 
would be removed from the command of the prisoners, and 
that he felt disgusted and outraged when he learned that 
instead of being removed Winder had been promoted to be 
Commissary General and Commander of all Military Pris- 
ons and prisoners throughout the Confederate States. 

When Colonel Chandler was at Andersonville he was 
under orders to inspect all the prisons in the South and 
West, and considerable time elapsed before he got back to 
Eichmond. He then made an investigation and found that 
his report, relating to Winder, had been received and con- 
sidered by Seddon, the Secretary of War. He threatened 
to resign unless his report was taken up and acted upon; 
but at about that time Seddon was succeeded by Mr. Breck- 
enridge as Secretary of War, and soon thereafter General 
Winder died. Then followed the closing days of the War 
and collapse of the Eebellion. 

Now a word as to the personnel of the Court. I have 
examined a number of books purporting to give the truth 
concerning Andersonville and the trial of Captain Henry 
Wirz; and in all of them, as I remember, occurs the same 
error that General E. S. Bragg of Wisconsin is named as a 
member of the Court that tried and condemned Wirz. The 
truth is that while General Bragg was named in the orig- 

VOL. IX — 4 


inal detail for the Court, he was relieved from further ser- 
vice at an early stage of the trial and took no part in the 
deliberations and findings of the Court.^^ 

The Court met first on August 21, 1865, pursuant to in- 
structions in Special Order No. 449, and Wirz was arraigned 
and entered a plea of not guilty. Without further action 
the Court adjourned until the following day. On reassem- 
bling an order was received from the Secretary of War 
dissolving the Court, and a day later it was called to meet 
again under Special Order No. 453, dated August 23, 1865. 
In the meantime the charges and specifications had been 
materially changed and amended by striking from the list 
the names of several persons who had been charged with 
having conspired with Wirz to destroy the lives of our 
soldiers. Wirz was again arraigned and his plea of not 
guilty was entered; but at this juncture his counsel made 
a determined effort to secure his discharge on the ground 
that he had been placed in jeopardy during his first arraign- 
ment, and that under the Constitution he could not legally 
be placed on trial a second time. After a full hearing the 
Court decided that the action taken by the War Department 
was in conformity to the law and precedents, and so the 
trial proceeded. 

In this connection I think it proper to state that the 
charges under which Wirz was first arraigned embraced 
the names, as co-conspirators, of Jefferson Davis, James A. 
Seddon, Howell Cobb, and Eobert E. Lee. These names 
were stricken from the charges as amended; but when the 
Court made up its findings, being satisfied beyond question 
that a conspiracy had existed as charged, and believing it 
to be our duty to include in our verdict the names of any 

11 Copied from the Trial of Henry Wirz, Executive Documents, 2nd Session^ 
40th Congress, No. 23, p. 511. 


of those prominent in the Confederate government who 
were shown to have been directly or indirectly connected 
with this conspiracy, we amended the specification to 
Charge No. 1, by adding the names of Davis, Seddon, and 
Cobb. We took it for granted that if our verdict was ap- 
proved by the President the government would accept our 
finding as an indictment of the persons named, and that 
they would be brought to trial. I am pleased to say, how- 
ever, that the Court found no evidence showing that Gen- 
eral Lee was cognizant of, or was in any measure a party 
to, this conspiracy, and his name was not included in the 

The Military Commission that met and tried Wirz held 
their sessions in the rooms of the Court of Claims in the 
Capitol Building at "Washington, D. C. It was made up as 
follows (omitting the name of General Bragg for the rea- 
son stated) : — At the head of the table sat Major General 
Lew Wallace, the President of the Court. He was at that 
time a man of mature years, a lawyer by profession, and 
of recognized ability. On his right at the table sat Major 
General G. Mott, who subsequently became Governor of 
New Jersey. He was a man then of forty-five or fifty years^ 
a lawyer, and a man of excellent judgment and discretion. 
Opposite him sat Major General Lorenzo Thomas, the Ad- 
jutant General of the United States Army. He was then 
fully sixty-five years of age, had been for many years 
connected with the regular service, and was an acknowl- 
edged authority on military law and the rules and usages 
of war. On General Mott's right sat Major General J. W. 
Geary, who after his discharge from the military service 
was made Governor of the great State of Pennsylvania — - 
a man aged fifty or more, and possessed of more than: 
ordinary ability. Opposite him sat Brigadier General 


Francis Fessenden of Maine, son of old Senator Fessenden, 
a man aged about thirty-five, a lawyer, and one who in 
every sense might have been called an educated gentleman. 
On General Geary ^s right sat Brevet Brigadier General 
John F. Ballier of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, an educated 
German, aged fifty or more, who had commanded the 
Ninety-eighth Pennsylvania Infantry. On his right sat 
Brevet Colonel T. Allcock of New York, a man of forty or 
more, and a distinguished artillery officer, and finally on 
the opposite side of the table, was placed the boy member 
— your humble servant. Possibly it might have been 
truthfully said of me that I was too young and inexperi- 
enced to fill so important a position, since I was then only 
in my twenty-sixth year; but I had seen four years of 
actual warfare, had successfully commanded a regiment of 
Iowa men, and I thought then, as I think now, that I was 
a competent juror. The Judge Advocate of the Commis- 
sion was Colonel N. P. Chipman, who early in the war 
served as Major of the Second Iowa Infantry. He was 
severely wounded at Fort Donnelson in February, 1862. 
When sufficiently recovered to return to duty he was pro- 
moted and became Chief of Staff for General S. E. Curtis, 
and later was placed on duty in Washington. He was a law- 
yer by profession, a man of superior education and refine- 
ment, and withal one of the most genial, kind-hearted, com- 
panionable men I have ever had the good fortune to meet. 

The average level-headed citizen while considering the 
verdicts rendered in an ordinary criminal case is generally 
ready to say: **The jury are the best judges of the evi- 
dence, they heard it all as it was given, had an opportunity 
to judge of its value and estimate the credibility of the wit- 
nesses, and their judgment should be accepted as correct 
and final.** It seems to me that the American people, and 


especially the future historian, should be equally fair in 
dealing with the Wirz Commission. Indeed, I do not see 
how it would be possible for an intelligent, unprejudiced, 
fair-minded reviewer to conclude that such a Court could 
or would have rendered a verdict that was not in full 
accord with the evidence presented. I assure you that 
no attempt was made to dictate or influence our verdict; 
and furthermore, there was no power on earth that could 
have swerved us from the discharge of our sworn duty 
as we saw it. Our verdict was unanimous. There were no 
dissenting opinions. And for myself I can say that there 
has been no time during the forty-five years that have in- 
tervened since this trial was held when I have felt that I 
owed an apology to anyone, not even to the Almighty, for 
having voted to hang Henry Wirz by the neck until he was 

Wirz was tried on two charges. The first charge was 
that he had conspired with John H. Winder and others to 
injure the health and destroy the lives of our soldiers who 
were held as prisoners of war. And the second charge was 

Murder in violation of the* laws and customs of war". 
The Court found him guilty of both of the charges and of 
ten of the thirteen specifications. Throughout the trial the 
prisoner was treated with the utmost fairness, kindness, 
and consideration by the Court and the Judge Advocate. 
When our verdict was rendered and the record made com- 
plete it was submitted for review to General Joseph Holt, 
Judge Advocate General, a man noted for his high char- 
acter, patriotism, and ability as a lawyer and a judge. I 
quote but a paragraph or two from his review. He said : 

Language fails in an attempt to denounce, even in faint terms, 
the diabolical combination for the destruction and death, by cruel 
and fiendishly ingenious processes, of helpless prisoners of war who 


might fall into their hands, which this record shows was plotted 
and deliberately entered upon, and, as far as time permitted, 
accomplished by the rebel authorities and their brutal underlings 
at Andersonville Prison.^^ 

And in closing his review, after reference to the high 
character of the men composing the Court and of the fair- 
ness of the trial, he said : 

The conclusion reached is one from which the overwhelming 
volume of testimony left no escape. 

This paper does not demand nor will it admit of further 
reference to the vast mass of testimony listened to by the 
Court. In conclusion I will refer to a single incident of 
the trial. For weeks after the trial began the Judge Ad- 
vocate presented only such testimony as went to show the 
general conditions existing at the prison and which tended 
to establish the charge of conspiracy, and he held back 
until near the close of the trial the evidence on which he 
depended to establish the fact that Wirz had by his own 
acts been guilty of willful murder. As a result Wirz evi- 
dently concluded that no such evidence had been found, 
and on repeated occasions he addressed the Court through 
his counsel, saying that he was ready to admit the truth of 
all evidence that had been presented, but that he was not 
personally responsible for the conditions shown to have ex- 
isted in the prison ; that he had simply acted in conformity 
to the orders of his superior officers, and should not be held 
responsible for them ; and he therefore asked for an acquit- 
tal and discharge. These requests, one after another, were 
denied by the Court. 

Early in the trial Wirz became sick, and a lounge was 
brought into the room on which he was permitted to re- 

12 Copied from the Trial lof Henry Wirz, Executive DocuTuents, 2nd Session, 
40th Congress, No. 23, pp. 809,814. 


cline; and during many days of the trial he lay on the 
lounge with his handkerchief over his face, apparently ob- 
livious to all that was taking place. Finally a witness was 
placed on the stand who told of his escape from the stock- 
ade in company with a comrade whose name he did not 
know, of their pursuit by the blood hounds, and of their 
recapture and return to the Confederate camp. He said 
that when brought to Wirz's tent and their escape and re- 
capture was reported, Wirz became furious, and rushing 
from his tent he began cursing and damning them for hav- 
ing attempted to escape. The comrade, who was nearly 
dead from exposure and suffering, had ^staked his last 
effort on this attempt to regain his freedom, and the recap- 
ture had discouraged him completely and caused him to 
feel that death itself, was preferable to a return to the 
stockade. Like a caged animal he turned on Wirz and 
gave him curse for curse, challenged him to do his worst, 
and told him he would rather die than return to the hell 
hole from which he had escaped. This so enraged Wirz 
that he sprang at the man, knocked him down with his 
revolver, and then kicked and* trampled him with his boot 
heels until he was dead. When the witness began this 
story Wirz became interested. First he removed the hand- 
kerchief from his face ; then propped himself on one elbow ; 
and as the story progressed he gradually rose up until he 
stood erect. His fists were clenched, his eyes were fairly 
bursting from their sockets, and his face presented a horri- 
ble appearance. As the witness finished his story Wirz 
fairly screamed at him: **You say I killed that man.'* 
**Yes sir'', replied the witness. **You tramped him to 
death in my presence". At this Wirz threw up his hands 
and exclaimed, **0h my Gott", and fell back in a faint on 
the lounge. 


This was one of a number of stories that told of Wirz's 
personal acts of cruelty. In addition he was directly 
chargeable with the unwarranted punishments which he 
caused to be inflicted on men who attempted to escape or in 
other ways violated the rules of discipline which he had 
established. These punishments consisted of stopping of 
rations, establishment of a dead-line, use of the stocks, the 
chain-gang, use of hounds, bucking and gagging, tying up 
by the thumbs, flogging on the bare back, and chaining to 
posts, from all of which causes deaths were shown to have 

Mister Johnny Eeb", as we called him in war time, the 
man who bared his bosom to our bullets and challenged us 
to come on, was a big-hearted, generous fellow whom I have 
always believed fought for the right as he saw it. I know 
by my experience that he was as brave a soldier as ever 
carried a gun ; and prisoners who fell into his hands on the 
battle field were invariably treated with kindness and con- 
sideration. It was only men of the Wirz- Winder type, 
bushwhackers, and home guards, that presumed to offer 
insult and abuse to our men in captivity. I make this clos- 
ing remark because of the fact that with the passing of 
years the bitter feeling that had existed between the North 
and the South has been practically wiped out and the rem- 
nants of the old fighting forces on both sides have been com- 
ing together and shaking hands as friends, and I would be 
sorry to know that in this address I have uttered a word 
that will serve to mar in the least the spirit of harmony 
existing between these old veterans. 

John Howakd Stibbs 

Chicago, Illinois 



At seven-thirty on the evening of November 20, 1885, a 
small group of men who were interested in Science met in 
the Chemical Laboratory of the State University of Iowa. 
They had assembled at the call of Dr. L. W. Andrews, at 
that time and for many years afterward Professor of Chem- 
istry in the University. Dr. Andrews stated that the object 
which he had in mind in calling the meeting was the forma- 
tion of a Science Circle"; and with this announcement 
**the meeting proceeded to temporary organization by the 
election of Prof. Leonard as Chairman and E. L. Boerner 
as Sec'y."^ Then a committee was appointed to draft a 
constitution and by-laws for a permanent organization. 

After listening to an interesting informal lecture by Prof. 
Leonard on the probable course of the meteor, the meeting 
adjourned to 7 o'clock Saturday evening, Nov. 28th. 

The report by the committee on constitution and by-laws, 
which was made at the meeting on November 28th was re- 
ferred back to the committee with instructions to make 
certain changes. At a meeting on the evening of December 
11th, however, the constitution was unanimously adopted.^ 
Such, in brief, is the story of the organization of the 
Baconian Club of Iowa City. Professor N. E. Leonard was 
the first President of the Club, and Professor L. W. An- 
drews, to whom is due the credit for inaugurating the Club, 

1 Baconian Club Becord-Boolc, Vol. I, p. 3. 

2 Baconian Club Eecord-BooJc, Vol. I, pp. 3, 4. 

3 Baconian Club Becord-Boolc, Vol. I, p. 7. 



was the first Secretary. The charter members were : N. R. 
Leonard, P. H. Philbrick, Samuel Calvin, T. H. Macbride, 
J. G. Gilchrist, L. W. Andrews, and Andrew A. Veblen* — all 
of whom were at the time professors in the State University 
of Iowa. Two of these charter members. Professor Mac- 
bride and Professor Calvin, have remained in the service of 
the University; and all but two. Professor Philbrick and 
Professor Gilchrist, are living at the present time. The 
Club thus organized has had a continuous and prosperous 

The passage of the years, however, has witnessed many 
changes in the character and membership of the Club. The 
largely attended meetings which are now held in an electric- 
lighted, steam-heated room, are in striking contrast to the 
meetings held twenty-five years ago, when the Club was in 
its infancy. Then a few men, seldom more than twenty and 
often less than half that number, gathered in the Chemical 
Laboratory in old North Hall and sat in a circle around the 
stove, the members taking turn in replenishing the fire. 
The reader of the evening sat in the circle with the other 
members, and there was an almost total lack of formality, 
the meeting assuming the nature of a friendly conference 
rather than having a set form of procedure. Indeed the 
meeting was often without a formal paper. 

At each meeting a subject for discussion the following 
week was chosen by mutual consent and assigned to some 
member by the President. Frequently no paper was pre- 
pared, the member to whom the subject was assigned simply 
opening the discussion by speaking in an informal manner 
with or without notes. The discussion of topics was free 
and often animated, since the object of the Club was to 
give the members the benefit of each other's ideas. The 

* Constitution of the Baconian Club (Edition of 1891), p. 8. 



meetings were in no sense open to the public, and no record 
of the discussions was kept. Consequently the members 
were under no restraint in the expression of their views, 
but stated their beliefs freely and fully whether they met 
with the approval of other members or not. Besides the 
discussion of regularly assigned subjects, the policy was 
early established of permitting voluntary reports on any 
topic of interest to the Club — a custom which has been ad- 
hered to down to the present time. 

The Constitution provides for three classes of members : 
ex officio members; full members, or those engaged in 
active scientific work''; and associate members, or those 
interested in scientific work''. The President of the Uni- 
versity is a member ex officio.^ The actual working of this 
provision has had these results: full members have been 
persons on the faculty of the State University of Iowa ; while 
the associates have been instructors in the University, 
fellows, scholars, or graduate students pursuing researches 
in scientific subjects. 

In the beginning, as has been suggested, no publicity 
was given to the meetings of the Club. Occasionally a few 
guests were invited to be present, and later guests were 
permitted to participate in the discussions, but the tendency 
was to restrict the attendance to members and those vitally 
interested. In February, 1889, a standing resolution was 
adopted providing that **only full and associate members 
and those personally invited by members" should be ad- 
mitted to the meetings of the Club, and that invitations 
might be issued ''for any specified evening or for the whole 
or any portion of the club year".^ This resolution, how- 

5 Constitution of the Baconian Club (Edition of 1900), p. 3. 
la the Constitution as originally adopted there was no provision for ex 
officio members. 
« Baconian Club Eecord-BooJc, Vol. I, p. 199. 


ever, has not always been followed, and in fact at present a 
general invitation is given to the public to attend the meet- 
ings of the Club, and accounts of the papers and discussions 
often appear in the University publications or in the city 

The papers read before the Club have covered a broad 
range of subjects, as will be revealed by a reading of the 
list which is published herewith. The papers as a rule have 
been prepared with care and with only a few exceptions 
have been presented by the members themselves, little effort 
having been made to secure addresses by scientists of rep- 
utation from outside the University. Thus individual effort 
on the part of members of the Club has been encouraged 
and a spirit of mutual helpfulness has prevailed. 

From the time the Constitution of the Club was adopted 
and signed in 1885 the number of members has increased 
until at present there are nearly fifty full members. In the 
meantime many have come and gone, and hence the mem- 
bership has varied from year to year both in numbers and 
in personnel. Besides those already mentioned as charter 
members the following professors, still serving on the fac- 
ulty of the State University of Iowa, were elected to full 
membership in the Club during the first five years of its 
existence: Laenas G. Weld, Charles C. Nutting, Elbert W. 
Eockwood, George T. W. Patrick, and Bohumil Shimek. 

The records of the Baconian Club are unusually complete. 
The Secretary's Record-Books from the very beginning 
are still in existence, and in these books may be found the 
minutes of all the meetings, together with lists of officers 
and members. The purpose of the founders, the character 
of the meetings, the persons in attendance, and the topics 
which from year to year were of interest in the world of 
science are revealed in the pages of these Record-Books, 



and hence in them may be found the best history of the 
Baconian Club. 

The Baconian Club was the first organization of its kind 
in the University. During the early years, although the 
chief object of thie Club was to discuss subjects in the natu- 
ral and physical sciences, the membership included men from 
the faculties of all the colleges and departments in the 
University. But as the University grew the need of similar 
clubs in the various departments began to be felt. And so, 
as time went on members of the Baconian Club who were 
not primarily interested in the natural and physical sci- 
ences withdrew and formed the Political Science Club, the 
Philosophical Club, the Humanist Society, and other similar 
organizations, modelled after the Baconian Club which was 
the parent society. The result is that at the present time 
the membership of the Baconian Club is confined almost en- 
tirely to persons actively engaged in teaching or research 
work in the natural and physical sciences. 

Article I — Name and Object 

Section 1. This organization shall be known as the 
Baconian Club of Iowa City. 

Section 2. Its object shall be, the mutual interchange of 
thought, and the discussion of such scientific topics as pos- 
sess a general interest. 

Article II — Membership 

Section 1. Membership shall be of three classes, viz., 
ex-officio, full, and associate. The President of the Uni- 
versity shall be a member, ex-oj05cio. 

[Revised April 15, 1898.] 

Section 2. Members shall be those engaged in active 
scientific work. 


Section 3. Associates shall be those interested in sci- 
entific work. 

Section 4. Members and associates shall be elected by 
ballot of the members of the club, the names having been 
proposed at least one week previously. Three black balls 
shall cause the rejection of the candidate. In case of re- 
jection a second ballot may be had, at a subsequent stated 
meeting. A second rejection shall render the candidate 
ineligible for the remainder of the club year. 

[Amended October 25, 1889, by adding:] 

Section 5. No person not a resident of Iowa City shall 
be a member of the club. Members who remove their resi- 
dence permanently, or members who though residents of 
the city have not been in attendance on the meetings of the 
club for one year, shall thereby cease to be members, but 
may, by vote of the club, be carried on the rolls as associate 

Section 6. A member who refuses to give a paper during 
any one year, or who fails to read a paper during any two 
consecutive years, unless such failure is due to illness or un- 
avoidable absence from the city, shall have his name dropped 
from the roll of the club. In case the membership is too 
large to allow an assignment of topic during the year, one 
or more voluntary reports may be accepted as a substitute. 

[Adopted April 15, 1898.] 

Section 7. An associate who removes his residence per- 
manently from the city shall thereby cease his membership 
in the club, provided, always, that any associate may con- 
tinue his relations with the club by presenting, either per- 
sonally or by written communication, at least one voluntary 
report each year. By a two-thirds vote of the club, any 
name may be retained permanently on the roll of associates. 

[Adopted April 15, 1898.] 

Article III — Officers 

Section 1. The officers of the clnb shall be a President 
and a Secretary. 

Section 2. The President shall be elected at the first 
meeting in September, of each year, from among the mem- 
bers, by a majority vote of all members present. He shall 
hold office until the next annual meeting, or until his succes- 
sor is elected. He shall perform the duties usually apper- 
taining to the office of President. In his absence his place 
shall be taken by a Chairman elected by the members pres- 

Section 3. The Secretary shall be elected at the same 
time, and in the same manner as is prescribed for the elec- 
tion of the President, and his term of office shall be the same. 
He shall perform the duties usually devolving upon a Secre- 
tary. Should he be absent from any meeting, a Secretary 
pro tern, shall be elected. 

Article IV — Dues and Fees 
There shall be no dues nor fees. Any expenses incurred 
by vote of the club, shall be met by a pro rata assessment, 
previously made, on all the members. 

Article V — Meetings 
Section 1. The meetings shall be Annual, Eegular, and 

Section 2. The Annual Meeting shall be in the last week 
in September. At this meeting the Order of Business shall 

1. Eeport of President. 

2. Eeport of Secretary. 

3. Eeport of Committees. 

4. Election of Officers. 

Section 3. The Eegular Meetings shall be held once a 


week, from the last week in September to the last week in 
April, on such day, at such hour, and in such place as the 
club may from time to time direct. The Order of Business 
at these meetings shall be as hereinafter provided. 

Section 4. Special Meetings may be held at anjr time, 
by vote of the club, on call of the President, or at the request 
of three members. At such meetings no other business than 
that for which the meeting has been called shall be trans- 

Aeticle VI— Oeder of Business 

The Order of Business at all regular meetings shall be as 
follows : 

1. Eeading of Minutes. 

2. Eeading of Essay. 

3. Colloquium. 

4. Discussion. 

5. Voluntary Eeports. 

6. Assignment of Topic. 

7. Miscellaneous Business. 

8. Adjournment. 

Article VII — Essays and Essayists 
Section 1. The appointed essayist, at each regular meet- 
ing, shall furnish the Secretary with an abstract of the 
paper, to be entered in the minutes. 

Section 2. The essay shall remain the property of the 
writer, unless it shall be published in full by the club, with 
the consent of the author, in which case the copyright 
shall remain with the club. 

Article VIII — By-Laws 
The club may adopt Standing Eesolutions, at any meeting, 
as circumstances may require, by a majority vote of all the 
members present. Such Standing Eesolutions shall be re- 



corded, and have all the authority of By-Laws until re- 

Aeticle IX — Amendments 

The Constitution may be altered or amended at any regu- 
lar meeting, by a two-thirds vote of all the members, writ- 
ten notice of the proposed amendment having been given 
at least one week previously. Absent members may vote 
by proxy on questions of amendment. 


For the Year 1885-1886— President, N. E. Leonard; Secre- 
tary, L. W. Andrews and A. A. Veblen. 

For the Year 1886-1887 — President, Samuel Calvin; Secre- 
tary, A. A. Veblen. 

For the Year 1887-1888— President, Samuel Calvin; Secre- 
tary, A. A. Veblen. 

For the Year 1888-1889— President, L. W. Andrews ; Secre- 
tary, A. A. Veblen. 

For the Year 1889-1890— President, A. A. Veblen; Secre- 
tary, C. C. Nutting. 

For the Year 1890-1891— President, T. H. Macbride; Sec- 
retary, C. C. Nutting. 

For the Year 1891-1892— President, J. G. Gilchrist; Secre- 
tary, L. G. Weld. 

For the Year 1892-1893— President, C. C. Nutting; Secre- 
tary, A. L. Arner. 

For the Year 1893-1894— President, L. G. Weld; Secretary,, 
W. E. Barlow. 

For the Year 1894-1895— President, G. T. W. Patrick; Sec- 
retary, A. G. Smith and Frank Eussell. 

For the Year 1895-1896— President, A. L. Arner; Secretary,, 
A. G. Smith. 

VOL. IX — 5 


For the Year J[<9P(?-i<5P7— President, E. W. Rockwood; Sec- 
retary, A. G. Smith. 

For the Year 1897-1898 — President, A. G. Smith; Secretary, 
G. L. Houser. 

For the Year 1898-1899— President, W. L. Bierring; Secre- 
tary, G. L. Houser. 

For the Year 1899-1900 — President, B. Shimek; Secretary, 
W. E. Barlow. 

For the Year 1900-1901 — President, Samuel Calvin; Secre- 
tary, C. E. Seashore. 

For the Year 1901-1902 — President, A. V. Sims ; Secretary, 
C. E. Seashore. 

For the Year 1902-1903 — ^President, C. E. Seashore; Sec- 
retary, C. L. Von Ende. 

For the Year 1903-1904 — President, W. J. Teeters ; Secre- 
tary, C. L. Von Ende. 

For the Year 1904-1905 — President, A. A. Veblen; Secre- 
tary, J. J. Lambert. 

For the Year 1905-1906— President, G. L. Houser; Secre- 
tary, C. L. Bryden. 

For the Year 1906-1907— President, Karl E. Guthe ; Secre- 
tary, F. A. Stromsten. 

For the Year 1907-1908— President, W. G. Raymond; Sec- 
retary, A. G. Worthing. 

For the Year 1908-1909— President, R. B. Wylie ; Secretary, 
P. S. Biegler. 

For the Year 1909-1910 — President, G. F. Kay; Secretary, 
S. M. Woodward. 


Frank Stanton Aby, 1888. — Papers: The Development 
of the Cerebro-Spinal Axis, 1889; Trichinae, 1891; The 



Ultimate Distribution of the Blood, 1892 ; Eecent Eesearches 
on the Physical Basis of Life and Heredity, 1893. Reports : 
Cultivation of Mushrooms, 1889 ; The Sweat Ducts and 
Blood Supply of the Skin, Discovery of the Hog-Cholera 
Microbe, 1891 ; Coloring Matter in Human Epidermis, 1892 ; 
The Estimation of the Weight of Haemoglobin in a Dried 
Human Blood Cell, A New Science '^Cystology'^, Demon- 
stration of Giant Cell of Sarconea, A Theory of Heat- 
producing Centers in the Brain, Partheno-genesis as Shown 
by the Worker Bee, 1893; Eeview of Article by W. D. 
Ho wells on Nerve Degeneration and Eegeneration'' (given 
by Gilchrist and Aby ) , 1894. 

Henry Albeet, 1904. — Papers i Insects, the Eole They 
Play in the Transmission of Diseases, 1905; Bacteria and 
the Public Health, 1906; Animal Diseases Transmissible 
to the Human Being, 1907 ; Arterio-sclerosis — its Eelation 
to the Pathology of Senility, 1908 ; The Pasteur Treatment 
of Eabies and Other Forms of Vaccine Therapy, 1909. 
Reports: The Preparation of Permanent Museum Speci- 
mens, 1903 ; Construction and Working of the Epidiascope, 
1905; Filaria, Sulphur and Formaldehyde Fumigation, 
Light Producing Bacteria, 1906; Inhalation of Coal Dust, 
Appendicitis, 1907; Spirochaete Bacteria, Method of Iso- 
lating the Typhoid Bacillus from Others Found in Water, 
1908 ; Making of Colored Slides by a New Process of Color 
Photography, Hook-worm and the Hook-worm Diseases, 
1909 ; The Work of Cultivating Tissues and Organs of the 
Body outside of the Body, 1910. 

Edward X. Anderson, 1909. — Report : The Nucleation of 
Pure and Mixed Vapors in Dust Free Air, 1910. 

Launcelot Winchester Andrews, Charter. — Papers: 
Dead Matter, 1886 ; Historical Eeview of the Methods Em- 


ployed for the Production of Extreme Cold and tlie Lique- 
faction of the Permanent Gases, 1886; Evolution of the 
State, 1886; The Flowing Wells at Belle Plaine (with 
Calvin), 1886; The Asymmetric Carbon Atom in Organic 
Compounds, 1886; The Evolution of the Telephone, 1887 ^ 
Atomic Theories in the Light of Atomic Facts, 1887 ; WTiat 
We Know about the Weight of Atoms, 1888 ; Electrical Stor- 
age Batteries, 1888; A Chapter from the History of Sci- 
ence, 1889; What Have the Material Sciences to Do with 
Education, 1889; The Absolute Size of Molecules, 1889; 
Osmosis and Allied Manifestations of Molecular Motion in 
Solutions, 1890 ; Aluminum — its Manufacture and Possible 
Industrial Value, 1890 ; A Symposium on the Nature of the 
Centre of the Earth (with Weld and Calvin), 1891; The 
Spectrum, 1891; Progress toward Aerodynamical Naviga- 
tion, 1891 ; Modern Explosives, 1892 ; Paracelsus Bombastus 
and the Science of his Day, 1892 ; Some Principles of Evo- 
lution Illustrated in Chemical Processes, 1892 ; The Develop- 
ment of Chemistry from Alchemy, 1893 ; Eecent Useful Ap- 
plications of Electricity Other than Mechanical, 1893 ; Some 
Applications of Science to the Detection of Crime, 1894; 
Porcelain, 1896 ; Next to Nothing, 1896 ; An X Eay Soiree,, 
1896; Discovery Scientific and Otherwise, 1898; The Non- 
Chemical Elements, 1898; The Air We Breathe, 1899; Con- 
cerning the Scope of University Training, 1900; How the 
Weight of an Atom is Ascertained, 1901 ; The Water Supply 
and Purification System of Budapest, 1902 ; Some Eelations 
of Mass to Chemical Action, 1903. Reports : Silicon in Iron 
and Steel, Fallacies Concerning Freezing of Water, Poison in 
Wall Paper, Determination of the Velocity of Meteors, The 
Linking Carbon Atom in Organic Compounds, Intelligence 
Displayed by Mice, Some Phenomena in Connection with 
Fracture of Glass, Edelmann's Calorimeter and von Beetz's. 



Lecture Galvanometer, Another Series of Experiments on 
Nitrification, A New Astatic Galvanometer with Spiral 
Needle, Survival of the Fittest in the Conflict of Molecules, 
1886 ; Antisepsis and Sterilization by Electricity, The Func- 
tion of Eain in Supplying Substances Important to Plant 
Life, Methods of Photometry, A Hydrostatic Balance and 
Testing Machine, Secretions of Insectivorous Plants, Free 
Fluorine, Comparison of the Sense of Smell with the Other 
Senses as Eegards Delicacy, Electrification of Air, Viscos- 
ity of Liquids and a New Form of Viscosimeter, The Pre- 
diction and Discovery of the Element Germanium, The 
Symptoms of Hemlock Poisoning, 1887; Aluminum in 
Plants , Molecular Geometry, Influence of Light on Electric 
Leakage and Disruptive Discharge, Microscopic Perspec- 
tive, The Kruess Vierordt Spectroscope, Singing Flames, 
The Formation of Waterspouts, The Cimento Academy of 
Florence, 1889; Eecent Eesearches Concerning Solutions, 
The Element ''X'', The Action of Light in Producing Elec- 
trical Disturbances, A Pipette for Volumetric Work, Modi- 
fications in the Theory of Electrolysis, The Manufacture 
of Photographic Dry Plates and the Theory of Developing 
the Image, Discovery of Criteria for the Actuality of Truth, 
1889; Photography of the Electric Spark, Herbert Spen- 
cer's Principles of Psychology, Vol. I, Ch. V, Last Line, 
The Sandwich Islands, Plasmodium Malariae (for Hage- 
beck). Christening of the **Myopyknometer", The Pasteur 
Filter, Hydrazic Acid, 1890; The Application of Electrol- 
ysis to Toxicology, The Electric Coal Cutter, A Bronze 
Microbe, Individuality of the Chemical Unit, Siemens 's Ee- 
generative Evaporator, 1891; Stas and his Work on the 
Determination of Atomic Weights, The Nature of the Inter- 
atomic Force Acting within the Molecule, Eecent Experi- 
ments in the Sub-Divisions of Matter, The Asymmetric 


Arrangement of Atoms, An Analysis of the Illmninating Gas 
of the Iowa City Gas Company, Prof. H. A. Eowland's New 
Map of the Solar Spectrum, A Chemical Paradox, Non- 
Existence of Chemical Action at Low Temperatures, 1892 ; 
A Supposed Meteorite by Analysis Shown to be only 
Hematite; Eesults of a Chemical Examination Bearing on 
the Oxygenation of the Water, An Experiment in Capillarity 
Showing Eelative Eate of Movement of Water and the 
Substance Dissolved in it. The Longitudinal Conductivity 
of Quartz Crystals, The Use of Tools by Animals, Illustra- 
tions of the Structure of Molecules by Means of Models, 
Wolf's Electrolytic Apparatus for the Detection and Esti- 
mation of Small Quantities of Arsenic, 1893 ; The Optics of 
Photography, Photographic Inaccuracies, Use of Electric- 
ity in Bleaching Operations, Use of Electricity for the Dis- 
infection of Sewage, Perception of Time, Viscocity and 
Diffusion, Lack of a Eythmic Sense, Dangers from Kero- 
sene Stoves, 1894 ; The Effect of Ammonia upon India Eub- 
ber, The Survival of the Fittest as Shown in the Overthrow 
of Past Civilizations, Myrotype, a New Photographic Print- 
ing Paper, Argon, Some Physiological Effects of Extreme 
Cold, The Phenomena of Electro-Thermometry, A Hot Air 
Motor, The Incombustibility of Sulphur in Dry Oxygen, 
Cycles of Lengthening and Shortening of the Swiss Gla- 
ciers (with Littig), Aluminum Bronze, Translation of a 
Paper by Ostwald on the Overthrow of Scientific Material- 
ism, The Absence of Hydrogen from the Atmosphere, 1895 ; 
Calculating Machines, Experiments in Cathode Eay Photo- 
graphy, The Apparatus Used in the Discovery and Study 
of the Lenard Eays, Attempts to Obtain the X Eay without 
a Vacuum, Negatives Illustrating the Location of a Foreign 
Body by Means of the X Eays, 1896 ; Sciograph of a Femur 
Showing a Eifle Bullet Lodged in the Flesh, Curious Mark- 



ings in tlie Interior of a Compound Lens Due to the Slow 
Contraction of the Canada Balsam Used as a Cement, The 
Sea Mills in Cephalonia, The Energy of Chemical Change, 
The Wetherell Electromagnetic Method of Ore Concentrat- 
ing, Eecent Eevivals of Alchemistic Notions, The Melting 
of Impure Ice, 1897 ; The Selective Eadiation of Light by 
Certain Substances, Modern Methods of Liquefying Air, 
1898; The Keeley Motor Fraud, The Degree of Accuracy 
Attained in Atomic Weight Determination, Comparison in 
Size of the Smallest Bacteria and the Molecules of Starch 
(with Bierring), 1899; The Transmission of Coloring Mat- 
ter to the Plumage of Birds through Food, 1900 ; The Death 
Eate Greater in the Cities than in the Country, A Model 
to Illustrate the Process of Electrolysis, A Phase of Vital 
Statistics, The Acoustics of an Auditorium, Investigation 
Made by Piquard on the Self Healing Power of Glass, 1901 ; 
Poisoning of Chemical Eeactions, Mercerized Wool, 1902; 
Eadium, Small Amount of Catalyzers Eequired to Cause a 
Marked Hastening of Action, 1903; Discovery of Eadium, 

OscAE William Anthony, 1889. — Papers : Thermo-Elec- 
tricity, 1890 ; Vortex Eings with Special Eef erence to their 
Properties in a Non- viscous Medium, 1891 ; Some Achieve- 
ments and Possibilities of Mathematics, 1892. 

Albebt Levi Abnee, 1890. — Papers : Electro-Magnetism 
and the Methods of its Measurements, 1891 ; The Tendency 
of Modern Electrical Theory, 1891 ; Temperature and Pre- 
cipitation, 1892; The Eemoval of Faults in Submarine 
Cables, 1894 ; Cloud Formation, 1894 ; The Principle of Inter- 
ference and its Application to the Eef raction of Light, 1896 ; 
Some Characteristics of Modern Physics, 1897. Reports: 
A Eecent Electrical Installation in London, A Thompson 
Houston Watt-metre, Nature of the Charge and Discharge 


of the Leyden Jar, 1891; Electrolytic Method of Eefining 
Copper, High Electrical Eesistance, Continuity of the Spec- 
trum, Magnetic Hysteresis and its Manifestation in the 
Armature of the Dynamo, Certain Analogies between the 
Electric Current (so-called) and Flowing Water, A Con- 
tribution to the Theory of the Electrophorous, Experiment 
Confirming the Kinetic Theory of Gases'', 1892; The The- 
ory of Induction, Comparative Economy of Heating by Coal 
and Electricity, 1893; A Frauenhofer Micrometer, Queen 
and Company's New Pyrometer, Meteoric Dust Shower of 
March 17, Isothermal Lines of Iowa, 1894 ; The Cold Pole in 
Northeast Siberia, Municipal Control of Electric Lighting 
Plants, 1895 ; Cathode Bay Photography, The Measurement 
of Magnetic Fields, The Distribution of Temperature in 
Iowa on April 16th, 1896, 1896. 

Feed Geoege Baendee, 1906. — Papers-, The Eelation of 
the Mechanical Trades to Each Other, 1906 ; The Develop- 
ment of a Phonographic Eecord, 1908. Reports : Applica- 
tion of the Gyroscope in Automobile Practice, 1908 ; Installa- 
tion of the White Steam Car, 1909. 

EiCHAED Philip Bakee, 1906. — Papers: Mathematical 
Concepts, 1907; Printer's Ink, 1908. 

William Edwaed Baelow, 1892. — Papers: The Phos- 
phatic Nodules of the Mesozoic Deposits of Cambridgeshire, 
England, 1893; Impure Air, 1894; Coffee and its Adulter- 
ants, 1897; The Eeducing Properties of Aluminum, 1899; 
Corundum, Especially Eubies and Sapphires, 1900. Re- 
port : Eecent Improved Methods of Gold Extraction, 1895. 

Edwaed Newton Baeeett, 1888. — Reports : Some Psycho- 
logical Phenomena, Cosmogony of the Pre-historic Eace 
of Central America, 1891; Eecent Archaeological Discov- 
eries in the Orient, 1893 ; The Last of the Samaritans, 1894 ; 



A Table Giving a Babylonian Account of the Deluge, The 
Principles of the Polychrome Bible, 1898 ; The Eecent Dis- 
covery of a Eoyal Mummy Supposed to be that of the 
Pharaoh of Exodus, 1900. 

George Neander Bauer, 1895. — Papers : The Nine-point 
Circle, 1897; The Principle of Duality, 1897. 

H. Heath Bawden, 1900. — Papers: The Psychological 
Theory of Organic Evolution, 1901. Report : A Eeview of 
Loeb^s Physiology of the Brain, 1901. 

Arthur Beavis, 1887. — Papers: The Passion Play and 
Some Deductions Therefrom, 1887; The Evolution of the 
Bicycle, 1888. 

William Edmund Beck, 1902. — Paper: The Northern 
Constellations, 1904. 

Frederick Jacob Becker, 1902. — Paper : The Infusion of 
a Salt Solution, 1903. 

EussELL Burns Haldane Begg, 1899. — Paper: The Fa- 
tigue of Metals, 1900. 

William Bonar Bell, 1902. — Report: Eesults of Ex- 
periments at Woods HoU, 1903. 

Philip SnERmAN Biegler, 1906. — Paper: Electrification 
of Steam Eailways, 1907. 

Walter Lawrence Bierring, 1893. — Papers: Modem 
Methods of Bacteriological Eesearch, 1894; The Sewers of 
Paris, 1895 ; Louis Pasteur the Scientist and the Fruits of 
his Labors, 1895; Animal Parasites in Disease, 1896; For- 
maldehyde the New Disinfectant, 1897 ; Some of the Bene- 
fits of Bacteria, 1899 ; Eecent Developments in the Study of 
Pathological Processes, 1899; The Eole of Insects in the 
Spreading of Disease, 1900; The Eelation of Tuberculosis 
in Man to that in the Lower Animals, 1890 ; Smallpox Vac- 


cine, its Preparation and Use, 1903 ; Why are We Becoming 
a Eace of Dyspeptics, 1905. Reports : Bacilli of Tubercu- 
losis of Leprosy and of Actinomycosis or Eay Fungus, 1893 ;. 
Diphtheria, 1895; Loeffler's Blood Serum in Diphtheria 
Diagnosis, The Cause of Cancer, Odontoma, 1896; The 
Plague in India, A New Method of Cultivating Anaerobic 
Bacteria, The Discovery of Bacillus Icteroidis, the Microbe 
of Yellow Fever, 1897; A Method of Preparing the Eye for 
Demonstration, Leprosy, Demonstration of the Microbe of 
Yellow Fever, A Hair Ball from a Human Stomach, A Cul- 
ture Medium of Human Blood Serum, 1898 ; Phototherapy, 
Comparison in Size of the Smallest Bacteria and the Mole- 
cules of Starch, 1899; A Case of Agoraphobia, Mosquito- 
Inoculation for the Spreading of Malaria, 1901; Tetanus 
Eesulting from the Use of Antitoxin, 1902. 

Walter Martinus Boehm, 1903. — Paper: The Musical 
Scale, 1904. Reports: Making Zone Plates, 1901; Ether of 
Space, 1904; Electrical Conductivity of Various Liquids, 
1906; Advance in Science in the Year 1907, 1907. 

Charles Henry Bowman, 1894. — Papers: Alternating 
Currents, 1896; The Wave Theory of Light, 1897; Thermo- 
dynamics, 1898; The Electromagnetic Theory, 1900. Re- 
ports : Modulus of Elasticity of Steel, 1894 ; A Demonstra- 
tion of the Vibration of a Soap Film Due to Sound Waves^ 
Experiments on the Interference of Light, 1897 ; The Phe- 
nomena of Interference in Light Waves, 1898 ; The Wehnelt 
Interrupter, Interference Phenomena in Circular Shadows, 
Some Experiments in Hydrodynamics, 1899 ; Surface Ten- 
sion of Liquids, 1900. 

William J. Brady, 1902. — Papers : Are the Teeth of Man 
Degenerating?, 1902; The Influence of Civilization on the 
Teeth, 1902 ; Why Teeth Decay, 1905. 



Fay Cluff Brown, 1909. — Paper: Light Electric Prop- 
erties of Light-Positive and Light-Negative Selenium, 
1910. Reports : A New Form of Selenium Cell, 1909 ; Some 
Eecent Facts Concerning Eadio- Activity, 1910. 

Maud Brown, 1903. — Report : Technique of Experiments 
in Psychological Laboratory, 1904. 

Charles Lazarus Bryden, 1904. — Papers: The History 
of a Piece of Coal, 1906 ; Extinguishing an Anthracite Mine 
Fire, 1906. Reports: Mineral Carborundum, Method of 
Eliminating Moisture from Air Used in Blast Furnaces, 
1905; Mining of Anthracite and Bituminous Coal, 1906. 

MoTiER A. Bullock, 1889, Associate.— Reports : Ancient 
Bread Found in Cliff Dwelling, 1890; The Utilization of 
Electricity in Horticulture and Floriculture, Employment 
of Monkeys in Siam for Detection of Spurious Coin, Bodily 
Levitation, 1891; Waterworks System of South Haven, 
Michigan, Use of Electric Light in Forcing Certain Plants, 
Hay Fever and Asthma, 1893; The Discovery of an Ex- 
tinct Eace in Egypt, 1895; A Case of Double Conscious- 
ness, 1897; The George Junior Eepublic, 1898; The Scien- 
tific View of the Doctrine of Immortality, 1899. 

Albertus Joseph Burge, 1901. — Papers: Blood in 
Health and in Disease, 1902 ; Physics Applied in Medicine, 
1904; Facts and Fancies about Appendicitis, 1907; The 
Doctor as an Economic Factor, 1908. Report: Foreign 
Substances Taken from the Body, 1907. 

Joseph M. Califf, 1886. — Papers: The Contest between 
Heavy Guns and Heavy Armor Plating, 1886; The Dyna- 
mite Gun, 1887; Submarine Mines, 1888; The Develop- 
ment of the Modern Eifle, 1888; The Development of the 
Modern High Power Eifle, 1889. Reports : The Latest Ee- 
sults in Experiments on Slow Burning Powder, The New 


Explosive Melanite and Other High Explosives, Experi- 
ments in the Use of Torpedo Netting in the Defense of 
Vessels, 1887; The Accuracy of Modern Eifled Cannon, 
1888; Eesults of the Tests of the New Steel Guns, 1889; 
The Composition of Nickel-Steel Armor Plate, 1892. 

Samuel Calvin, Charter. — Papers : Living Matter, 1885 ; 
The Sources of Vital Energy (with Macbride), 1886; Geol- 
ogy in Iowa, 1886; Formation of Strata, 1886; The Flow- 
ing Wells at Belle Plaine, (with Andrews), 1886; CrolPs 
Theory of Secular Changes in Climate, 1886 ; Spontaneous 
Generation, 1887; The Vorticellidae, 1887; The Deep Well 
at Washington, Iowa, 1887 ; Some Special Geological Prob- 
lems in the Sierras, 1888 ; Some Points in the Physiology of 
the Nervous System, 1889; The Duration of Geological 
Time, 1889 ; Mountain Making, 1890 ; The Eccentricities of 
Elvers, 1890 ; A Symposium on the Nature of the Center of 
the Earth (with Weld and Andrews), 1891; The Elephant 
in Iowa and Elephant Dentition in General, 1891; The 
Niagara Limestone of Iowa, 1892 ; Some Mesozoic Eeptiles 
and Birds, 1893 ; The Drif tless Area in Northeastern Iowa, 
1893; Conditions Attending the Deposition of the Cam- 
brian and Silurian Strata of Iowa, 1894; The History and 
Genesis of the Soils of Northeastern Iowa, 1896 ; Pre-Paleo- 
zoic and Paleozoic Faunas, 1896; Pleistocene Iowa, 1897; 
The Mesozoic Faunas, 1897 ; Geological Walks about Iowa 
City, 1899; Land Forms in Iowa, 1899; The Geology and 
Scenery of the Pipestone Eegion, 1900 ; A Geological Trip 
through Colorado, 1901; A Trip to British Columbia, 1902; 
The Interglacial Deposits of Iowa, 1904; Vulcanism and 
Associated Phenomena, 1905; Some Points in the Geologi- 
cal History of the Mississippi Eiver, 1907 ; Some Mammals 
now Extinct, that once Inhabited Iowa, 1907; Large Ani- 
mals now Extinct which Lived in Iowa during the First 



Inter-Glacial Interval, 1909. Reports: On Certain Insec- 
tivorous Plants, Geological Formations Penetrated in the 
Boring of the Belle Plaine Wells, 1886; Development of 
Certain Cells of the Cerebellum of Birds, Certain Phe- 
nomena in Connection with the Presence of Trichina, The 
Evening Grosbeak, The Influence which Training of Any 
Organ May Have upon Other Organs, Booetherium Cavi- 
frons, Some Laws Governing the Introduction of Species, 
The Walled Lakes of Iowa and Minnesota, On the Paleon- 
tology of Widder, Ontario, 1887; Conditions for the Pres- 
ence of Natural Gas and Oil, Chlorophyl Bodies in the Cells 
of the Green Hydra, Evolution as Shown by Some Geologi- 
cal Forms, 1888; Phenomena Connected with the Transec- 
tion of the Spinal Cord of Frogs, The Bad Lands near Glen- 
dive, Montana, 1889; Some Peculiarities in the Distribu- 
tion of the Blood in the Brain, The Manner in which the 
Highly Organized Tissues are Nourished, Trichinae in a 
Eat, An Instrument for Demonstrating the Eeduction in 
Bulk of Muscles during Contraction, The So-called Immor- 
tality of Microorganisms, Why are We Eight Handed?, 
1890 ; Presence of the Eobin at Iowa City on January 16th, 
The Presence of Copper in the Blood of Invertebrates, Nor- 
mal Faults as an Explanation of the Parallel Eanges of 
Mountains in the Basin Eegion, Some Additional Evidence 
of the Existence of Man in California before the Lava 
Flows, What Constitutes an Individual?, 1891; Certain 
Proposed Changes in Geological Nomenclature, The Geo- 
logical Aspect of CrolPs Theory of Climate and Time, The 
Action of the Pancreatic Fluid in the Digestion of Fats, 
Gypsum Beds at Fort Dodge and Methods Employed in 
Making Stucco There, 1892 ; The Geological Formations in 
the Vicinity of Sioux City, Eecent Views Concerning the 
Antiquity of the Globe, 1893 ; The Secondary Formation of 


Quartzite, Glaciers, Forminiferal Origin of the Chalk of 
Iowa and Neighboring States, The Oscillatory Movement 
in Iowa during the Lower Carboniferous Period, The Ef- 
fect of Geological Structure upon Topographical Form 
within the Driftless Areas of Northeastern Iowa, Some 
Probable Habits of Belemnites, 1894; Some Evidences of 
Movements in the Earth's Crust, Sturnella Magna Neglecta, 
Sialia Sialis, The Eelation between Base Leveling and Or- 
ganic Evolution, 1895 ; The Saint Peter Sandstone at Post- 
ville. The Pleistocene Deposits in Iowa, 1896 ; The Sea Mills 
in Cephalonia, Eecent Improvements in Gold Mining, A 
Blowing Well, 1897; Topographic Features of Delaware 
County, 1898 ; The Crowding up of the Ice on Certain Shores 
of Lakes, 1899 ; A Specimen of Chalk from the Holy Land, 
1900; The Geology of the Eegion about Brinkemoitt, Ore- 
gon, The Finding of Gold in Iowa, Overlap in Winneshiek 
and Adjacent Counties, 1901; A Human Skeleton Found 
near Lansing, Kansas, Lithographic Stone from Mitchell 
County, 1902 ; Peculiar Geologic Condition in Iowa North- 
east of the Cedar Eiver, Great Lava Fields about Shoshone, 
Idaho, 1903; Experience in Electrical Matters, Jackson 
County Carboniferous Outcrop, 1904; Ice Push, How Lam- 
ination is Produced in Eocks by Force and Pressure, Flow- 
ers Growing under Snow, The Comparison of the Produc- 
tion of Iowa Soil and Production of Gold of the World, 
1905; Variations of Heat on the Earth's Surface without 
Eegard to the Heat of the Snow, Earthquakes, Displacement 
Caused by Eecent Earthquakes at San Francisco, 1906 ; The 
Mining of Lead and Zinc in the Neighborhood of Dubuque, 
1907; Petrified Forests of Arizona, Bones of the Original 
American Horse, Experiments to Determine the Causes of 
Mine Explosions, 1908; The Discovery of Fossils in the 
Aftonian Gravels of Iowa, 1909. 



William B. Cocheane, 1892. — Papers : Mineral and Ther- 
mal Springs, 1894 ; Modern Surgery of the Digestive Tract, 
1895 ; Some Defects in Eye Eef raction, 1895. 

Samuel W. Collett^ 1905. — Paper: Plant Breeding, 

Jacob Elon Conner, 1901. — Report: Some Features of 
the Tariff Schedule, 1903. 

Amos Noyes Currier, 1889. Associate. — Reports: De- 
cline of Eural New England, 1890 ; Lately Found Constitu- 
tion of Athens by Aristotle, What Should Precede the Amer- 
ican University, 1891; The Cleanliness of the Ancient Eo- 
mans, 1895. 

EoBERT Burdette Dale, 1909. — Report: The Teredo 
Navalis, 1910. 

Lee Wallace Dean, 1894. — Papers: The Plastic Com- 
pounds of Cellulose, 1895; Some Practical Points in Die- 
tetics, 1898 ; The Hygiene of the Eye in the Public Schools, 
1899; The Anomalies of Eef raction, 1900; The Causes of 
Blindness in Children in Iowa, 1901; The Beating of the 
Heart, 1902; Taking Cold, 1903. 

Mrs. J. J. DiETz, 1889. Associate. — Report: Some 
Thoughts from Emerson, 1904. 

Edward Lewis Dodd, 1904. — Paper: The Interest on 
One Cent and Some Mathematical Curiosities, 1905. 

Eric Doolittle, 1893. — Papers: The Determination of 
the Figure of the Earth by Pendulum Experiments, 1894; 
Some Unanswered Questions in Astronomy, 1894. Reports : 
The Fifth Satellite of Jupiter, Three Visual Illusions, 1895. 

GiLMAN Arthur Drew, 1888. Associate. — Report : The 
Sting of the Honey Bee, 1890. 


Frank Moses Dryzer, 1908. Associate. — Report : Prin- 
ciple of Least Work, 1909. 

Clarence Willis Eastman, 1898. — Report \ Defects of 
the Verb Must'', 190L 

Burton Scott Easton, 1898. — Paper: Star Color under 
the Meteoric Hypothesis, 1899. Reports: The Discovery of 
the Ninth Satellite of Saturn, Dr. Morrison's Paper on 
Hebrew Sundials, 1899. 

Anfin Egdahl, 1905. — Paper: Eecent Work in Immu- 
nity, 1906. Reports : Malaria with Reference to the Tertian 
and Quarten Types, Case of Blastomycites Dermitites, 1906 ; 
Recent Work Done on Animal Parasites, 1907. 

Hanson Edward Ely, 1S97 Report : The Defense of 
Sea Coasts and Harbors, 1898. 

Clarence Estes, 1909. — Report : Radium Content of Hot 
Springs in the Yellowstone National Park, 1910. 

J. M. Faucett, 1886. — Report: Relative Durability of 
Limestone and Sandstone in Engineering Structures, 1886. 

Burton Percival Fleming, 1909. — Paper : Some Phases 
of Irrigation Engineering, 1910. 

Arthur Hillyer Ford, 1905. — Papers: Electric Power 
Transmission, 1905 ; Illumination, 1906 ; Design of an Elec- 
tric Power Station, 1907; Street Lighting, 1908; Recent 
Advances in Electric Lamps, 1909. 

J. Allen Gilbert, 1895. — Papers: Some Effects of the 
Loss of Sleep, 1896 ; Researches upon the School Children 
of Iowa City, 1897. Reports : A Measurement of an Error 
of Judgment, 1895; An Instrument for Testing Hearing, 
The Spark Method of Measuring Time, 1897. 

James Grant Gilchrist, Charter. — Papers: Migration 
of Leucocytes, 1885; Abnormal Changes in Cell Structure 



and Development, 1886; Light Houses and Buoys, 1886; 
Cognition Physiologically Considered, 1886; Mechanism 
and the Effects of Snake-Bite, 1887; The Anatomical and 
Physiological Eeasons for Eight-Handedness and Left- 
Handedness, 1887 ; Difference in Cellular Structure in Orig- 
inal and Eeparative Organizations, 1887 ; Auxiliary Motive 
Power in Ships of War, 1888; The Genesis of Morbid Ac- 
tion, 1888; Development of the Pipe Organ, 1888; The 
Origin of the Blood, its Functions and the Mechanism of 
its Circulation, 1889; The Military Lessons of the Civil 
War, 1889; Modern Surgery, 1889; A National Eeserve, 
1890; Fractures and Methods of Eepair, 1890; The Natural 
History of Disease, 1891; Surgical Anaesthesia, 1891; 
The Anatomy and Physiology of a Man of War, 1892 ; The 
Phenomena of Inflammation, 1892; Medical Education as 
a Function of the State, 1892 ; Vascular Traumatism, 1893 ; 
Eeminiscences of Travel in Venezuela, 1893 ; Inflammation, 
1894; Dislocations With Particular Eeference to their Ee- 
duction, 1895; Gunshot Wounds, 1895; The Genesis and 
Classification of Tumors, 1896; Vis Medicatrix Naturae, 
1896; Medical Jurisprudence, 1897; Physiological Compen- 
sations, 1898; Our Naval Successes and the Eeasons for 
Them, 1898; Some Eecent Considerations of the Surgery 
of the Great Cavities of the Body, 1899; Westminster 
Abbey, 1900; Gun Shot Wounds in the Great Cavities, 1901; 
How to Meet Modern Eequirements for a Medical Educa- 
tion, 1902; College Amateur Athletics, 1903; The Problem 
in Medical Art, 1903 ; Aneurisms, 1904 ; The Evolution of 
the Gothic in English Architecture, 1905; The Genesis of 
Malignant Tumors and Factors Favoring their Eecur- 
rence, 1905. Reports i On the Migratory Cell, A Method 
of Emptying Bilge-water from Vessels, Visceral Evolution, 
Sjonptoms of Poisoning as Eegards Judicial Toxicology, 

VOL. IX — 6 


1887; The Embryonic Origin of Tumors, On the Effects 
of Certain Operations for Cataract, Decoloration of Hu- 
man Hair, Some Cases of Arrested Development of Or- 
gans, 1888; The Structure of Dentine, Cerebral Localiza- 
tion, Modern Surgery, A Postscript to a Paper on Modern 
Surgery, A Poisonous Spider in the West Indies, 1889; 
Fallacies of the Microscope, The Science of Heraldry, 
Heraldry, The Establishment of Collateral Circulation, 
The Ultimate Circulation of the Blood, The Behavior of 
Scars, Exclusion of Germicides in Operations, Euptures of 
Blood Vessels, The Epitaph of Plasmodium, 1890; The 
Origin of Eeports of Lizards Being Swallowed and Living 
in the Human Stomach, Peculiar Course of a Bullet in the 
Brain, The Decussation of Nerve Fibres in the Cord, The 
Musical Sense, Microcephalous, Eesults of Certain Experi- 
ments Eelating to the Eestoration of Functions in Divided 
Nerve Fibres, Some Eecent Experiments Made with 
Nickel-Steel Armor Plates (on behalf of Califf), Whether 
there is Any Such Thing as Hydrophobia, 1891; Treat- 
ment of Necrosis, Gun Shot Injuries of Modern Fire-Arms^ 
Hysteria, Voltage of Currents Used in Electrocution, Ee- 
cent Experiments with the Sphygmograph on Anaesthesia 
Produced by Ether and Chloroform, Practical Application 
of Localization of Brain Function to Surgical Cases, Spe- 
cific Character of Arsenical Poisons, 1892 ; Comma Bacillus, 
Intestinal Surgery, Is the Cancer Contagious?, Anaesthe- 
sia, 1893 ; Eeview of Article by W. D. Howells on * ^ Nerve 
Degeneration and Eegeneration" (jointly given by Gil- 
christ and Aby), Nerve Eegeneration, Eeunion of Divided 
Structures in the Animal Body, Some Anomalous Eesults 
in Cerebro-Localization, Modern Army Eifle Wounds, More 
Eecent Experiments on Modern Army Eifle Wounds, The 
Functions of the Lupuscite, The Iodoform and Other 



Methods of Treatment of Wounds, 1894 ; Intercranial Neu- 
rectomy, The Eesults of the Division of Nerves, The Diffi- 
culty of Determining the Nature of an Injury to the 
Spinal Column, Further Eeport on a Case of Neuropa- 
thology, 1895; Pterodactylism, Peculiarities Found in the 
Dissection of a Museum Specimen of United Twins, A 
Specimen of Dermoid Cyst, Dr. Tiffany's Eeport on the 
Eestoration of Sensation after the Eemoval of Certain 
Sense Ganglia, 1897 ; Obstruction of the Oesophagus Due 
to Scalding, Materials Entering into a Chinese Medical 
Prescription, The Problems of Anaesthesia, Some Cases of 
Spontaneous Eepair in Arrested Development, The Pointed 
Arch in English Cathedrals, A Peculiar Tumor, 1898; 
Suturing of Cut Blood Vessels, On the Change from Eound 
to Pointed Arches in Mediaeval Structures, 1899 ; The Dif- 
ference between Strategy and Tactics, Tubular Pneumatic 
Action in Modern Organs, The Use of a Vegetable Button 
in Intersecting, The Use of Local Anaesthetics, Which is 
the Last Musical Instrument?, 1900; Three Cases of Surgi- 
cal Treatment in Epilepsy, Physiological Compensation in 
Certain Sensory Ganglia, Eecent Study of Church Archi- 
tecture, Cause of Anaesthesia, 1901; A Eecent Case of 
Undue Activity on the Part of a Petty Official, Anomalous 
Distribution of the Nerve Foramina at the Base of the 
Human Skull, 1902 ; Prevailing Fads even in Surgical Sci- 
ence, New Teachings of Medical Authorities, 1903; Can 
Any Eeal Mark of Degeneracy be Pointed Out?, Medico- 
Legal Aspects of Surgery, Bridging of Several Nerve 
Trunks with a View of Eestoring Lost Innervation, 
Eelative Merits of Several Kinds of Motors Used in Pump- 
ing the Bellows of Pipe Organs, 1904; President Harper's. 
Surgical Case, Surgical Shock, Heart Suturing, Modem 
Pedagogic Methods, Lamination of Tissues by Pressure in 


Formation of Capsules, Function of Suppuration in the 
Healing of a Wound, 1905. 

EussELL T>. George, 1900. — Papers: A Sketch of the 
Geology of Canada, 1900; A Sketch of Gold Mining and 
Milling in the United States, 1902 ; The Development of the 
Iron Industry in the United States, 1902. Reports : Eecent 
Criticism of the Nebular Hypothesis, 1900 ; Marble Flows, 
1901 ; Eeport of Mineral Output for 1901, The Possibility 
of Aluminum Eeplacing Copper, Solubility of Glass in 
Water at a High Pressure, 1902 ; Growing of Crystals, 1903. 

Henry Max Goettsch, 1899. — Papers: Drinking Water 
and Typhoid Fever, 1900; The Pecuniary Economy of 
Food, 1901. 

Ethel Golden, 1897. — Report : The Education of Linnie 
Haguewood, a Blind and Deaf Girl, 1898. 

Charles Edward Gordon, 1907. Associate. — Papers : Un- 
derground Waters, 1908; Eailroad Construction, 1909. Re- 
port : Work of the Eeclamation Service, 1909. 

Selskar Michael Gunn, 1906. — Report: The Problem 
of Clean Milk, 1907. 

Karl Eugen Guthe, 1905. — Papers: The Wliistling 
and the Speaking Arc Light, 1906; What is Matter, 1906; 
Electrical Units, 1907. Reports: A New Tantalum Elec- 
tric Incandescent Lamp, 1905; Two Kinds of Burners in 
Iowa City, Magnetic Properties of Different Materials 
Especially Manganese, Theory of Isostasy, 1906; Average 
Temperatures of the Winter Months during the Past Few 
Years, 1907; Application of the Gyroscope to the Steam- 
ship, 1908; Difference in Pressure in the Atmosphere by 
Small Changes in Height, Vibrations of Spring and Wires, 
Weather Conditions of the Past Fifty Years, 1909. 



Feederick Goodson Higbee, 1905. — Papers: Mechanical 
Drawing, 1906 ; Lumber Industry in the Pacific Northwest, 
1909; Our Inland Seas, 1910. 

Jack Brunt Hill, 1909. — Report: The Heating Ele- 
ment of an Electric Flat Iron, 1909. 

Albert S. Hitchcock, 1886. — Papers : Chlorophyl, 1886 ; 
The Future of Chemical Science Economically Considered, 
1887 ; The Metallurgy of Silver, 1887; The Chemistry of the 
Plant Cell, 1888. Reports : Variations of Sucrose in Sor- 
ghum, On Manufacture of Gun-Cotton, Changes in the 
Spectrum of Chlorophyl on Standing in the Dark, Heating 
of Platinum by Condensation of Gases on its Surface, 1887 ; 
The Delicacy of Chemical Eeactions, Certain Cases of Ab- 
normal Flowers, On Two Species of Peronospora, Lines 
of Magnetic Force, Eemarks on the Iowa Flora, Absorp- 
tion Bands of the Chlorophyl Spectrum, 1888 ; Chlorophyl 
in Alcoholic Specimens of Silk- Worm, Two Specimens of 
Silicified Wood, 1889. 

Arthur Warren Hixon, 1908. — Paper: Iron Mining in 
the Lake Superior Eegion, 1909. 

F. A. HoLTON, 1887. — Paper : Methods of Distinguishing 
between Butter and Butter Substitutes, 1887. 

Gilbert Logan Houser, 1892. — Papers : Some Features 
of Paleozoic Corals, 1893 ; The Structural Elements of Con- 
nective Tissue, 1894; The Cleavage of the Egg, 1895; Seg- 
mentation of the Vertebrate Head, 1895; The Ear, 1896; 
The Degeneration of the Tunicate, 1898 ; The Data of Mod- 
ern Neurology, 1899 ; The Physical Basis of Heredity, 1900 ; 
Eecent Progress in Cellular Biology, 1901 ; The Eesults of 
Experimental Embryology, 1902 ; Vitalism and Mechanism 
as Explanations of Life, 1903; Phosphorescence, 1905; 


Primary Causes of Animal Behavior, 1903 ; The Brain 
of the Vertebrate, 1906; Eecent Progress in the Study 
of the Living Substance, 1908; Present Status of Dar- 
winism in the Field of Zoology, 1909 ; Some Modern View- 
points of Animal Life, 1909 ; Form Changes in the Animal 
Cell, 1910. Reports : The Nematocysts of the Fresh Water 
Hydra, 1893 ; Formaline, 1893 ; The Formation, Growth and 
Disappearance of a Water Spout, 1896; The Origin and 
Purpose of the Thyroid Gland, 1897 ; The Eelation between 
the Auditory Nerve and the Hair Cells of the Ear, Changes 
in Nerve Cells due to Activity, 1898 ; Effect of Eadiation of 
Eadium on Animal Life, Achievements of Carl Gegenhaur, 
Experiments of the Japanese Hatai with Lecithin, 1903; 
Phosphorescence in Animals, The Stimulation of Proto- 
plasm and the Deferring of Somatic Death, 1905 ; Cilia, The 
Distribution of the Physiological Metals in the Animal Cell, 
Oxidation in the Living Cell, 1906; Changes in Cellular 
Structure of Animals with Age, 1908. 

Minnie Howe, 1888. Associate. — Report : The Flora of 
a Metamorphic Ledge in Luverne County, Minn., 1891. 

Alfred Onias Hunt, 1888. — Papers: Toothache, 1888; 
Methods of Tooth-Saving, 1889. 

James Elder Hutchinson, 1909. — Report: Liquid Illu- 
minating Gas in Switzerland, 1910. 

Woods Hutchinson, 1895. — Paper: Uses of Pain, 1895. 

Z. H. Hutchinson, 1894. — Reports: An Apparent Im- 
munity from Eattlesnake Poison Acquired by Dogs, Two 
Present Day Instances of Old Sick-Eoom Superstitions, 

W. T. Jackson, 1891.— Report : The Writings of Com- 
menius, 1892. 



Charles Davis Jameson, 1887. — Papers-, The Panama 
Oanal, 1887; Photography Applied to Surveying, 1888; 
Engineering Features of the Proposed Nicaragua Canal, 
1888; Evolution of the Bridge Truss, 1889; Sewerage and 
Sewers, 1889; Eailroad Signals and Safety Appliances, 
1890; The Virtual Length of Eailways, 1890; Field Meth- 
ods of Eailroad Location, 1891 ; The Evolution of the Mod- 
ern House, 1892 ; A Comparison 6f English and American 
Eailways, 1892 ; The Evolution of Eapid Transit in Cities, 
1893; The Indicator and its Use, 1894; An Engineering 
Education, 1894. Reports : An Astonishing History Show- 
ing the Great Justice in the Working of the Eailroad Law 
in Iowa, The Eelative Efficiency of Electric and Steam 
Locomotives, Color Photography, 1890; The Fall of Two 
Spans of the Louisville and Jeffersonville Bridge, Glaciers 
of Alaska, 1894. 

Leora Johnson, 1890. Associate. — Report: The Pre- 
vention of Diphtheria by Inoculation, 1894. 

Charles EL\.hlke, 1890. Associate. — Report: Inoculation 
of a Eabbit with Anthrax Bacillus, 1891. 

William Jay Karslake, 1909. — Paper : The Doctrine of 
Valence, 1909. 

George Frederick Kay, 1907. — Papers : Theories of the 
Earth's Origin, 1908 ; The Coal Supply of the United States, 
1910. Reports: Discovery of Diamonds in Arkansas, 1906; 
Nickel Ore Deposits in Northern California, 1908; Supply 
and Conservation of Coal, 1909; Evidences of Glaciation, 

Harry Eugene Kelly, 1897. — Report: The Harvard 
English Eeports, 1898. 

Theodore Wilbert Kemmerer, 1899. — Report : Two Eab- 
bits Inoculated with the Hydrophobia Virus, 1900. 


Geace Kent, 1893. Associate. — Report: Effects of Fa- 
tigue upon the Senses, 1904. 

Edwabd C. Knowee, 1885. — Paper: Changes in Tactics 
since Waterloo and the Breech-Loader, 1886. 

AijBEet Kuntz, 1908. — Report: Development of the 
Sympathetic Nervous System, 1910. 

Byeon James Lambeet, 1903. — Papers : The Automobile, 
1904; The Tunnels and Subways of New York City, 1907; 
Illustrated Description of the Big Bridges of New York 
City, 1909; Aeronautics, 1910. Reports: Telegraphone, 
1905; Transportation Facilities of the Brooklyn Bridge, 
1905; Eeport on Bridge near Quebec which Collapsed, 
1907; Michigan Central Tunnel under the Detroit Eiver, 

John Joseph Lambeet, 1900. — Papers: Eegeneration in 
Animals, 1902; Animal Grafting, 1903; The Physiology of 
Sleep, 1904; The Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods 
Holl, 1905. Reports: Dr. Kim's Phototherapeutics by In- 
jection into (the Spinal Cord, 1901; Beating of a Cat's 
Heart, Cause of Muscle Contraction, 1902 ; Distribution of 
Animals, 1904. 

James Heney Lees, 1902. — Reports: The Study of the 
Drift in Madison County, Continued Motion of Occluded 
Bubbles, 1903. 

Nathan E. Leonaed, Charter. — Papers: Meteorites, 
1886; Physical Cause of Earthquake, 1886; Color Envel- 
opes, 1886; Croirs Theory of Glacial Climate, 1887; Meth- 
ods of Measuring the Velocity of Light, 1887. Reports: 
Eecent Meteoric Showers, On Meteorites, Method of Dis- 
tinguishing between Atmospheric and Solar Lines of the 
Spectrum, Displacement of the First Band of the Spectrum 



of Encke's Comet, Temperature of Different Parts of Sun 
Spots, 1886; Velocities Observed in Solar Prominences, 
Progress in Celestial Photography, 1887. 

Lawkence William Littig, 1890. — Papers: Cleanliness 
in Surgery — What it Implies To-day, 1891; Cause and 
Prevention of Typhoid Fever, 1893; Brief Eeferences to 
Pasteur and Some of his Works, 1893; The Spinal Cord 
and its Functions, 1894 ; The Athletic and the Senile Heart, 
1895 ; La Grippe, 1897. Reports : Some Eemarkable Cases 
of Hysteria, Two Cases of Hysteria Cured by Suggestion, 
1893 ; A Copy of Father Kneippe's Book on Water Cure and 
Some of his Methods, 1894; Cycles of Lengthening and 
Shortening of the Swiss Glaciers, 1895; A Hair Tumor in 
a Human Stomach, 1896; A Case of Cure by Suggestion, 

Fred James Longworth, 1907,— -Paper: Mining and 
Smelting Conditions in British Columbia, 1908. Report: 
Effect of Eecent Financial Flurry on Mining, 1907. 

Isaac Althaus Loos, 1890. Associate. — Paper: Logical 
Methods in Political Economy, 1895. Report: Professor 
Nutting's Theory of the Coloration of Deep Sea Animals, 

Charles F. Lorenz, 1900. — Papers: Measurement by 
Light Waves, 1901; A Few Electrodynamic Experiments, 
1903; Stereoscopic Projection, 1904. Reports: The Phe- 
nomena of a Eotary Magnetic Field, 1898; Principle of 
Orthochromatic Photography, A New Nernst Lamp, 1903; 
Cooper Hewitt Mercury Vapor Lamp, 1906. 

Thomas Huston Macbride, Charter. — Papers: The 
Sources of Vital Energy (with Calvin), 1886; Devices for 
Securing Cross-Fertilization among Plants, 1886 ; Intercel- 


lular Secretions and Excretions of Mineral Matter in the 
Cells of Plants, 1886 ; Variations of Plants under Varying 
Circumstances, 1887; The Difference between a Mushroom 
and a Toadstool, 1887; Peculiarities of Plant Distribution, 
1888; The Slime-Molds, 1888; Smuts and Busts, 1889; The 
Great American Desert and What is to Come of it, 1889 ; The 
Life and Death of a Tree, 1890; Microbes, 1890; What 
Constitutes a Type, 1891; Nuclear Division, 1893; Pitcher 
Plants, 1894; Some Phases of California Mora, 1895; The 
Forests of Iowa and their Distribution, 1895; Parasitism 
and Symbiosus, 1896; The Botany of Shakespeare, 1897; 
What is an Animal?, 1898; Figs, 1900; Twentieth Century 
Protoplasm, 1901; Point Lobos, 1902; The Plant Eespon- 
sive, 1903 ; The Eesponse of Plants to Human Preference, 
1904; Luther Burbank and his Garden, 1905; A Study in 
Parasitism, 1907 ; On the Present Trend of Natural History 
Study, 1908. Reports : Organic Connection Between Cells, 
Abnormalities in Vegetable Cells, 1886 ; Pines and Spruces 
of the Sierras, Puff Balls, Some Species of Club-Mosses 
Lately Found near Iowa City, Solanum Eostratum, 1887; 
Peculiar Outcome of Cross-Fertilization as Shown in a 
Specimen of Squash, Life and Services of the Late Dr. Asa 
Gray, Calcium Oxalate in Plants, On the Discovery of Teeth 
in the Embryo of the Duck-bill Mole, On the Appearance of 
Horns on Polled Cattle, The Flora of Krakatoa after the 
Eruption in 1883, Some Eare Forms of Saprophytic Fungi, 
A Piece of Sugar Pine from the Comstock Mine, 1888 ; Ee- 
cent Discovery of Shortia by Professor Sargent, The 
Metallurgy of Gold by the Arastra, Folk Lore in Eegard 
to Planets, Some Native Stinkhorns, Character and Scien- 
tific Work of Professor Lesquereux, The Cedars of Leb- 
anon, 1889 ; Thuja Gigantea ; Liriodendrom Tulipif era. The 
Dodder, The Time Eequired to Eeplace Forest Trees, An 



Ear of Corn, 1890; A Number Form, Slime-Molds Ee- 
garded as Animals, The Occurrence of the White Pine in 
Japan, Aricaria Imbricata, Eesults of Experiments for 
Determining the Active Principle in Yeast, Plasmodina 
Malariae, 1891; Primitive Cantilever Bridges over Alpine 
Streams, Observations on Forestry in Iowa, An Experi- 
ment on Eabies Witnessed in Pasteur's Laboratory, 1892; 
A Bacteriological Investigation of the City Water, The 
Slime-Molds of Nicaragua, The Inefficiency of Inoculation 
by Bacilli in a Healthy Body, A Eecent Discovery of Cy- 
cads. Distribution and Character of the Trees in the Black 
Hills Eegion, 1893; Certain Aquatic Plants at the Hot 
.Springs in South Dakota, The Effects of Pasturing Sheep 
upon Wild Barley, A Small Photographic Camera, 1895; 
The Hickory Nut Trees of Iowa, 1896; Caffir Corn, 1898; 
Impregnation in Flowering Plants, 1900; Origin of Words 
as Sarsaparilla, Briarwood, and Gin. 1903. 

Chaeles Scott Magowan, 1886. — Papers: Eailway Car 
Brakes, 1888; Irrigation in the United States, 1889; Ice 
Making and Eefrigerating Machines and their Processes, 
1891; The Development of the Water Power of Niagara, 
1894; The Chicago Drainage Canal, 1897; Title by Posses- 
sion, 1898; Methods of Measuring Water, 1899; The Fil- 
tration of Public Water Supplies, 1901; Sanitary En- 
gineering, 1904; Some Examples of Concrete Steel Struc- 
tures, 1905; Stand-pipes and Elevated Tanks, 1906. Re- 
ports: A Bogus Meteorite, Skimmed Milk as a Spreader 
of Contagious Diseases, 1897 ; The Causes of the Crystalline 
Appearance of Fracture in Iron Subjected to Frequent and 
Varied Stresses, 1900; Lighting, 1902. 

Emlin McClain, 1889. Associate. — Reports: Individual- 
ism as a Factor in the Social Sciences, 1890 ; Eecent Court 


Decisions ToucMng the Eight of Ownership of Meteorites^ 
1892 ; Behring Sea Controversy, 1893 ; The Eight of Crimin- 
als to Eefuse the Taking of Fingerprints for Purposes of 
Identification, 1899. 

John Thomas McClintock, 1903. — Papers i The Elec- 
trical Phenomena of Cell Activity, 1903 ; Therapeutics of Al- 
cohol, 1906; Chemical Agents in Coordination with Physi- 
ological Action, 1907; Our Natural Defenses against In- 
fection, 1910. Reports I Fiocca's Method for the Staining 
of Spores of Bacteria, 1899; Neurone Theory, 1905. 

Feed D. Meekitt, 1897. — Paper: The Application of 
Mathematics to Political Economy, 1899. 

James Bubt Miner, 1904. — Paper: An Iowa Case of 
Vision Acquired in Adult Life, 1905. 

Pebcy C. Myers, 1896. — Reports: A Mega-microscope^ 
The Diatomaceous Deposit of Clear Lake, The Diatomace- 
ous Deposits of Lake Okoboji, 1898. 

Frank John Newberry, 1895. — Papers : The Eelation of 
Electricity to Medicine, 1896; The Ophthalmoscope and 
What it Eeveals, 1897; The Human Ear, 1897; Color Blind- 
ness, 1898; Some Observations Concerning the Upper 
Eespiratory Tracts, 1900; The Sympathetic Eelations Be- 
tween the Two Eyes, 1901. 

Eenest E. Nichols, 1886. — Papers: Series, 1888; Tro- 
choids, 1889; The Growth of Mathematics, 1890. 

Chaeles Cleveland Nutting, 1886. — Papers: The Eel- 
ative Merits of the Panama and Nicaragua Canal Eoutes, 
1886; Observation on Central American Birds with Eefer- 
ence to Theories Advanced by Darwin and Wallace, 1887; 
The First Three Days of the Embryology of the Chick, 
1887; Animal Intelligence, 1888; Observations and Experi- 



ments on Living Sea-Urchins, 1888; Skeletons of Inverte- 
brate Animals, 1889 ; The Significance of the Geographical 
Distribution of Certain American Mammals and Birds, 
1890; Are Mammals the Highest of the Vertebrates?, 1890; 
Can Acquired Characters be Inherited?, 1891; Jelly Fishes, 
1892 ; Deep Sea Investigation, 1893 ; Informal Eeport upon 
the Bahama Expedition, 1893 ; The Epiblastic Structure of 
the Mammalia, Weapons of Animals, 1894 ; The Origin and 
Significance of Sex, 1895; The Naples Zoological Station, 
1896; The Fur Seal and the Seal Islands, 1897; Do the 
Lower Animals Eeason?, 1897; Observations on Young 
Chicks, 1898; The Phosphorescent Light of Marine Ani- 
mals, 1899 ; The Eyes of the Blind Cave Animals of North 
America and their Bearing on Evolutionary Doctrine, 
1900; Jelly Fishes and their Relation to the Hydroid Col- 
ony, 1900; A Visit to the Home of the Cliff Dwellers, 1901; 
Life on Board the United States Steamer Albatross, 1902 ; 
Some Principles of Protective Coloration among Animals, 
1903; The Salmon and Salmon Fisheries of Alaska, 1904; 
The First Fauna of the World, 1906 ; Scientific Results of 
the Hawaiian Cruise, 1907; A Zoological Puzzle and At- 
tempts at its Solution, 1908; Some More about **La Jolla'' 
and its Biological Station, 1910. Reports : The Geographical 
Distribution of the Evening Grosbeak during this Season, 
Calabashes and Their Uses, Some Notes of Local Ornitho- 
logical Facts and Observations, A New Unicellular Animal, 
Podophrya Compressa, Urn-Burial as Practiced by the An- 
cient Nicaraguans, 1887; Some Specimens of British 
Game Birds, Life Character and Services of the Late 
Professor Spencer F. Baird; Dichromatism among Birds, 
Appearances of the San Domingo Duck in Iowa, Some Iso- 
lated Communities on the Bahama Islands, Animal Intelli- 
gence, The Portuguese Man-of-War, 1888; The Great 


Homed Owl and its Varieties, Growth and Wearing away 
of Coral Islands, Absence of Lasso Cells among Certain 
Alcyonoid Corals, A Case of Suspended Animation, Corre- 
lations of Organs, Means by which the Polyps of Gorgonias 
are Protected, 1889; Spontaneous Combustion, The Meth- 
ods of Sampling Ore, The Vascular Supply in Bone and 
Teeth, The Gila Monster, Eadial Symmetry, A Case of 
Involved Identity, A Method of Exhibiting Anatomical Dis- 
sections, 1890; Mother Carey's Chicken, The Vascular Sup- 
ply of the Teeth, A Plant Found in a Colorado Mine, A 
Peculiarity of the Flagellate Cells Lining the Ampullae of 
the Sponges Grantia Ciliata, Cosmogony of the Swampy- 
Cree Indians, Peculiarities of the Star Fish, Pterastes Mili- 
taris, Cause of the Sudden Blanching of the Hair of Man 
and Other Animals, 1891 ; The Sloth, Eelation of the Cana- 
dian Government and of the Hudson's Bay Company to the 
British American Indians, A New Discovery in Embryol- 
ogy, Photograph of an Infant's Foot with Significance of 
Certain Marks, First Finding of the Duck, Glaucionette 
Islandica in Iowa, The Poisonous Fangs of the Heloderma 
and the Homology of Teeth and Scales, 1892 ; A Case Show- 
ing that Acquired Characters May be Inherited, Plastic 
Models for Aid in Teaching the Anatomy of Animal Forms, 
The Hydroids Found upon the Bahama Expedition, Two In- 
teresting Species of Deep Water Corals, Suspended Anima- 
tion or Hibernation of Animals, 1893 ; The Greatest Thermal 
Eiver in the World, Eesemblances between Graptolites and 
a Group of Modern Hydroids, Albinism, The Significance 
of Sex in the Animal Kingdom, A Specimen of the Bassari- 
dae, The Migration of Certain Forms of Life, Optical Illu- 
sions in Estimating the Number of Individuals in a Com- 
pany, The Killing of a Saw- Whet Owl in this Vicinity, The 
Occurrence of Clark's Crow in this State, Fungus on a 



Museum Specimen in Alcohol, 1894; The Eelative Exact- 
ness of the Natural and the Mathematical Sciences, Lord 
Kelvin *s Deep Sea Sounding Apparatus, The Force that 
Extends the Thread of the Nematocyst Cells in Hydroids, 
The Connection between Volcanic Eruptions and Tidal 
Phenomena, 1895; Some Eecent Experiments upon Tad- 
poles, A New Species of Hydroid, The Slowness of the Dis- 
appearance of Vestigial Organs by Evolution, The Distri- 
bution of Life in the Ocean Depths, The Fundamental Dif- 
ferences between the Neo-Darwinian and the Neo-La- 
marckian Schools, The Malicious Damaging of the Newport 
Biological Laboratory by the Addition of Sewage to the 
Collecting Waters, The Characteristics of a South Ameri- 
can Opisthocomus, 1896; Protective Coloration and Imita- 
tion in the Bull Snake, The Teeth and Spines of Sharks, 
The Salamanders of Lake Cayuga, The Work of the Late 
Professor E. D. Cope, The Appreciation of Number in 
Ants, The Function of Certain Spots in Deep-Sea Cephalo- 
poda, The Close Observation Characteristic of the English 
People, Problematic Structures between the Plates of Cer- 
tain Starfish, The Mechanism of the Stinging Spines of the 
Sea Urchin, Organs of Orientation in Certain of the Echino- 
dermata, 1897 ; A Comparison of the Dentition of Eodents 
and Other Mammals, The City of Havana and Its Harbor, 
Possible Use of the Carrier Pigeon in Naval Warfare, 
Some Cases of Protective Mimicry in Butterflies, Does the 
Eegenerated Part of an Animal Tend to Eevert to a 
Lower Type, Eecent Experiments on the Eegeneration of 
Limbs in Tadpoles, The Structure of the Feather, A New 
Specimen of the Anthropoid Ape from Borneo, The Educa- 
tion of a Fish, 1899; Investigation of Skeletal Variations 
by the X Eay Method, The Eecent Eeappearance of the 
Tile Fish, Expedition to Alaska, The Discovery of a New 


Method of Eeproduction among the Hydro-Medusae, 1900 ; 
Professor Loeb's So-called Discovery of Partheno-Genesis, 
Monograph on Hydroids, Discovery of a Giant Hydroid, 
Discovery of a Six-Eayed Serpent Star, 1901; A Summer's 
Cruise of the Albatross, 1902 ; Observations by Calkins of 
Columbia University, Three Eemarkable Specimens of Sea 
Urchins, A Scare Crow, Controversy Concerning the Origin 
of Coral Islands, Eeport on an Article which Gives Eesults 
of Subjecting Organisms to Intense Cold for Weeks, 1903 ; 
Best Method of Lighting an Exhibition Space, Slides on 
Protective Coloration, 1904 ; Zoophytes, Life Existing Luxu- 
riantly at a very Low Temperature, 1905; Baconian Club 
as it Existed Twenty Years Ago, The Eesults of Last Ex- 
pedition of the Albatross, Changes in the Sea Bottom in 
Mid-Pacific, Organism Producing Cancer, 1906; Some Cu- 
rious Cases of Parasitism, Fossil Tooth of a Hippopotamus, 
Opinion of Leading Zoologists Concerning Work of Dar- 
win, The Eeasons for Desertions from the United States 
Army, Pedicellariae of Sea-Urchins and Star Fish, 1907; 
Eeproduction by Conjugation in the Amoeba, Natural Se- 
lection, Memory in the Lower Animals, A Plan for a Gov- 
ernment Biological Station in Iowa, 1908; Social and Bio- 
logical Work in Holland, Hydroid Painted by the Japanese, 
Eecent Investigations of Sleeping Sickness in Africa, 
Power of Organisms to Live under Adverse Physical Con- 
ditions, Life of Alexander Agassiz, Exploring Expedition 
of Anderson and Stefansson, 1910. 

Ernest Linwood Ohle, 1905. — Paper: Smoke and its 
Abatement, 1907. 

Egbert Goldsborough Owen, 1909. — Report: Pellagra, 

Louis Ajlexander Parsons, 1894. — Report: A Photo- 
graphic Printing Paper, 1895. 



Geobge Thomas White Pateick, 1888. — Papers: Hyp- 
notism, 1889 ; Memory and Mnemonics, 1890 ; Time of Men- 
tal Operations, 1890; Human Automatism in its Eelation 
to Spiritualism, 1891 ; The Localization of Brain Function, 
1891 ; Expression of the Emotions, 1893 ; Criminal Anthro- 
pology, 1893 ; The Psychology of Women, 1895 ; Some Meth- 
ods and Eesults of Child Study, 1895; Scientific Materi- 
alism, 1896 ; Sleep, 1898 ; Some Disturbances of the Person- 
ality, 1898; The Psychology of Crazes, 1899; The Psychol- 
ogy of Profanity, 1901 ; The Psychology of Play, 1901. Re- 
ports : Eecent Experiments in Thought-transference, Some 
Experiments by Sir John Lubbock on the Limits of Vision 
in Insects; On the Homing Power of Animals, 1888; The 
Psychophysic Law, The Gum-Chewing Wave, 1889; The 
Phenomenon of Multiple Personality, The Brain of Laura 
Bridgeman, 1890 ; Arithmetical Prodigies, Emotional Effect 
of Colors, 1891; Methods and Means Employed by Mind 
Eeaders in the Practice of their Profession, Automatic 
Writing, Aphasia, A Eecent Experimental Concert to De- 
termine Whether or not Music Conveys to the Hearer ai 
Definite Thought, The Zemonian Antinomies, 1892 ; Descrip- 
tion of a Modern Jail, The Theory of the Correlation of 
Mental and Physical Powers, 1893; Hypnotism, Some At- 
tempts Made toward the Classification of the Sciences, Dar- 
winism and Swimming, Wundt's Sphygmomanometer, The 
Detection of Near Objects by Blind Persons, 1894; Mac- 
donald's Experiments on Sensibility to Pain, Contrast in 
Color Sensation, Some Photographs to Illustrate the Illu- 
sion of Contrast, Hearing and Sight of School Children, 
1895; Fatigue in School Children, The Conditions of Fa- 
tigue in Eeading, 1896; The Psychophysical Phenomena 
of Vorticella, 1897 ; Possible Improvements in the Kinet- 
oscope, The Persistence of the Memory of Olfactory Sensa- 

VOL. IX — 7 


tions, 1898; An Interesting Case of Glossolalia, 1900, 
Plattians In the Training of Telegraphy, 1901. 

James Newton Peaece, 1907. — Paper: Some Recent 
Work on the Hydrate Theory, 1908; Colloidal Chemistry 
and its Applications, 1910. 

Alfked Chakles Petees, 1891. — Paper : The Phenomenon 
of Taking Cold, 1892. 

Philetus H. Philbeick, Charter. — Papers: The Canti- 
lever Bridge, 1886; Eads's Ship Railway Plan, 1887. 

Chaeles Delos Pooee, 1905 : — Papers : Chemistry Boiled 
Down, 1905 ; Does the Ion Simplify the Study of Chemistry, 
1906. Reports : Carbonic Acid Gas, Colored and Colorless 
Ions as an Argument in Favor of the Dissociation Theory, 
1906 ; Thermometric Scales, 1908. 

William Galt Raymond, 1904. — Papers : A Trip to the 
Lick Observatory, 1904; The Development of Locomotive 
Tractive Power in America, 1906; How Many Miles Can 
We Travel without Being Killed?, 1907; Railroad Rates, 
1908 ; The Grade Element in Railroad Operation, 1909. Re- 
ports: Relative Attendance of Students in Arts and Sci- 
ences as Compared with Engineering, Visit Made by Board 
of Regents Committee at Various Engineering Schools, 
1905; Recent Improvements in Locomotives, 1907. 

George Windle Read, 1889. — Papers : The Military Pol- 
icy of the United States, 1890; Signalling, 1890; Modern 
War, 1892. 

John Franklin Reilly, 1909. — Paper: The Orbit of a 
Heavenly Body with Special Reference to Halley's Comet, 

Roe Remington, 1906. — Paper: The Fixation of Nitro- 
gen, 1907. 



Elbebt William Eockwood, 1888. — Papers: Some As- 
pects of Photography, 1889; Foods, 1889; Salt, 1891; The 
Formation of Fat in the Animal Body, 1891; Drinking 
Water, 1892 ; The Sources of Muscular Energy, 1893 ; Fer- 
mentation, 1894; The Chemical Products of Bacterial Ac- 
tion, 1895 ; Milk, 1896 ; The Chemistry and Bacteriology of 
Water Filtration, 1897 ; Eecent Eesearches in Physiological 
Chemistry, 1897 ; The Experimental Determination of Ani- 
mal Metabolism with Some Practical Applications, 1898; 
Food Adulterations, their Extent and Significance, 1900; 
Digestive Ferment in the Vegetable Kingdom, 1902; 
Physical Chemistry in the Biological Science, 1902; Food 
Preservatives, 1903; Do We Eat too Much!, 1905; Do 
the Chemical Elements Exist!, 1906; Something about 
Albumen, 1907; Bleached Flour, a Chemico-Physiolog- 
ical Legal Problem, 1908; Food Preservatives with Spe- 
cial Eeference to Sodium Benzoate, 1910. Reports : Iowa 
Limestone and Clays and their Fitness for the Manu- 
facture of Portland Cement, 1889; Photography with- 
out the Use of a Lens, 1890; Bromelin — a Digestive 
Fluid Found in the Juice of the Pineapple, The Effect of 
Extreme Low Temperatures on Chemical Action, 1894 ; The 
Cultivation of Useful Bacteria, 1895 ; The Effect of Loss of 
Sleep on the Excretion of Phosphoric Acid and Nitrogen, 
An Epidemic of Typhoid Fever at Tipton, Iowa, Attribut- 
able to the Use of Well Water, An Apparatus for Determin- 
ing Approximately the Amount of Carbon Dioxide in the 
Air, 1896 ; Food Investigations by the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, A Nitro-Cellulose Substitute for Silk, 
Precautions against Contagion from Milk, Comparative 
Values of Plant and Animal Foods, A Meteorological Phe- 
nomenon, 1897; Nutritive Values of Foods Used in the 
Slums of New York, An Original Translation of Caput 


Mortuum, 1898; Antiseptic Duelling, 1899; The Food Value 
of Alcohol, 1900; Vessel Used in Preparing Infant's Milk, 
1900; The Stamping Out of the Bubonic Plague in Some 
Japanese Cities, 1903; Use of Copper Salts in Drinking 
Water, Use of Methyl Alcohol, 1904; An Insoluble Sub- 
stance in Soft Water, Arsenic Poisoning, The Formation of 
the Diamond, 1905 ; Systematic Zoology and Chromosomes, 
Food Adulterants, Nature of Waste Products in the Body, 
Alcohol, Eecent Jubilee of the Coal Tar Industry, Oxida- 
tion as it Occurs in the Organic World, 1906; Manufacture 
and Use of Denatured Alcohol, Comparative Digestibility 
of Cooked and Uncooked Food, Statistics on the Production 
of Sulphur in the United States, Eecent Improvements in 
Getting and Keeping Pure Milk, Eeport of two Great Chem- 
ists Moissan and Mendeljeff, Eolation of Diet to Endur- 
ance, Modification of Some Vital Processes Due to the Use 
of the Automobile, Autochrome Process of Color Photog- 
raphy, 1907; Cereal Foods, Crenothrix the Micro Organ- 
ism at the Present Time Contaminating the Water Supply 
of Iowa City, Possibility of Changing Copper to Lithium, 
Analysis of the City Water, 1908; Some Diseases of Tin, 
Color Photography, Commercial Price of Eadium, 1909; 
Eecent Method of the Preparation of Peat for Commercial 
Use, Fake Patent Medicines, The Use of Aluminum in 
Cooking Utensils, The Effect of Hard Water upon the 
Teeth, 1910. 

Ealph Eugene Eoot, 1909. — Reports-. Professor Moore's 
General Analysis, The Examination and Marking System, 

Feank Eussell, 1894. — Paper: The Yellow Knife In- 
dians, 1895. Reports: Esquimaux' Waterproof Boots, An 
Albino Specimen of Geomys Bursarius, 1895. 



Martin Wright Sampson, 1889. — Reports : Literary and 
Artistic Work of Women as Contrasted with that of Men, 
Query in Eegard to the Picturesque Quality of Photog- 
raphy, 1890. 

Thomas Edmund Savage, 1896. — Reports ; The Flora of 
the ''Wild Den'' Eegion, 1897; Some Features in the Nat- 
ural History of the Eegion of Ironton, Missouri, 1898. 

Charles Ashmead Schaeffer, 1887. — Papers: Steel, 
1888; The Mining and Metallurgy of Gold, 1888; Natural 
and Artificial Cements, 1889; The Systematic Method of 
Organic Chemistry, 1890. 

F. L. ScHAUB, 1902. — Report: Eeport on a Paper by 
Professor Stratton ''Eye Movements in the Esthetics of 
Vision", 1903. 

Carl Emil Seashore, 1897. — Papers: A Study in Psy- 
chological Measurement, 1898 ; Visual Perception of Inter- 
rupted Linear Distances, 1899 ; The Principal Types of Nor- 
mal Illusions in the Perception of Geometrical Forms, 1900 ; 
Automatism in the Use of the Divining Eod in Tracking for 
Underground Water, 1901 ; Some Experiments in Auditory 
Perception of Direction, 1902 ; Dreams, 1903 ; Color Vision 
in the Indirect Field, 1905 ; The Tonoscope and its Use in 
Singing, 1906 ; The Psychology of Play, 1908 ; Darwin from 
the View-point of the Psychologist, 1909. Reports: The 
Eeign of Men, 1898 ; Some Cases of Eudimentary Movements 
of the Human Ear, The Discriminative Sensibility for Pitch, 
1899 ; The Psychergometer, A New Erggraph, 1900 ; A New 
Method of Measuring the Pitch of the Voice in Singing and 
Speaking, 1901; The Eelative Frequency of Ideas, Scrip- 
ture's Color Sense Tester, 1902; To Obtain a Cheap and 
Convenient Battery for Short Circuits in the Laboratory, 
1904; The Photography of Eye Movements, 1905; Forma- 


tion of Habits in the Starfish, Some Experiments on Eats, 
1907 ; Possibility of Localizing the Sense of Taste, 1908 ; A 
New Paper File, 1909. 

Benjamin Franklin Shambaugh, 1897, Associate.— 
Reports : The Latest Original Package Case, The Nature 
of the Problem of Justification in the Interference of the 
United States in the Cuban Situation, The Possession and 
Occupancy of Iowa in its Legal Aspects, The Naming of the 
Commonwealth of Iowa, 1898 ; History of the Establishment 
of the Boundaries of the Commonwealth of Iowa, 1899. 

BoHUMiL Shimek, 1890. — Papers: The Eadula of the 
Mollusca, 1891; The Loess in the Northwest, 1892; The 
Geographical Distribution of Mollusca with Eelation to 
Current Glacial and Loess Theories, 1892; The Nicaragua 
Canal, 1893 ; Types of Nicaraguan Ferns, 1894 ; Plant Hairs, 
1895; Plant Distribution in Iowa, 1896; Water Nymphs, 
1897; Textile Vegetable Fibres, 1898; Eomance in Natural 
History, 1898; Forestry in Iowa, 1900; The Okoboji School 
of Botany, 1902; An lowan Desert, 1903; The White Lands 
of New Mexico, 1904 ; Ferns in the Desert, 1905 ; Forests of 
the United States, 1906 ; A Bit of Geology and Geography 
Eevised, 1907; Why Are the Prairies Treeless I, 1908; Dar- 
win from the Standpoint of the Botanist, 1909 ; The Prairie 
and Forest Problem as Illustrated in the Lake Okoboji Ee- 
gion, 1910. Reports : The Canadian Thistle in Iowa City, Ee- 
marks on Pyrgula and Planorbis, 1890 ; the Fania Integraf o- 
lia, A Eemarkable Snake's Nest, 1892; Some Peculiar Hab- 
its of Ferns, The Eussian Thistle, The Blooming of Plants 
during the Present Autumn, Cases of Certain Diaecious 
Plants Producing Perfect Flowers, 1894 ; Conditions Favor- 
ing the Growth of the Hard Maple, 1896 ; The Eepair of In- 
juries to the Cambium Layer in Trees, the Physiological 



Effects of Poison Ivy, 1898 ; A Specimen of tlie Plasmodium 
of a Slime-Mold, A Dwarf Form of Burr Oak, 1899; Bitter- 
Sweet, 1900 ; The Causes of tlie Flow of Sap in the Spring, 
1900; Skunk Cabbage, 1903. 

Lee Paul Sieg, 1906.— Papers : The Nature of White 
Light, 1908; Limits of Vision, 1909; The Microscope and 
the Ultra Microscope, 1910. Reports: Abbe's Theory of 
Microscopic Vision as Applied to Ordinary Vision, 1906; 
Determining the Optical Focus of a Lens, The Theory of 
the Diffraction Grating, 1907. 

Chakles Gamble Simpson, 1909. — Report: A Discontin- 
uous Function, 1910. 

Alfeed Vakley Sims, 1895. — Papers: Self -Purification 
and Filtration of Water in Eelation to the Health of Cities, 
1897; The Simplicity and Practicability of the Graphical 
Determination of Stresses, 1898 ; The Determination of the 
Strength of Cement, 1900; Some Features of the Eoad 
Problem, 1901; Some Glimpses of the Life of a Southern 
Tobacco Farm, 1902. Reports : Methods of Sterilizing 
Water, The Eate of Corrosion of Iron Buried in Different 
Kinds of Soil, 1899. 

Akthur George Smith, 1893. — Papers: Variable Stars, 
1894; The Laws of Chance, 1896; The Quadrature of the 
Circle, 1896 ; The Number Concept, 1897 ; A Study in Mathe- 
matical Interpretation, 1898; The Tides, 1899; The In- 
scribed Polygon of Seventeen Sides, 1901 ; Mathematics in 
Biology, 1902; Some Elementary Methods and Eesults in 
Statistical Anthropology, 1903 ; The Hydrographical Work 
of the United States Government, 1904; Sound and Music, 
1906 ; The Shape of the Earth and its Determination, 1906 ; 
Some Aeronautical Mechanics, 1908 ; The Gyroscope, 1910 ; 
A Eational Marking System, 1910. Reports: A Function 


in which the Second Partial Differential Coefficient Depends 
upon the Order of Differentiation, 1895 ; The Mathematical 
Theory of the Honey Bee Cell, 1896 ; The Measurement of 
the Velocity of the Eifle Ball, Variation in Longitude, 1897 ; 
Determination of by the Graussian Law of Error, The Me- 
chanics of the Nebular Hypothesis, 1898; See's Law of the 
Temperature of Gaseous Bodies, The Economy of Material 
in Nature, The Lines of Flow in a Liquid, The Penetrating 
Power of the Modern Bullet, The Steel Jackets of Modern 
Bullets, 1899; The Expectation of Living, Scientific Study 
of the Awarding of First and Second Prizes by Competitive 
Examination by Sir Francis Galton and Carl Pierson, 1902 ; 
The Precipitation of Moisture in Iowa and Iowa City, Some 
Facts Eegarding Earthquakes, 1906; The Formation of 
Frazil and of Anchor Ice, 1907; Galton *s Individual Differ- 
ence Problem in Statistics, 1910. 

Chakles Leonaed Smith, 1893. Associate. — Reports: 
Vegetation of Nicaragua, 1893; A Collecting Trip through 
Mexico and Nicaragua, 1896. 

Feanklin Geion Smith, 1907. — Reports: A Few Diffi- 
culties Encountered in the Study of Color Perception, 1907 ; 
The Rationale of Promotion and the Elimination of Waste 
in Elementary and Secondary Schools, 1910. 

Feedeeick William Spanutius, 1889. — Papers: Quick- 
silver, 1890; Dissociation, 1891; Glass and its Solubility in 
Water, 1892. Reports: Siliceous Oolite, Smoky Quartz 
from Branchville, Connecticut, 1890; Free Fluorine, 1891; 
Chemistry and Mineralogy of Garnet, 1892. 

John Speingee, 1896. Associate. — Papers: Type-Setting 
Machines, 1900 ; The Lost Art of Wood Engraving, 1901. 
Reports : Modern Processes of Color Printing, 1898 ; A Let- 
ter from Hon. John P. Irish on the Growing of Figs in Cal- 



ifornia, Famous Printers' Errors, 1900; A Mammoth 
Camera, 1901; Oil Eegions of Iowa, 1902; Experience in 
Producing Silhouette Photographs, 1904. 

Edwin Diller Starbuck, 1906. — Papers: The Idealist's 
Interpretation of Matter, 1907 ; A Comparison of the Mental 
Capacities of the Sexes, 1908 ; Pragmatism, 1909 ; Some 
Somological Phases of Adolescence, 1910. Reports: The 
Mental and Physical Differences in the Sexes, 1906 ; Orienta- 
tion and Localization of Certain Birds, 1908. 

Daniel Staech, 1906. — Paper : The Influence of Weather 
on Human Conduct, 1907. Reports: Eesults of Experi- 
ments Carried out in 'the Psychological Laboratory on Aud- 
itory Localization of Sound, 1904; Localization of Sound, 
Sound in Psychological Laboratory, 1905. 

Geoege Waltee Stewaet, 1909. — Report: Eeport of 
President Pritchett Eegarding Cost of College Instruction 
in Physics, 1910. 

Feank Albeet Stromsten, 1900. — Paper: The Marine 
Biological Laboratory at Tortugas, 1908. Reports : Obser- 
vations of Dr. Mathews on the Changes in the Gland Cells 
of the Pancreas of the Mud Puppy, 1903 ; Order of the De- 
velopment of the Venous System, 1906 ; Palola Worm, 1907 ; 
The Lymphatic Development in Turtles, 1910. 

Heney Waldgeave Stuaet, 1901. — Papers: Choice and 
Knowledge, 1902; Ethics, its Nature and its Place among 
the Sciences, 1904, 

WiLBEE JoB.N Teetees, 1897» — Papers: The Manufac- 
ture and Chemistry of Soap, 1899 ; Some Facts about Patent 
Medicines, 1899; The Prescription, 1902; The Synonyms 
of the Pharmacopoeia, 1903 ; Coal Tar, 1904 ; Cinchona and 
its Alkaloids, 1907; Some Eesults of the Pure Food and 


Drng Law, 1909. Reports : Armour & Co., Dessicated Ani- 
mal Substances, Sarsaparilla Container, An Original Pack- 
ing Case for Ciort from Ochissima, 1901 ; Vanilla Bean as 
Cured and as it Comes on the Market, 1906 ; Importation of 
Aloes, 1907; Patent Medicines, Unsuccessful Attempts to 
Brand Cattle by Chemical Methods, 1908; Specimen from 
a Wine Cask, 1909. 

Fkedekick Charles L. Van Steenderen, 1894. Associate. 
— Reports : A Device for the Trisection of an Angle, 1894 ; 
The Influence of the Teutonic upon the Eomance Languages, 
The Origin of Languages, 1895; A Sentence Containing a 
Key to the Quantity , 1897 ; The Engineering Situation 
in Holland, 1898; The Place of French Literature in Lit- 
erature, 1899 ; A Note on the General Laws Governing the 
Changes in the Meaning of Words, 1903. 

Andrew Anderson Veblen, Charter. — Papers: Modern 
Geometry, 1886; Electric Units and Measurements, 1886; 
Determination of the Length of Light Waves, 1887; The 
Theory of Dynamo-Electric Machines, 1888; Polarization 
of Light, 1889; Transmission of Electrical Oscillations^ 
1889; Some Points on Electric Lighting, 1890; The Light 
of Fire-Flies, 1890; Electro Motors, 1891; Electric Eail- 
ways, 1891; The Finding of America by the Norsemen,, 
1892; The Practical Electrical Units and the Commercial 
Measurement of Electricity, 1893; Notes on Electricity at 
the World's Fair, 1894; Lighting, 1895; Some Elementary 
Facts in Acoustics and the Physical Theory of Music, 1896 ; 
The Characteristics, Classification and Uses of Finger- 
prints, 1897; Wireless Telegraphy, 1898; Ancient Scandi- 
navian Ships, 1900; Photographic Optics, 1901; Finger- 
prints, 1902; Electrons, 1903; The University of Upsala, 
1903. Reports: EosenthaPs Micro-Galvanometer, 1886; On 



a Suggestion of a System of Local Survey, 1887; Snow 
Shoes, On the Grammar of Volapiik, The Theory of Electric 
Potential, The Uses of the Battle Axe, A Torsion Balance, 
1888 ; Electrical Measuring Instruments, Effect of Elevation 
upon Weight, 1889 ; A New Kind of Telephone, Welding by 
Electricity, Magneto-optic Production of Electricity, The 
Motion of Atoms in Electrical Discharge, 1890; Are We 
Approaching Another Ice Age?, 1891; The Spade Bayonet 
in the United States Army, A New Method of Detecting Os- 
cillations of the Earth's Crust, Some Applications of the 
Hertz Experiments to Marine Signaling, The Corruption of 
Scandinavian Names in America, Late Advances in Elec- 
trical Science, Description and Model of Cable Switch Board 
Made by himself for Use in the Physical Laboratory, An 
Electrical Fire Damp Indicator, 1892; Breaking of the 
World's Skee- Jumping Eecords at Eed Wing, Minnesota, 
The Long Distance Telephone, Gravitational Phenomena 
Viewed as Waves of Ether, Peculiarities of Trees Growing 
upon Hillsides, Eotary Steam Engines, Eesistance Boxes, 
1893; A New Style of Eeciprocating Engine, Double Sur - 
faces, The Instructive or Natural Use of Correct Gender in 
Danish Dialects, A New Form of Planimeter, Limit of Vi- 
sion with Eespect to the Eyes of Insects, The Effect of Elec- 
tric Shocks, Experiments upon the Falling of Cats, 1894; 
Hearst's Spectrum Disks, Wireless Telegraphy, Measure- 
ments upon the Growth of Trees, A Machine for Compound- 
ing Harmonic Motion, Model of Circular and Transverse 
Wave Motion, 1895 ; Photographic Effects by Means of Elec- 
trical Eadiation, The X or Eoentgen-Eay, The Eecent Nan- 
sen Expedition, 1896 ; The Use of Alternating Currents for 
Gaining Speed in Telegraphy, The Amount of Energy Im- 
parted to the Eeceiver of the Telephone in Speaking, 1897 ; 
Tesla 's Wireless Transmission of Energy, Immunity of the 


Eace from the Effects of Alcohol, A Comparison of the 
Welsbach Burner with the Ordinary Naked Burner, 1898; 
A New Camera Table for Photography for Scientific Pur- 
poses, The Polak-Virag Method of Eapid Telegraphy, 1899 ; 
The Curving Flight of a Eotating Ball, Loosely Piled Bricks 
as a Vibration-free Support for Delicate Instruments, 
Borchgrevinck's Antarctic Explorations, Eecent Progress 
in Wireless Telegraphy, Existence of Nodes and Vibrations 
of the String, A New Copying Camera Table, 1900 ; Eeason 
for Professor Eowland's Fame, Optical Illusion Visible in 
Mr. Boehm^s Zone Plate, A Method of Changing the Density 
of Skyograph Negatives, 1901 ; Nature of Electric Discharge 
in Thunderstorms, 1902; Birksland Electromagnetic Gun 
for Throwing Dynamite, Eecently Discovered Eemains in 
Norway of Ancient Boats, 1903 ; A New Compact Projecting 
Lantern, Dr. Niels Finsen, 1904; Land Slide in Norway, 
Earthquake in the Scandinavian Peninsula, Sixty-four Sci- 
ence Charts Suitable for Elementary Nature Study, Experi- 
ments to Prove that a Body can not Sink in Quick Sand, 

Chaeles B. Vogdes, 1893. — Papers: Historical Sketch 
of Infantry Tactics, 1895 ; The First Campaign of Napoleon, 

Cael Leopold von Ende, 1893. — Papers : Some Physical 
Methods in Chemistry, 1895 ; The Modern Theory of Solu- 
tion, 1901; The Osmotic Theory of the Galvanic Cell, 1903; 
Catalysis, 1906. Reports : Vitreous Silicon or Quartz Glass, 
Purification of Water by Means of Copper Sulphate and 
also by Copper, 1905. 

Peecy H. Walkee, 1S92.— Papers: Iron, 1893; Alloys, 
1895; Explosives, 1899. Reports: Utilization of Iron Ores 
Containing Titanium, A Peculiar Form of Calcite Found 
in the Neighborhood, 1893. 



DuEEN Jambs Hudson Ward, 1906. — Paper i The Legi- 
timate Field of Anthropology and Ethnology, 1906. Re- 
port : Prehistoric People of Iowa, 1906. 

Samuel N. Watsoist, 1886. — Papers: The Next Step in 
the Evolution Process, 1887 ; Biology and Ethics, 1887 ; An 
Inquiry into the Permanence of the Human Species, and 
Some Deductions Therefrom, 1888; Social Development, 
1891; The Embryology of Personality, 1893; Sensation, 
1894; Thermics, 1896. Reports: Evidence of Intelligence 
in the Lower Animals, On Some Statements in Professor 
Huxley's Book Advance of Science in the Last Half Cen- 
tury'', Electric Heating, 1888; The Bermuda Islands, 1890; 
Oligocythaemia, 1893. 

Gailoed D. Weeks, 1900. — Paper : Eailway Construction, 

Laeis-as Giffoed Weld, 1886. — Papers: Wave Motion, 
1887; Vortex Motion, 1887; Determinants, 1888; The Tran- 
sit of Venus in 1874, 1888 ; Double Stars, 1889 ; The Nebular 
Hypothesis of La Place, 1889; Some Instances of Eecent 
Progress in Stellar Astronomy, 1890 ; The Tenets of Astrol- 
ogy, 1890; A Symposium on the Nature of the Center of 
the Earth (with Calvin and Andrews), 1891; The Stars as 
Timekeepers, 1891 ; Comets, 1892 ; The Sun, 1892 ; The Phy- 
siography of the Moon, 1893; Exhibition of Astronomical 
Lantern Slides, 1894 ; The Foundations of Geometry, 1894 ; 
Some Mathematical Illustrations of the Doctrine of Con- 
tinuity, 1895; Numbers 1896; Tories, 1896; Pendulum Ob- 
servations, 1897; Variable Stars, 1898; The Phenomenon 
of Periodicity, 1899; The Life History of a Star, 1900; The 
Mechanics of a Harp String, 1900; Are Other Worlds In- 
habited, 1901 ; Some Applications of the Statistical Method 
to Stellar Astronomy, 1902; The Planet Jupiter, 1903; Star 


Dust, 1905 ; How Did the Sun Become Hot and What Keeps 
it Hot, 1906; The Spiral Nebulae and their Significance, 
1906; The Legends of the Stars, 1907; The Great Pyramids, 
1910. Reports : Certain Experiments on Nitrification, 1886 ; 
Imaginary Cube Eoots of Unity, 1887 ; The Hypergeometric 
Series, The Mathematical Laws Governing the Carrying 
Power of Streams, The Variable Star Algol, The Solar 
Eclipse of January 1, 1889, 1888; Arago's Helioscope, 1889; 
The Personal Equation, 1890 ; The Time of Eotation of the 
Planet Mercury, The Eeciprocal Eelations between the Pas- 
calion and Brianchonian Hexagons, Eecent Discovery of 
the Nature and Extent of the Variation of Latitude of 
Points on the Earth's Surface, 1891; The Magnitude of the 
Forces Interacting among the Celestial Bodies, Periodic 
and Secular Changes of Latitude, Eecent Discovery of the 
Fifth Moon of Jupiter, The Zenith Telescope and its Use 
in Latitude Determinations, Infinity as a Mathematical Con- 
cept, 1892; Construction of a Conic Passing through Five 
Points, 1893 ; The Gegenschein, Advantages of the Trilinear 
System of Co-ordinates, The Present Opposition of the 
Planet Mars, 1894 ; The Eecent Discovery of a Second Satel- 
lite of Neptune, 1895 ; The Planet Saturn and its System, 
A Mechanical Method of Trisecting an Angle, An Original 
Linkage Machine for Determining the Eoots of Cubic Equa- 
tions, Parheliac Circles, A Graphic Method for the Solution 
of the Equation x^ — px — q^ = 0, A Graphic Method of Solv- 
ing Cubic Equations, On Ascertaining Properties of a Func- 
tion Eepresented by Some Integral that can not be In- 
tegrated, 1897 ; Conditions Affecting the Limit of Capacity 
of Large Guns, 1898 ; The Eecently Discovered Planet D. Q., 
1899; A New Comet, 1902; Difference between Volcanic 
Activity on the Moon and on the Earth, 1903 ; A Particular 
Partial Differential Equation, Livasey Depression Eange 



Finder, Latest Discovery at Lick Observatory, 1904; De- 
scription of a Piece of Photometric Apparatus Seen in 
Standard Bureau at Washington, Astronomical Instrument 
for Eliminating the Personal Equation in Obtaining the 
Transit of a Star, 1905 ; Some Factors to be Considered in 
the Determination of Loss of Matter, 1906 ; Certain Methods 
of Sinking Wells Through Sandy Soils, 1907. 

EoY Titus Wells, 1903. — Papers: Some Developments 
in Electric Eailroading, 1904 ; The Eeaction of a Conducting 
Core on a Solenoid, 1904. Reports : An Electrically Driven 
Pendulum, 1903; Eegulating the Strength of a Field, 1904; 
Electric Traction, A New Electric Light Bulb, Methods of 
Measuring very Minute Alternating Currents, 1905. 

John Van Etten Westfal, 1899. — Papers: A Famous 
Old Problem in Geometry, 1900 ; The Game of Minor Fan 
Tan, 1902; The Fundamental Principles of Life Insurance 
and Annuities, 1902 ; A Proof of the Transcendency of e and 
TT, 1903; Transcendental Numbers, 1904. 

William Eobert Whiteis, 1893. — Papers: Immunity, 
1895; The Histology of the Tooth, 1897. Reports: A Solu- 
tion for Staining Nerve Centers, A Large Microtome for 
Sectioning the Entire Brain, 1897. 

Heney Feederick Wickham, 1903. — Papers : Ants, 1903 ; 
Some Eemarkable Habits of Spiders, 1904; Insect Life in 
the Great Basin, 1905 ; Arctic Colonies in the Eocky Moun- 
tains, 1905 ; Notes on a Trip to Mexico, 1908 ; Notes on the 
Mexican Trip of 1908, 1909 ; Variation of Color Pattern in 
the Genus Cecindela, 1910. Reports: The Simplest Form 
of Insects — Compodes Staphylinus, 1907 ; A Peculiar Bug 
Emesa Longipes, 1910. 

William Ceaig Wilcox, 1894.— Report : Trend of Modern 
Historic Eesearch in this Country, 1904. 


Feank Alonzo Wilder, 1903. — Papers : Yellowstone Na- 
tional Park, 1904 ; The Geological History of the Ehine Val- 
ley and its Eelations to History and Science, 1905; The 
Geology of the Appalachian Mountains and its Bearings 
on American History, 1906. Reports : Eecent Criticism of 
the Nebular Hypothesis, Coal-Testing Plant at St. Louis, 
1904 ; Gas and Oil Fields of Kansas, 1904 ; Government Coal 
Testing at St. Louis Fair, Mining and Shipping of Iron Ore, 
Producer Gas, 1905. 

Mabel Clare Williams, 1903. — Papers: The Subcon- 
scious, 1903 ; How Many Senses Has Man, 1903 ; Memory in 
Animals, 1903 ; Ehythm, 1910. Reports : Eesult of Experi- 
ments in Area- Volume Illusion, 1901; Investigation by 
Motora, 1904. 

Henry Smith Williams, 1886. — Paper: Brains, 1886. 

Edward Wolesensky, 1909. — Report : A New Method of 
Preparing Diamonds, 1910. 

Sherman Melville Woodward, 1904. — Papers : A Mathe- 
matical Attempt to Mitigate the Severity of a Torrid Cli- 
mate, 1905; The Principle of Least Work as Applied to 
Beams, 1909 ; English Gothic Cathedral Construction, 1909. 
Reports : A Freak Standpipe, 1905 ; Conditions Causing the 
Explosion of an Evaporator in a Factory, 1908 ; A Problem 
in Hydraulics, The Humphrey Gas Pump, 1909. 

Archie Garfield Worthing, 1906. — Papers : The Appli- 
cation of the Electron Theory to Certain Physical Phenom- 
ena, 1908 ; Water Splashes, 1909. Reports : Atomic Weight 
of Nickel, Some Experiments of Sir Wm. Eamsey, 1907. 

EoBERT Bradford Wylie, 1906. — Papers: A Primary 
Factor in the Evolution of Plants, 1908 ; The Okoboji Lake- 
side Laboratory, 1909. Reports: Peculiar Characteristics 



of the Eed Algae, 1907 ; Method of Isolating Some Forms 
of Fungi, 1908. 

The following papers were read by invitation of the 
members of the Club: 

Capt. Bennett — Some Peculiarities of Whales, 1889. 

Peof. W J McGee — A Visit to a Savage Tribe, 1899. 

Pbof. W. H. Noeton — Shore Forms, 1901; Artesian 
Wells in this Locality, 1908 ; Illustrated Account of the San 
Francisco Earthquake Disaster, 1908. 

Eegent Albeet W. Swalm — The Growth and Prosperity 
of the University, 1894. 

De. E. S. Talbot — Degeneracy, its Causes, Signs and 
Eesults, 1904. 

Peof. S. N. Williams — The Obligation of Science to 
Suffering Humanity, 1910. 

Me. White — The Great Storm at Samoa, 1890. 

Malcolm Glenn Wyee — Book Binding, 1909. 

Me. Geoege p. Dieckmann — The Modern Manufacture of 
Portland Cement from the Mechanical and Chemical Stand- 
points, 1910. 

VOL. IX— 8 



Percy L. Kaye is the compiler of a volume of Readings in Civil 
Government, which has been issued by the Century Company. 

Laws as Contracts and Legal Ethics is the title of an address by 
Phiny F. Sexton, which has been published in pamphlet form. 

Volume four, part two, of the Anthropdlogical Papers of the 
American Museum of Natural History contains some Notes Con- 
cerning New Collections, edited by Robert H. Lowie. 

In the August-September number of the Proceedings of the 
American Philosophical Society there is a paper by R. H. Matthews, 
entitled Further Notes on Burial Customs, Australia. 

The September number of The National Civic Federation Be- 
view is devoted to discussions of the various phases of the move- 
ment for uniformity in Federal and State legislation. 

A new edition of Alexander Johnston's valuable History of 
American Politics, revised and enlarged by W. M. Sloane and con- 
tinued down to date by W. M. Daniels, has recently appeared. 

Ernest R. Spedden is the author of a monograph on the subject 
of The Trade Union Label, which appears as a recent number of 
the Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political 

The American Catholic Historical Researches for October opens 
with some Catholic Revolutionary Notes. J. E. Dow contributes 
Some Passages in the Life of Commodore John Barry. An article 
of western interest is one by J. J. Holzknecht on Bishop HennVs 
Visitation of Wisconsin Indians. 




The Report of the Sixteenth Annual Meeting of the Lake Mohonk 
Conference on International Arbitration contains a good variety of 
addresses and reports dealing with different phases of the problem 

A complete edition of the Treaties, Conventions, International 
Acts, Protocols and Agreements Between the United States and 
Other Powers, 1776-1909, has recently been issued from the Govern- 
ment Printing Office. 

E. Clyde Bobbins is the compiler of a volume containing Selected 
Articles on a Central Bank of the United States which appears in 
the Debater's Handbook Series published by the H. W. Wilson 
Company of Minneapolis. 

The New Netherland Register is the title of a new periodical, the 
first number of which appeared in January, 1911. The most ex- 
tended contribution in this number bears the heading, Pioneers and 
Founders of New Netherland. 

Karl Singewald is the writer of a monograph on The Doctrine of 
Non-Suability of the State in the United States, which has been 
published as a number of the Johns Hopkins University Studies in 
Historical and Political Science. 

The Railway Library 1909, compiled and edited by Slason Thomp- 
son, contains a number of papers and addresses dealing with the 
operation and progress of railroads, and their regulation by the 
State and National governments. 

A valuable monograph from the standpoint of western history 
is that prepared by Robert T. Hill on The Public Domain and 
Democracy, and published in the Columbia_ University Studies in 
History, Economics, and Public Law. 

The fourteenth volume of the Review of Historical Publications 
Relating to Canada, edited by George M. Wrong and H. H. Langton,. 
has appeared as a number of the University of Toronto Studies. 
This volume contains over two hundred pages devoted to publica- 
tions which came out during the year 1909. 


World Corporation is the title of a volume by King Camp Gil- 
lette, which outlines a program of socialistic reform. The corpora- 
tion, the purpose of which this volume explains, is organized under 
the laws of the Territory of Arizona. 

The seventeenth and eighteenth volumes of the Library of Con- 
gress edition of the Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789, 
edited by Gaillard Hunt, have appeared. These two volumes bring 
the proceedings of the Congress down to the close of the year 1780. 

W. Max Reid is the author of a volume entitled Lake George and 
Lake Champlain: the War Trail of the Mohawk and the Battle- 
ground of France and England in their Contest for the Control of 
North America, which has come from the press of G. P. Putnam's 

The October number of the Bulletin of the Pan American Union 
contains, among other things, an account of Mexico's Centennial 
Celebrations. It is to be noted that the name "The Pan American 
Union'' has been substituted for ''The International Bureau of the 
American Republics." 

Max Schrabisch is the writer of an article on The Indians of New 
J ersey which appears in the September-October number of Ameri- 
cana. Others articles are: Thomas Paine' s Last Bays in New York, 
by William M. Van der Weyde ; and a continuation of the History 
of the Mormon Church, by Brigham H. Roberts. 

The Religious Question in Spain is discussed by Louis Garcia 
Guijarro in an article which appears in The Yale Review for No- 
vember. Economic Phases of the Railroad Rate Controversy is the 
subject treated by A. M. Sokolski. Among the remaining contri- 
butions is one by Julius H. Parmalee on The Statistical Work of 
the Federal Government. 

The January, April, and July numbers of the Bulletin of the 
Virginia State Library are combined into one volume which is de- 
voted to a Finding List of the Social Sciences, Political Science, 
Law, and Education. This volume is in reality a condensed cata- 



logue of the books coming under the headings indicated which are 
to be found in the Virginia State Library. It will serve as a useful 
guide, however, for research students. , 

Among the articles in the Political Science Quarterly for Sep- 
tember are: Judicial Views of the Restriction of Women's Hours 
of Lahor, by Greorge Grorham Groat; Eeciprocal Legislation, by 
Samuel McCune Lindsay ; Effect on Real Estate Values of the San 
Francisco Fire, by Thomas Magee ; and The Opening of Korea 
Commodore Schufeldt, by Charles Oscar Paullin. 

The November number of The Quarterly Journal of Economics 
opens with a discussion of Railway Rate Theories of the Interstate 
Commerce Commission, by M. B. Hammond. There is a third in- 
stallment of 0. M. W. Sprague's study of Proposals for Strengthen- 
ing the National Banking System. Another article is one by Wil- 
liam J. Cunningham on Standardizing the Wages of Railroad Train- 

Charles A. EUwood is the writer of an article on The Classifica- 
tion of Criminals which appears in the November number of the 
Journal of the American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminol- 
ogy. Other articles are: Nature and Limits of the Pardoning 
Power, by William W. Smithers ; and The Relation of the Alien to 
the Administration of the Civil and Criminal Law, by Gino C. 

William Garrott Brown discusses The New Politics in an article 
in The North American Review for October. He deals especially 
with the evidences of change which are to be seen in our political 
life of to-day. Other articles are : The German Social Democracy, 
by John W. Perrin ; The Changing Position of American Trade, by 
Thomas A. Thacher; and The Public and the Conservation Policy, 
by James R. McKee. 

Senator Beveridge of Indiana, by Lucius B Swift; Milwaukee's 
Socialist Government, by George Allan England; William James: 
Builder of American Ideals, by Edwin Bjorkman ; and The Indian 
Land TrouUes and How to Solve Them, by Francis E. Leupp, are 


articles in the October number of The American Review of Reviews. 
Woodrow Wilson and the New Jersey Governorship is an article in 
the November number. 

The First Historian of Cumberland, by James Wilson, is an 
article which appears in the October number of The Scottish His- 
forical Review. Charles J. Guthrie writes on The History of Di- 
vorce in Scotland. There are some Letters from Francis Kennedy, 
AhheyhiU, to Baron Kennedy at Dalquharran, Mayholl, Relative to 
the Siege of Edinhurg, 1745. George Neilson tells of Roderick 
Dhu : His Poetical Pedigree. 

The Transition to an Objective Standard of Social Control, by 
Luther Lee Bernard; and A Contribution to the Sociology of Sects, 
by John L. Gillin, are articles in the September number of The 
American Journal of Sociology. The first named article is con- 
tinued in the November number, where may also be found a dis- 
cussion of The Influence of Newspaper Presentations upon th& 
Growth of Crime, by Frances Fenton. 

Location of the Towns and Cities of Central New York, by Ralph 
S. Tarr; and Geography and Some of its Present Needs, by A. J. 
Herbertson, are articles of interest in the October number of the 
Bulletin of the American Geographical Society. In the November 
number Walter S. Tower writes on Scientific Geography, the Re- 
lation of Its Content to Its Subdivisions; and S. P. Verner discusses 
the Effective Occupation of Undeveloped Lands. 

In the September number of the Journal of the United States 
Cavalry Association the principal article of historical interest is one 
on The Geronirm Campaign of 1885-6, by Charles P. Elliott. In the 
November number there is a discussion of The Chancellor sville 
Campaign, by John Bigelow. Long Distance Rides and Raids, by 
Ezra B. Fuller; and Cavalry in the War of Independence, by 
Charles Francis Adams, are articles in the January number. 

The following are pamphlets published by the American Associ- 
ation for International Conciliation during September, October, and 
November, respectively: Conciliation Through Commerce and In- 



dustry in South America, by Charles M. Pepper ; International Con- 
ciliation in the Far East, which consists of a collection of papers on 
various topics by different writers ; and The Capture and Destruc- 
tion of Commerce at Sea and Taxation and Armaments, by P. W. 

Among the recent articles in The Survey are the following: an 
address on Civic Besponsibility, by Theodore Roosevelt (Septem- 
ber 17) ; an editorial on Judicial Disregard of Law (October 1) ; 
Who Pays the Taxes in Growing Cities, by John Martin (October 
15) ; The International Prison Congress at Washington, by Paul U. 
Kellogg (November 5) ; and From Cave Life to City Life, by Lewis 
E. Palmer, and Tolstoi's ^^Resurrection'', by A. S. Goldenweiser 
(December 3). 

The South Atlantic Quarterly for October opens with an article 
on The English Constitutional Crisis, by William Thomas Laprade. 
Judge Martin's Version of the Mecklenburg Declaration is the title 
of an interesting discussion by Samuel A. Ashe. Other contribu- 
tions are: Three Studies of Southern Problems, by William K. 
Boyd; The Influence of Industrial and Educational Leaders on 
the Secession of Virginia, by Henry G. Ellis ; and The Legislatures 
of the States, by Bernard C. Steiner. 

The November number of The Annals of the American Academy 
of Political and Social Science is devoted to Banking Problems. 
Among the articles dealing with the various problems are: The 
Problem Before the National Monetary Commission, by A. Piatt 
Andrew; The Extension of American Banking in Foreign Coun- 
tries, by Samuel McRoberts; The Canadian Banking System and 
its Operation Under Stress, by Joseph French Johnson; and State 
and Federal Control of Banks, by Andrew J. Frame. 

The opening contribution in the Columbian Law Review for 
November is a very interesting discussion of the Violation by a 
State of the Conditions of Its Enabling Act, by Julian C. Monnet. 
Judicial Control over the Amendment of State Constitutions is the 
subject of a pertinent article by W. F. Dodd. Contributions in the 


December number are: The Supreme Court and the Anti-Trust 
Act, by Victor Morawetz ; and The Place of English Legal History 
in the Education of English Lawyers, by W. S. Holdsworth. 

An Edu^tional Department Bulletin published by the New York 
State Library in September contains a Review of Legislation 1907- 
1908. Clarence B. Lester is the editor of the volume ; while various 
men have prepared the reviews of the different phases of legislation. 
The work covers the legislation enacted in all the States of the 
Union during the year indicated, and will prove very useful for 
reference purposes; although its helpfulness would have been en- 
hanced had it appeared earlier. 

Under the title, Constitutional Law in 1909-1910, Eugene Wam- 
baugh presents an outline of Supreme Court decisions, in the 
November Inumber of The Armrican Political Science Review. 
Stephen Leacock discusses The Union of South Africa; while 
Hiram Bingham is the writer of an article on the Causes of the Lack 
of Political Cohesion in Spanish America. Two other contributions 
are: The Extraordinary Session of the Philippine Legislature, and 
the Work of the Philippine Assembly, by James Alexander Robert- 
son; and The Railroad Bill and the Court of Commerce, by James 
Wallace Bryan. 

The Journal of American History, volume four, number four, 
contains an article by Charles W. Eliot, entitled Americans Heritage 
— Pilgrim Foundation of American Civilization, in which is traced 
the assimilation and development of the principles and doctrines of 
the Pilgrims into American character and American political in- 
stitutions. Henry Cabot Lodge writes on The Mayflower's Message 
to America. Under the heading Builders of the Great American 
West, D. C. Allen writes a biographical sketch of Colonel Alexander 
W. Doniphan. An account of Henderson's Transylvania Colony is 
given by Mrs. James Halliday McCue in an article entitled First 
Community of American-Born Freeman and Its Dominion. Theo- 
dore G. Carter tells of Early Migrations to the Middle West and 
Massacres on the Frontier. Under the title, Anniversary in the 
American West, H. Gardner Cutler makes an appeal for the cele- 
bration of April thirtieth in memory of the Louisiana Purchase. 




A neat biographical pamphlet of western interest bears the title, 
Quarter Centennial of Judson Titsworth as Minister in Plymouth 
Church, Milwaukee. 

W. A. Schaper is the editor of the volume of the Papers and 
Proceedings of the third annual meeting of the Minnesota Academy 
of Social Sciences, which has recently appeared. 

The number of the Ohio University Bulletin published in October 
is devoted to an historical account of Ohio University, the Historic 
College of the Old Northwest, by Clement L. Martzolff. 

Two Bulletins recently issued by the Bureau of American Eth- 
nology are: Antiquities of Central and Southeastern Missouri, by 
Gerard Fowke ; and Chippewa Music, by Frances Densmore. 

The Ohio Country Between the Years 1783 and 1815, by Charles 
Elihu Slocum, is a volume published by G. P. Putnam's Sons. It 
deals chiefly with the Indian Wars of the period and with the War 
of 1812. 

The Chumash and Costanoan Languages is the title of a brief 
monograph by A. L. Kroeber, published in November as a number 
of the University of California Publications in American Archae- 
ology and Ethnology. 

Robert W. Neal is the writer of Some Personal Conclusions About 
Things Educational, which appear in The Graduate Magazine of the 
University of Kansas for November. The writer finds much to criti- 
cise in the modern educational system. 

The number of the Ohio University Bulletin published in July is 
devoted to the Legal History of Ohio University, compiled by Wil- 
liam E. Peters, from legislative enactments, judicial decisions, pro- 
ceedings of the trustees, and other sources. 

From the pen of William Romaine Hodges there appears an at- 
tractive little biography of Carl Weimar, the well known painter of 
Indians and buffaloes, who did so much to preserve for posterity an 
accurate record of the wild life of the plains of the Middle West. 


David French Boyd is the writer of a brief sketch of General W, 
T. Sherman as a College President, which has been reprinted from 
The American College. The institution, which soon after its es- 
tablishment became known as The Louisiana State University, was 
organized by General Sherman, who was its first executive. 

The October number of the University of California Chronicle 
opens with an address on Blackstone — The Lawyer and the Man, 
by Charles S. Wheeler. The Historical Spirit is the subject of an 
address by Kendric C. Babcock. Other contributions are : The Re- 
lations of Organized Labor and Technical Education, by Alfred 
Roncovieri ; and Self -Directed High School Development, by Alexis 
F. Lange. 

Two volumes on the Indians which have recently appeared are: 
The Indian and his Problem, by Francis E. Leupp (Charles Scrib- 
ner's Sons) ; and My Friend the Indian, by James McLaughlin 
(Houghton, Mifflin & Company). Both Mr. Leupp and Mr. Mc- 
Laughlin have been intimately connected with the administration of 
Indian affairs and hence are well qualified to write upon the subjects 
they have chosen. 

The country stretching westward from the western border of the 
Mississippi Valley to the Coast Range is the field covered by Harlan 
1. Smith in an article entitled An Unknown Field in American 
Archaeology, which appears in the July-September number of The 
American Antiqvxirian. Charles Hallock writes on The Caves and 
Ruins of Arizona and Colorado, setting forth their cause and origin 
and the people who occupied them. There is another installment of 
Chippewa Legends, by J. 0. Kinnaman. 

A new periodical, which gives promise of good things, has ap- 
peared in the Middle West. The Quarterly Journal of the Uni- 
versity of North Dakota is the name of this new publication, and the 
initial number appeared in October. The opening contribution is 
an article on The Office of the Appellate Judge, by Andrew Alex- 
ander Bruce. Then follows an address entitled Past and Present 
Sticking Points in Taxation, by Frank L. McVey. James E. Boyle 



contributes a chapter in a discussion of Co-operation in North 
Dakota; and John Morris Gillette writes on City Trend of Popu- 
lation and Leadership. 


In the October and November numbers of Autumn Leaves there 
are continuations of L. J. Hartman's Memories of Childhood. 

The State Banking Board is the subject of an address by Silas 
R. Barton which is published in The Northwestern Banker for 

The Relations of the State Board of Education to the Public 
School System are discussed by James H. Trewin in the Midland- 
Schools for December. 

In the July-September number of the Iowa Library Quarterly 
there is a discussion of Library Growth and Library Laws; and a 
biographical sketch of Honorable C. J. A. Ericson. 

In the November number of The Alumnus published at Iowa 
State College there is to be found an article entitled Impressions at 
I. S. C. 1880-1910, by Malinda Cleaver Faville. 

A welcome addition to the history of Iowa churches is to be 
found in a History of the First Congregational Church of Council 
Bluffs, Iowa, which was prepared by N. P. Dodge and G. G. Rice. 

The Fairfield Ledger of October 12, 1910, contains an account of 
the thirty-second annual reunion of the Jefferson County Old Set- 
tler's Association, which was held at Fairfield on October 5, 1910. 

The Last of the Founders, by James L. Hill, is an article in The 
<jrinnell Review for October. In the November number there is a 
letter from M. M. Blackburn relating to Opportunities in the Gov- 
ernment Service. 

In the Madrid Register-News of December 8, 1910, there is an 
interesting article by C. L. Lucas on the Bays of the Riverland 
Troubles. One week later in the same paper Mr. Lucas relates the 
History of the Riverland Grant. 


A Biography of Elder Joseph E, Burton, by Emma B. Burton^ 
opens the October nmnber of the Journal of History published at 
Lamoni by the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day 
Saints. There is a continuation of the Biography of Sidney Eigdon, 
by Heman C. Smith, as well as of a number of other biographical 
and autobiographical sketches. There is also an article on Mormon 
Troubles in Missouri, 

The Battle of Atlanta and Other Campaigns, Addresses, etc., is 
the title of an interesting volume from the pen of Grenville M. 
Dodge, who was Commander of the Department of Missouri in 1865. 
Among the contents are chapters on the southwestern campaign, the 
battle of Atlanta, the Indian campaigns in the last years of the 
war, the Army of the Tennessee, the western campaign, and General 
Grant. Numerous illustrations add interest to the volume. 

The Story of Greater Oskaloosa is told by J. W. Johnson in the 
August-September double number of The Midwestern, and there is 
a foreword by the editor, Carolyn M. Ogilvie. The Story of Des 
Moines is also related in this number; Henry E. Sampson describes 
the Working of the Des Moines Plan; and E. G. Wylie discusses 
Railroad Bate Legislation. In the October number there is an 
article by Tacitus Hussey on Early Settlers — Fathers and Sons. 
The same writer has A History of the Banks of Des Moines in the 
January number. 

Municipal Ownership Under Commission Government, by W. A. 
Miller ; Municipal Accounting, by Charles M. Wallace ; Home Bute 
for Cities, by Thomas Maloney; and a discussion of the Unit Tax 
System, are to be found in the October number of Midland Munici- 
palities. Frank G. Pierce is the writer of an address on Uniform 
Municipal Accounting which appears in the December number. 
The President's Annual Address, League of Nebraska Municipali- 
ties, by Don L. Love, is the principal contribution in the January 


Anderson, Melville Best, 

The Happy Teacher. New York : Benjamin W. Huebsch. 1910. 



Bain, Harry Foster, 

More Recent Cyanide Practice. San Francisco: Mining and 
Scientific Press. 1910. 
Ball, James Moores, 

Andreas Vesalius, the Reformer of Anatomy. St. Louis : Med- 
ical Science Press. 1910. 
Bolton, Frederick Elmer, 

Principles of Education. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 
Brigham, Johnson, 

The Banker in Literature. New York: The Banking Publish- 
ing Co. 1910. 
Brown, Charles Reynolds, 

The Cap and Gown. Boston : Pilgrim Press. 1910. 
Bush, Bertha E., 

A Prairie Rose. Boston: Little, Brown & Co. 1910. 
Dodge, Grenville M., 

The Battle of Atlanta and Other Campaigns, Addresses, etc. 
Council Bluffs: Monarch Printing Company. 1910. 
Ficke, Arthur Davison, 

The Breaking of Bonds: A Drama of the Social Unrest. 
Boston: Sherman, French & Company. 1910. 
Garland, Hamlin, 

Other Main-Traveled Roads. New York: Harper Brothers. 

Gibson, Clarence B., 

Reflections of Nature with Affection Taught. Panora: Pub- 
lished by the author. 1910. 
Hoist, Bernhart Paul, (Joint editor). 

Practical Home and School Methods of Study and Instruction 
in the Fundamental Elements of Education. Chicago : Hoist 
Publishing Co. 1910. 
Hough, Emerson, 

The Purchase Price. Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Com- 
pany. 1910. 


The Singing Mouse Stories. Indianapolis : The Bobbs-Merrill 

Company. 1910. 
The Sowing: A Yankee' s^^ View of England's Duty to Her- 
self and to Canada. Chicago : Vanderhoof-Gunn Co. 1910. 
Huebinger, Melchoir, 

Map and Guide for River to River Road, Des Moines: Iowa 
Publishing Co. 1910. 
Hughes, Rupert, 

The Gift Wife, New York: Moffat, Yard & Co. 1910. 
The Lakerim Cruise, New York: Century Co. 1910. 
Kaye, Percy Lewis, 

Readings in Civil Government. New York : Century Co. 1910. 
La Tourette, Clara, and Charles Foster McDaniel, 

Commercial Art Typewriting, Cedar Rapids : C. F. McDaniel. 

Lazell, Frederick J., 

Isaiah as a Nature-Lover, Cedar Rapids: The Torch Press. 

Lillibridge, William Otis, 

Quercus Alba, the Veteran of the Ozarks. Chicago : A. C. Mc- 
Clurg&Co. 1910. 
MacMurray, Arthur, 

Practical Lessons in Public Speaking. Ames: Published by 
the author. 1910. 
Newton, Joseph Fort, 

Lincoln and Herndon. Cedar Rapids : The Torch Press. 1910. 
Pammel, Louis Hermann, 

A Manual of Poisonous Plants. Cedar Rapids: The Torch 
Press. 1910. 
Parrish, Randall, 

Bon MacGrath: A Tale of the River. Chicago: A. C. McClurg 
&Co. 1910. 
Raymond, William Gait, 

Railroad Field Geometry, New York: 3^ohn Wiley and Sons. 



Bobbins, E. Clyde, 

Selected Articles on a Central Bank of the United States, 
Minneapolis: The H. W. Wilson Company. 1910. 
Rogers, Julia E., 

Earth and Sky Every Child Should Know. New York: 
Doubleday, Page & Co. 1910. 
Sedlasky, Ferdinand J., 

Defense of the Truth. Fort Dodge : Published by the author. 

Sharpe, Gazelle Sterns, 

A Little Patch of Blue. Boston : Gorham Press. 1910. 
Steiner, Edward A., 

Against the Current. New York and Chicago: Fleming H. 
RevellCo. 1910. 
Walker, Margaret Coulson, 

Tales Come True. New York: Baker & Taylor Co. 1910. 
Weld, Laenas G., 

On the Way to Iowa. Iowa City : The State Historical Society 
of Iowa. 1910. 
White, Hamilton, 

The New Theology. New York : Broadway Publishing Co. 1910. 
Zollinger, Gulielma, 

The Bout of the Foreigners. Chicago: A. C. McClurg & Co. 


The Begister and Leader 
General Baker Might Have Been President, but he Came to Iowa, 

by G. W. Crosley, September 25, 1910. 
Story of the Earliest Hanging in Iowa, by 0. H. Mills, September 

25, 1910. 

When Josiah T. Young was Secretary of State, by L. F. Andrews, 
September 25, 1910. 

Sketch of Life of Sidney Anderson, October 2, 1910. 

Life Story of Henry Wallace, the New Head of Conservation, Oc- 
tober 2, 1910. 


Marvelous Story of a Treasure Mystery in Jefferson County, Octo- 
ber 2, 1910. 

Indian Payments are Changed Again, October 2, 1910. 

John S. Runnells, One of Prominent Early Lawyers of Iowa, by 

L. F. Andrews, October 2, 1910. 
Sketch of Life of Thomas Updegraff, October 9, 1910. 
Sketch of Life of S. H. M. Byers, by L. F. Andrews, October 9, 1910. 
Sketch of Life of W. H. IngersoU, , who Came to Iowa in 1835, 

October 9, 1910. 

G. W. Kitterman, Oldest Native Son of Wapello County, October 

9, 1910. 

Two Early Settlers in Van Buren County, October 9, 1910. 
Sketches of Life of Johnathan P. DoUiver, October 16, 1910. 
Robert C. Webb, an Early Settler of Polk County, October 16, 1910. 
Coincidence in DoUiver 's Life, October 21, 1910. 
Sketch of Major Charles Mackenzie's Notable Military Service, by 

L. F. Andrews, October 23, 1910. 
Mr. Clarkson's Farewell Tribute to DoUiver, October 23, 1910. 
How an Indian Fled from Death in Early Iowa, by 0. H. Mills, 

November 6, 1910. 
Sketch of Life of Lowell Chamberlain, by L. F. Andrews, November 

6, 1910. 

Memory of Charlotte Bronte in Des Moines, by Mrs. Addie B. Bil- 
lington, November 6, 1910. 

H. W. Macomber — A Boyhood Friend of Hiram Maxim, the Sci- 

entist, November 6, 1910. 

Lives Spent in Loyal Service for the Burlington Railroad Company, 
November 13, 1910. 

John Cooper, a Relative of Peter Cooper, November 13, 1910. 

Story of the Genesis of the First Railroad into Des Moines, Novem- 
ber 13, 1910. 

Ackworth and Whittier, Typical Quaker Communities in Iowa, by 

Florence Armstrong, November 20, 1910. 
Origin of the Chautauqua Movement in Iowa, by Mrs. Addie B. 

Billington, November 20, 1910. 



Origin of the Des Moines College, by L. F. Andrews, November 
20, 1910, 

Sketch of Life of C. T. Brookins, December 4, 1910. 

Sketch of Life of Professor Leona Call, by Mrs. Addie B. Billington^ 
December 4, 1910. 

Winslow Casady Tompkins — Sole Survivor of Famous War Squad^ 
December 4, 1910. 

Sketch of Life of Alfred M. Lyon, One of Iowa's Bravest Soldiers^, 
by L. F. Andrews, December 4, 1910. 

Old Proclamation Found — Document Declaring Des Moines to be 
Capital of State, December 11, 1910. 

Lester Perkins — Noted Pioneer of Des Moines, by L. F. Andrews, 
December 11, 1910. 

Forty-four Years of Street Railway Business in Des Moines, Decem- 
ber 11, 1910. 

Story of Mystery Which Puzzled Early Settlers, by 0. H. Mills, 

December 18, 1910. 
Isaac Nash of Springville, a Veteran of two Wars, December 18, 


Sketch of Life of Augustus Washburn, by L. F. Andrews, Decem- 
ber 18, 1910. 
The Pilgrims of Iowa, December 25, 1910. 

Sketch of Life of Roma Wheeler Woods, by Mrs. Addie B. Billing- 
ton, December 25, 1910. 

History of the Famous Second Regiment and Colonel N. W. Mills,, 
by L. F. Andrews, December 25, 1910. 

The Burlington Hawk-Eye 

Twenty Years Ago. (In each Sunday Issue). 
Description of a Pioneer Cabin, October 2, 1910. 
Veterans of the 25th Iowa to Review War Experiences, October 2',, 

An Iowa Soldier on the Skirmish Line, by H. Heaton, October 2,. 

Sketch of Life of Jonathan P. DoUiver, October 16, 1910. 
Thrilling Story of Indian Fighting in the West, by J. H. Dodds,, 
October 16, 1910. 

VOL. IX — 9 


Campaigning Around Atlanta with Sherman in 1864, I, by J. W. 

Cheney, October 23, 1910. 
Sacajawea: The Romance of an Indian Girl Who Helped to Give 

Our Nation the Great Northwest Territory, October 23, 1910. 
Campaigning Around Atlanta with Sherman in 1864, II, by J. W. 

Cheney, October 30, 1910. 
Our Same Old Tent — A Reminiscence of War Times, by W. P. 

Elliot, November 6, 1910. 
Exercises at the Marking of the Site of Old Zion Church, November 

13, 1910. 

The Memorial of a Forceful Man's Life — Charles Elliott Perkins, 

November 13, 1910. 
W. H. IngersoU, an Old Pioneer of Des Moines County, November 

13, 1910. 

The Story of How Burlington was Named, by E. H. Waring, Nov- 
ember 27, 1910. 

Experiences During the Winter of 1880, by S. Hutchins, December 
11, 1910. 

Memories of the Civil War, by W. P. Elliott, December 18, 1910. 

Cedar Rapids Republican 

How Iowa Received its Name, October 2, 1910. 
Story of Indian Fights, October 9, 1910. 

Sketch of Life of Senator Jonathan P. Dolliver, October 16, 1910. 
Ste. Genevieve — Old Missouri Town, October 16, 1910. 
Lincoln and Herndon, November 6, 1910. 

Mr. Clarkson's Farewell Tribute to Senator Dolliver, November 
6, 1910. 

An Indian's Race for Life, by 0. H. Mills, November 13, 1910. 

The First Directory Published in Cedar Rapids, November 27, 1910. 

The Dubuque Telegraph-Herald 

Sketch of Life of Senator Jonathan P. Dolliver, October 16, 1910. 
Story of Earliest Hanging in Iowa, by H. 0. Mills, October 16, 1910. 
Careers of Old Time Printers, October 23, 1910. 
Jonathan P. Dolliver: A Statesman of the New School, by N. W. 
Waters, October 30, 1910. 



The Buffalo Historical Society has published a reprint containing 
a Bough List of Manuscripts in the Library of the Buffalo Historical 

A paper on Stage-Coach Days in Medford, by Eliza M. Gill, is the 
principal contribution to The Medford Historical Register for 
October. An Old-Time Muster is another item of interest. 

A recent reprint from the Annual Report of the American His- 
torical Association, for 1908, contains the Proceedings of the Fifth 
Annual Conference of Historical Societies, reported by St. George 
L. Sioussat. 

The May- August number of the German American Annals is de- 
voted entirely to the Elfte Staats-Konvention des Deutsch-Ameri- 
hanischen Zentral-Bundes von Pennsylvanien, the proceedings of 
which are printed in German. 

In the September-October number of the Records of the Past 
Hjalmar Rued Holand discusses the question, Are there English 
Words on the Kensington Runestonef Leon Dominian tells of The 
Pyramids of San Juan Teotihuacan, 

John Heman Converse is the subject of a biographical sketch 
which appears in the September number of the Journal of the 
Presbyterian Historical Society. Among the editorials are discus- 
sions of Sycamore Shoals and its Monument, and of Endowing 
Church History. 

Der deutsche Schidmeister in der Amerikanischen Geschichte, 
by A. B. Faust, is the opening article in the October number of the 
Deutsch-Americkanische Geschichtshldtter. Other articles are : Die 
Deutschen i7i Illinois, by Emil Mannhardt; and Die Deutschen in 
Davenport und Scott County in Iowa. 



The portions of The Randolph Manuscript published in the 
October number of The Virginia Magazine of History and Biog- 
raphy cover the period from the latter part of the year 1682 to the 
middle of the year 1684. Continuations of documentary material 
take up practically the entire number. 

Volume nine, number two of The James Sprunt Historical Pub- 
lications, published under the direction of The North Carolina His- 
torical Society, contains a study of Federalism hi North Carolina, 
by Henry McGilbert WagstalBf ; and a number of Letters of William 
Barry Grove, also edited by Mr. Wagstaff. 

The proceedings attendant upon The Formal Opening of the New 
Fireproof Building of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, April 
6-7, 1910, are set forth in a pamphlet recently published by the 
Society. Several cuts showing the various homes of the Society 
and photographs of its Presidents, add interest to the pamphlet. 

Henry A. M. Smith contributes a second chapter of his study of 
The Baronies of South Carolina to the October number of The South 
Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine. This time the Fair- 
lawn Barony is discussed. The greater part of the Magazine is taken 
up with a genealogical account of the Cantey Family, by Joseph S. 

Among the contents of volume fifteen of the Collections of the 
Nova Scotia Historical Society are the following papers : The Fish- 
eries of British North America and the United States Fishermen, by 
Wallace Graham; Memoir of Governor John Parr, by James S. 
MacDonald ; Halifax and the Capture of St. Pierre in 1793, by T. 
Watson Smith ; and Demonts Tercentenary at Annapolis, 1604-1904, 
by Justice Longley. 

The October number of the Historical Collections of the Essex 
Institute contains a continuation of the history of The Houses and 
Buildings of Groveland, Massachusetts, by Alfred Poore; a fourth 
chapter in Sidney Perley's discussion of Marhlehead in the Year 
1700; and other continuations. Another contribution is the Revo- 
lutionary Orderly Book of Capt. Jeremiah Putnam of Danvers, 
Mass., in the Rhode Island Campaign. 



John F. Philips is the author of an article entitled Hamilton 
Bowan Gamble and the Provisional Government of Missouri, which 
is the opening contribution in the October number of the Missouri 
Historical Review. F. A. Sampson has compiled some interesting 
notes on Washington Irving: Travels in Missouri and the South. 
A list of Old Newspaper Files in the library of the State Historical 
Society of Missouri will be of service to investigators. 

The Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society at the semi- 
annual meeting held on April 20, 1910, contains the customary 
reports and three rather extended papers. The first is by Benjamin 
Thomas Hill, and describes Life at Harvard a Century Ago, as 
illustrated by the letters and papers of Stephen Salisbury of the 
class of 1817. The Jumano Indians is the subject discussed by 
Frederick Webb Hodge; and an article on The Libraries of the 
Mathers is written by Julius Herbert Tuttle. 

The July number of The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and 
Biography is largely taken up with an account of The Formal Open- 
ing of the New Fireproof Building of the Historical Society of Penn- 
sylvania. In the October number there is to be found some cor- 
respondence between Thomas Jefferson and William Wirt under the 
heading, Jefferson^s Recollections of Patrick Henry, contributed by 
Stan. V. Henkels. An Autobiographical Sketch of the Life of Gen. 
John Burrows, of Lycoming Co., Penna., written in 1837, is another 

The forty-third volume of the Proceedings of the Massachusetts 
Historical Society covers the period from October, 1909, to June, 
1910. Among the many papers contained in this volume the fol- 
lowing may be mentioned: The Oregon Trail, by Horace Davis; 
Bancroft Papers on the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence, 
contributed by Mark Antony De Wolfe Howe; Hamilton's Report 
upon the Constitutionality of a National Bank, contributed by 
Worthington C. Ford; War Letters of Dr. Seth Rogers, 1862-63, 
communicated by T. W. Higginson ; Letters, 1694-95, on the Defense 
of the Frontier, communicated by Charles Pelham Greenough ; and 
Great Secession Winter of 1860-61, by Henry Adams. 



Athens and Hellenism is the topic discussed by William S. Fer- 
guson in the October number of The American Historical Review. 
C. Raymond Beazley writes on Prince Henry of Portugal and the 
African Crusade of the Fifteenth Century; and Ralph C. N. Cat- 
terall is the author of a paper on The Credibility of Marat. Two 
articles on subjects in American history are : The Mexican Recogni- 
tion of Texas, by Justin H. Smith; and The Second Birth of the 
Republican Party, by William A. Dunning. In the last named 
paper it is the object of the writer to show that the Republican 
party, as organized in 1854, did not have an unbroken existence. 
Under the heading of Documents there are presented some interest- 
ing Letters of Toussaint Louverture and of Edward Stevens, 1798- 

Charles Dickens in Illinois is the title of an interesting article by 
J. F. Snyder, which appears in the October Journal of the Illinois 
State Historical Society. Clarence Walworth Alvord is the editor of 
some letters and documents from the papers of Edward Cole, Indian 
Commissioner in the Illinois Country, which illustrate the conduct of 
Indian affairs in the West during the British period. In a letter en- 
titled Governor Coles' Autobiography there are related some inci- 
dents in the early settlement of Illinois. Oliver R. Williamson dis- 
cusses the very pertinent subject of American History and the 7m- 
migrant. Among other contributions are : Honorable Lewis Steward, 
by Avery N. Beebe; The Corner Stone^' Resolution, by Duane 
Mowry; and A Letter from Illinois Written in 1836, by Richard 
H. Beach. 

Charles E. Brown is the writer of an account of The Wisconsin 
Archaeological Society, State Field Assembly, which appears in the 
Ohio Archaeological and Historical Quarterly for October. E. L. 
Taylor's article on La Salle's Route Down the Ohio is a contribution 
to the discussion of a puzzling period in the explorer's career. The 
Ohio Declaration of Independence is the subject of a sketch by 
Clement L. Martzolff, who also writes on Ohio University — the 
Historic College of the Old Northwest. It is to be noted that 
Oliver Perry Shiras, who for so many years was a Federal Judge 



in Iowa, received Ms early education at Ohio University. An ac- 
count of Bowman's Expedition Against Chillicothe is taken from 
the Draper manuscripts. The concluding article is one by Isaac 
J. Cox on the Significance of Perry's Victory. 

The State Finances of Texas During the Reconstruction is the 
subject of an interesting article written by E. T. Miller, which is 
the opening contribution in The Quarterly of the Texas State His- 
torical Association for October. In The City of Austin from 1839 
to 1865 Alex. W. Terrell tells how Austin came to be chosen as the 
seat of government six years before annexation, and traces the 
history of the capital city through the Civil War. The Last Hope 
of the Confederacy is the heading given to a memorial from John 
Tyler to the Governor and authorities of Texas, for which Charles 
W. Ramsdell has written an introduction. Two biographical sketches 
are : General Volney Erskine Howard, by Z. T. Fulmore ; and Albert 
Triplett Burnley, by Martha A. Burnley. The concluding contri- 
bution is a letter from Peter W. Grayson to Mirabeau B. Lamar 
dealing with The Release of Stephen F. Austin from Prison. 

The July and October numbers of the Annals of Iowa are com- 
bined in a double number which is filled with interesting and valu- 
able material. The opening contribution is on The Republican State 
Convention, Des Moines, January 18, 1860, and is written by F. I. 
Herriott. The convention is described largely from the standpoint 
of the choice of delegates to the National Republican Convention at 
Chicago. Under the title, Across the Plains in 1850, there are pub- 
lished a journal and some letters written by Jerome Button while 
on an overland journey from Scott County, Iowa, to Sacramento 
County, California. William Fletcher King, who for a period of 
forty-four years was the president of Cornell College, is the subject 
of an appreciation by Rollo F. Hurlburt. A Brief History of the 
French Family is written by Mary Queal Beyer. Other articles are : 
Judge Alexander Brown, by Robert Sloan; The Sword of Black 
Hawk, by D. C. Beaman ; and Old Zion Church, Burlington, Iowa, 
by Edmund H. Waring. Among the editorials may be found a 
brief sketch of Justice Samuel F. Miller and his First Circuit Court. 


A third installment of F. G. Young *s monograph on the Finan- 
cial History of the State of Oregon may be found in the June num- 
ber of The Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society. This in- 
stallment deals with the sale of public lands in Oregon. In the 
Recollections of a Pioneer of 1859: Lawson Stockman^ B. F. Manring 
tells some interesting experiences of an early western settler. Law- 
son Stockman started from Iowa City, Iowa, in March, 1859, on the 
long journey westward to Oregon. What I Know of Dr. McLaughlin 
and How I Know It is the title given to some fascinating recollec- 
tions by John Minto who made the journey from Missouri to Oregon 
in the year 1844. A continuation of The Peter Skene Ogden Jour- 
nals, edited by T. C. Elliott ; and An Estimate of the Character and 
Services of Judge George H. Williams , by Harvey W. Scott, may 
also be found. Judge Williams was a prominent character in Iowa 
during the early years of Statehood. It was in 1853 that he was 
appointed Chief Justice of the Territory of Oregon. 


The Arkansas Historical Association expects to distribute the 
third volume of its Publications some time in January. 

The new librarian of the Rhode Island Historical Society is 
Professor Frank G. Bates, formerly of the University of Kansas. 

The Pacific Coast Branch of the American Historical Association 
held its annual meeting at the University of California on November 
18 and 19, 1910. 

The Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society, under the di- 
rection of Mr. E. 0. Randall, is editing the Moravian Records and 
preparing them for publication. 

The Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society is performing a 
valuable service in the translation of Margry's Documents. Three 
volumes are now ready for the press. 

Dr. A. C. Tilton, who for seven years has been chief of the manu- 
script department of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, has 
accepted a similar position in the Connecticut State Library. 



Mr. Purd B. Wright, for several years a Trustee of the State 
Historical Society of Missouri, has been elected Librarian of the 
Los Angeles Public Library, and hence has severed his connection 
with the Society. 

On April 6 and 7, 1910, occurred the formal opening of the new 
building of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. The building 
was erected at a cost of nearly three hundred and forty thousand 
dollars, half of which was appropriated by the State legislature. 

The Illinois State Historical Library has in press a volume con- 
taining a list of Illinois newspapers down to 1840, and the second 
volume of the Governors^ Letter-Books. The papers of George 
Rogers Clark are being prepared for publication by Professor 
James A. James. 

The fifty-eighth annual meeting of the State Historical Society 
of Wisconsin was held at Madison on October 20, 1910. The crowd- 
ed condition of the library was commented upon by the Secretary, 
Dr. Reuben Gold Thwaites in his report, and the urgent need for 
a new book-stack wing was pointed out. The library now numbers 
'331,567 titles. The most conspicuous addition to the manuscript 
'Collections of the Society during the past year are the papers of the 
late George H. Paul of Milwaukee. The principal address at the 
annual meeting was delivered by Professor Benjamin F. Sham- 
baugh of the State University of Iowa on The History of the West 
<ind the Pioneers. 

The report of the Secretary of the Kansas State Historical So- 
'ciety for the year ending December 6, 1910, reveals a substantial 
"growth in the collections of the Society. Nearly eleven thousand 
books, pamphlets, and bound volumes of newspapers were added 
to the library. The most notable accessions are in the department 
of archives, where nearly twenty thousand documents were added 
during the year. The total collections of the Society now number 
in the vicinity of four hundred thousand items. Along the line of 
publication the Society has issued volume eleven of its Collections. 
I;t hm been decided to suspend work on the Memorial and Historical 


Building, of which the foundation has been completed, until after 
the session of the legislature in 1911. It is sincerely to be hoped 
that the legislature will remedy the unfortunate situation which 
now exists, and the building will receive the generous appropriation 
which it deserves. 


The fourth annual meeting of the Ohio Valley Historical Associ- 
ation was held at Indianapolis, Indiana, on December 27, 1910. At 
12 :30 p. m. there was a luncheon at the University Club, followed by 
a program at which the proposed Pittsburg Centennial of steamboat 
navigation on western waters was the first topic of discussion. Pre- 
liminary bibliographic reports on steamboating on the Ohio River 
were presented, and the session closed with a discussion of the pro- 
posed consolidation of the Ohio Valley and the Mississippi Valley 
Historical Associations. It was decided, however, that final decision 
upon the matter of consolidation should be left to the Executive 
Committees of the two Associations, with power to act. At four 
o'clock there was a Conference on Historical Publication work in 
the Ohio Valley, at which time an address was delivered by J. 
Franklin Jameson, and brief reports were presented by representa- 
tives of historical societies in the Ohio Valley. In the evening a 
joint session was held with the other associations meeting at In- 


The mid-year meeting of the Mississippi Valley Historical Asso- 
ciation was held at Indianapolis on Tuesday, December 27, 1910. 
The afternoon was taken up with meetings of the Executive Com- 
mittee and the various standing committees of the Association. 
In the evening at eight o'clock there was a joint session with the 
Ohio Valley Historical Association and the American Historical 
Association at which Professor Benjamin P. Shambaugh presided. 
The following program was presented at this time : 
Paper — New Light on the Explorations of the Verendrye — Orin 
G. Libby, Professor in the University of North Dakota. Dis- 
cussion by Clarence W. Alvord, Associate Professor in the 
University of Illinois. 


Paper — The American Intervention in West Florida — Isaac Joslin 
Cox, Professor in the University of Cincinnati. Discussion by 
Frederick A. Ogg, Professor in Simmons College ; and Dunbar 
Rowland, Director of the Department of Archives and History 
of the State of Mississippi. 

Paper — A Century of Steamboat Navigation on the Ohio — Archer 
B. Hulburt, Professor in Marietta College. Discussion by R. 
B. Way, Professor in Indiana University; and John Wlison 
Townsend, Business Manager of the Kentucky State Historical 

Paper — The Beginnings of the Free-Trade Movement in the Cana- 
dian Northwest — P. E. Gunn, of Winnipeg, Canada. (Mr. 
Gunn was not present.) 
Paper — Early Forts on the Upper Mississippi — Dan E. Clark, As- 
sistant Editor in The State Historical Society of Iowa. 
The proceedings and papers at the mid-year meeting will be 
included in the volume containing the proceedings of the next an- 
nual meeting, which will be held at Evanston, Illinois, in May or 


The twenty-sixth annual meeting of * the American Historical 
Association was held at Indianapolis, Indiana, on December 27-30, 
1910. The sessions, which for the most part were held in the Clay- 
pool Hotel, were quite largely attended. 

The session on Tuesday evening was devoted to topics in western 
history, and was a joint session with the other associations meeting 
at the same place. On Wednesday morning there was a program 
under the auspices of the North Central History Teachers' Associa- 
tion at which there was a free and helpful discussion of the prob- 
lems connected with the teaching of History and Civics. The after- 
noon on Wednesday was given over to conferences on Ancient His- 
tory, Modern European History, American Diplomatic History 
with Special Reference to Latin America, and a Conference of State 
and Local Historical Societies. At the last named conference the 
reports of the widest interest were Mr. Dunbar Rowland's account 


of the progress of the work of calendaring the manuscripts in French 
archives relating to the Mississippi Valley, and Professor Clarence 
W. Alvord's very practical discussion of the methods of restoring 
and preserving manuscripts. 

The presidential address by Professor Frederick J. Turner on 
Wednesday evening dealt in a profound and interesting manner 
with the social aspects of American history. The address was fol- 
lowed by a reception at the John Herron Art Institute. 

Thursday and Friday mornings were devoted to sessions com- 
memorating the fiftieth anniversary of secession. The papers on 
Thursday morning clustered about the conditions and events in the 
North in 1860; while the general subject of discussion on Friday 
morning was the South in 1860. Especial interest was manifested in 
these two sessions. 

A Conference on Medieval History, a Conference of Archivists, 
and a Conference of Teachers of History in Teachers' Colleges and 
Normal Schools, were held on Thursday afternoon. An interesting 
feature of the Conference of Archivists was the report by Mr. A. 
J. F. Van Laer on the work of the International Conference of 
Archivists and Librarians held at Brussels, August 28-31, 1910. 
The session on Thursday evening was a session on European His- 
tory, the paper which excited the greatest comment being one by 
H. Morse Stevens, of the University of California. After this pro- 
gram there was a smoker at the University Club. 

A luncheon, followed by informal speaking, was given at the 
Claypool Hotel Friday noon. The subject of discussion at the final 
session on Friday evening was The Relation of History to the Newer 
Sciences of Mankind. 


The two-volume History of Taxation in Iowa, by Professor John 
E. Brindley, will be distributed in February. 

The Secretary, Dr. Frank E. Horack, read a paper on The Iowa 
Primary and Its Workings at the meeting of the American Political 
Science Association at St. Louis during the holidays. 



Professor Laenas G. Weld's address entitled On the Way to Iowa, 
has been published and distributed to members. 

The manuscript of Dr. Louis Pelzer's biography of Henry Dodge 
has been accepted by the Board of Curators and will be put to 
press in the near future. 

The Society has just issued a new and revised edition of the 
booklet entitled Some Information, which describes the work of the 
Society, and contains a list of members. 

The Superintendent delivered the principal address at the annual 
meeting of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin on October 20, 
1910. He also addressed the State Historical Society of Nebraska 
at Lincoln on January 10, 1911. 

Mr. Joseph W. Rich, a Curator of the Society, has been elected 
President of the Political Science Club of the State University of 
Iowa for the ensuing year. Dr. Dan E. Clark, the Assistant Editor, 
was chosen Secretary of the same club. 

Owing to the great demand for copies of Mr. Joseph W. Rich's 
1 monograph on The Battle of Shiloh, which was first published in 
' The Iowa Journal op History and Politics in October, 1909, it 
will be reprinted in book form in the near future. 

The Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report of the Board of Curators of 
1 the State Historical Society of Iowa has been printed. It contains 
a detailed account of the activities of the Society during the two 
I years ending July 1, 1910, a list of members, and recommendations 
I for increased support. 

Dr. Benjamin F. Shambaugh and Dr. Dan E. Clark represented 
I the Society at the meetings of the Mississippi Valley Historical As- 
sociation and the American Historical Association at Indianapolis, 
' December 27-30. Dr. Shambaugh is President of the Mississippi 
Valley Historical Association. Dr. Clark read a paper on Early 
j; Forts on the Upper Mississippi, and made a report on the Public 
Archives of Iowa. 

, The following persons have recently been elected to membership 


in the Society; Mr. C. Ray Aurner, Iowa City, Iowa; Lieutenant 
Morton C. Mumma, Iowa City, Iowa; Mrs. F. S. McGree, Riverside, 
Iowa; Miss Helen E. Ruser, Davenport, Iowa; Mr. D. E. Voris, 
Marion, Iowa; Mr. John L. Etzel, Clear Lake, Iowa; Mr. R. W. 
Birdsall, Dows, Iowa ; Mr. P. 0. Bjorenson, Milf ord, Iowa ; Mr. W. 
E. Crum, Bedford, Iowa; Mr. Brode B. Davis, Chicago, Illinois; 
Mr. Nathan P. Dodge, Jr., Omaha, Nebraska; Mr. D. G. Edmund- 
son, Des Moines, Iowa; Mr. John M. Galvin, Council Bluffs, Iowa; 
Dr. J. W. Hanna, Winfield, Iowa; Mr. Chas. L. Hays, Eldora, Iowa; 
Mr. J. W. Hill, Des Moines, Iowa; Mr. H. R. Howell, Des Moines, 
Iowa; Mr. Finis Idleman, Des Moines, Iowa; Mr. Jesse W. Lee, 
Webster City, Iowa; Mr. E. E. Manhard, Waterloo, Iowa; Mr. R. S. 
Sinclair, Cedar Rapids, Iowa ; Mr. Jacob Springer, Marengo, Iowa ; 
Mr. B. Van Stienberg, Preston, Iowa; Mr. L. 0. Worley, Blairstown, 
Iowa; Mr. Geo. Wright, Eagle Grove, Iowa; Mr. John A. Young, 
Washington, Iowa ; Mr. Samuel Hayes, Iowa City, Iowa ; Mr. W. W. 
Baldwin, Burlington, Iowa; Mrs. Mary Queal Beyer, Des Moines, 
Iowa; Mr. James B. Bruff, Atlantic, Iowa; Mr. T. J. Bryant, Gris- ! 
wold, Iowa; Mr. Henry S. Ely, Cedar Rapids, Iowa; Mr. C. 0. Har- | 
rington, Vinton, Iowa; Mr. L. S. Hill, Des Moines, Iowa; Mr. 
Charles N. Kinney, Des Moines, Iowa; Mr. V. R. McGinnis, Leon, 
Iowa ; Mr. C. F. Mauss, Milford, Iowa ; Mr. F. S. Merriau, Waterloo, 
Iowa ; Mr. Arthur Poe, Cedar Rapids, Iowa ; Mr. J. B. Rockaf ellow, j 
Atlantic, Iowa; Mrs. Agnes W. Smith, Waterloo, Iowa; Mr. Thos. 
H. Smith, Harlan, Iowa; and Mr. Edward S. White, Harlan, Iowa. 


Because of advancing years Mr. Peter A. Dey, who for many j 
years has been President of the Society and a member of the Board | 
of Curators, has retired from the Board. The following resolution | 
appreciative of his services was passed by the Board of Curators 
on October 5, 1910: 

* * Be it resolved by the Board of Curators of The State Historical 
Society of Iowa that it is with deep regret that we accept the resigna- 
tion of Mr. Peter A. Dey as a member of this Board, since we feel 
that the Board of Curators suffers a great loss in being deprived of 



his wise counsel and advice. Mr. Dey has served as a member of the 
Board of Curators for twenty-four years, from 1886 to 1910. From 
September 8, 1900, to July 7, 1909, he held the office of President of 
the Board and of the Society. For the marked growth and develop- 
ment of the Society during these years Mr. Dey deserves a large 
measure of credit. He was wise in his judgment and always faithful 
and punctual in the performance of his duties.'' 


The North Central History Teachers* Association held a meeting 
at Indianapolis on December 28, 1910. 

The twenty-first annual meeting of the Iowa Library Association 
was held at Davenport, October 11-13, 1910. 

Dr. W. F. Dodd, formerly of Johns Hopkins University, is now 
a member of the faculty of the University of Illinois. 

The second annual meeting of the American Institute of Criminal 
Law and Criminology was held at Washington, D. C, on September 
30 and October 1, 1910. 

The newly appointed General Secretary of the Archaeological 
Institute of America is Professor Mitchell Carroll, who has been 
connected with the Institute for several years. 

July 26 to 29, 1911, are the dates set for an International Congress 
dealing with the problems arising in the relations between the West 
and the East. London will be the place of meeting. 

Professor Herbert E. Bolton, formerly of the University of Texas 
and now of Stanford University, has accepted the professorship of 
American History in the University of California, to take effect 
July 1, 1911. 

The sum of twenty thousand dollars has been presented to Har- 
vard University, with the stipulation that the income shall be ap- 
plied to research work in historical archives. It is preferred that 
these researches shall be along the line of American history, and 
especially that the work shall be carried on in the Spanish archives. 

The seventh annual meeting of the American Political Science 
Association was held at St. Louis, Missouri, from December 27, to 
30, 1910. Besides the general sessions on national and international 
problems, there were programs and conferences devoted to such sub- 
jects as judicial organization and procedure, primary elections, 




nmnicipal government, taxation, and political theory. The Ameri- 
can Association for Labor Legislation, and the American Statistical 
Society held their meetings at the same time and place and there 
were a number of joint sessions. 

It has been announced by Mr. Dunbar Rowland, Director of the 
Department of History and Archives of the State of Mississippi, 
that the calendar of manuscripts in the French archives relating 
to the Mississippi Valley is nearly ready for publication. The work 
of preparing the calendar has been done by Mr. Waldo G. Leland. 
The various historical agencies in the Mississippi Valley are acting 
in cooperation in supporting this work. 

The Manuscripts Division of the Library of Congress has recently 
acquired the Madison papers and the Polk papers, including the 
Polk diary, which have heretofore been in the possession of the 
Chicago Historical Society. La Harpe's valuable journal dealing 
with the establishment of the French in Louisiana has also been se- 
cured ; and the Pickett papers containing the official correspondence 
and records of the Confederate government have been transferred 
from the Treasury Department. 


Mr. Nathan P. Dodge, a member of The State Historical Society 
of Iowa, died at his home at Council Bluffs on January 12, 1911. 
Mr. Dodge was born at S^uth Danvers (now Peabody), Massa- 
chusetts, on August 20, 1837. In 1854 he came to Iowa City, where 
he joined his brother, Grenville M. Dodge, who was at that time di- 
recting the survey for the Rock Island Railroad across Iowa. Dur- 
ing the following spring he took up land on the Elkhom River in 
Nebraska, but on account of Indian troubles he soon moved to 
Omaha and later to Council Bluffs, where he spent the remainder 
of his life, devoting himself to banking and real estate business. 

Mr. Dodge took a keen interest in western history, and was 
especially well informed on the local history of Council Bluffs. 
He wrote numerous valuable historical articles which were pub- 
lished in the local newspapers, the last one being on the subject of* 

VOL. IX — 10 


Woman's Aid and Sanitary Commissions During the Civil War. 
He was beloved by all who knew him, and his death will long be 
deeply mourned. 


Johnathan Prentiss DoUiver was bom near Kingwood, Preston 
County, Virginia (now West Virginia) , on February 6, 1858. He 
graduated from the University of West Virginia in 1875, and 
taught school for two years at Sandwich, Illinois, at the same time 
studying law. In 1878, in company with his brother, he removed 
to Fort Dodge, Iowa, and opened a law office. His political career 
may be said to have begun with his speech as temporary chairman 
of the Republican State Convention in 1884. From that time until 
the date of his death his abilities as a public speaker made him a 
powerful factor in political campaigns, National as well as State. 

In 1888 Mr. DoUiver was elected Congressman from the Tenth 
District, which position he held by successive terms until 1900. In 
July of that year the death of Senator John H. Gear left a vacancy 
in the United States Senate, and Governor Shaw appointed Jonathan 
P. DoUiver. In this capacity he was retained, through elections 
by the legislature, until the date of his death, which occurred at Fort 
Dodge on October 15, 1910. 

Senator DoUiver was recognized as a leader in the Senate. His 
long experience in Congress, his habit of making a careful study of 
all legislative problems, and his eloquent and convincing powers 
of debate, gave him an influence which was felt throughout the 


John A. Kasson was born at Charlotte, Vermont, on January 11, 
1822, and died in Washington, D. C, May 19, 1910. After gradu- 
ating from the University of Vermont in 1842 he studied law and 
in 1845 was admitted to the bar in Massachusetts. Soon afterward 
he removed to St. Louis, Missouri, where he practiced his profession 
until 1857 when he came to Iowa and located at Des Moines. From 
the beginning he took a prominent part in politics as a Republican. 



During his long public career he served as a member of the General 
Assembly of Iowa, as a Eepresentative from Iowa in several ses- 
sions of Congress, and as Minister to Austria and Minister to Ger- 
many. He represented the United States in a number of inter- 
national conferences, and performed various other diplomatic ser- 
vices for his country. He was a member of several learned and 
scientific societies and was prominent as a writer on political sub- 


At a regular meeting of the Iowa Soldiers' Roster Board, held in 
Des Moines, on the 20th day of December, 1910, the following pre- 
amble and resolutions were unanimously adopted: 

Whereas: Soon after the organization of this Board, and its 
adoption of the plans submitted for the prosecution of the work, 
upon the recommendation of Honorable Charles Aldrich, Curator of 
the Historical Department of Iowa, Harvey Reid of Maquoketa, 
Iowa, was authorized by the Board to prepare that portion of the 
work pertaining to the early military history of the State, and. 

Whereas: The work thus committed to the hands of Mr. Reid 
involves much careful and painstaking research, and has been 
prosecuted to successful completion by him, notwithstanding he was 
in such feeble health during a considerable portion of the time he 
was engaged upon it, as might well have discouraged one possessed 
of less fortitude and courage, and. 

Whereas : Only a few weeks after completing and delivering his 
manuscript into the hands of Adjutant General Logan, Mr. Reid was 
stricken by the hand of death, therefore, be it 

Resolved: That in the death of Harvey Reid, we recognize the 
passing from earth of another of the brave defenders of the Repub- 
lic, who went forth in the vigor of his young manhood, to serve his 
country in her hour of greatest need. 

Resolved : That we hereby express our high appreciation of the 
faithful and capable manner in which he performed his part of the 
great work of preserving the history and records of Iowa Soldiers. 
In his death the State has lost one of its most intelligent and useful 


citizens. To his bereaved widow and family, we extend our sincere 

The Secretary is hereby instructed to spread the foregoing reso- 
lutions upon the minutes of this meeting, and to transmit a copy 
of the same to Mrs. Harvey Beid, to the Superintendent of the 
State Historical Society, and to the Curator of the Historical De- 
partment of Iowa. 


Cliffoed Powell, Member of The State Historical Society 
of Iowa. Won the Colonial Dames Prize for the best essay on a 
subject in Iowa History in 1909. Bom at Elliott, Iowa, on Decem- 
ber 14, 1887. Graduated from the Red Oak High School in 1906. 
Graduated from the State University of Iowa in 1910. 

John Howaed Stibbs was born at Wooster, Wayne 
County, Ohio, March 1, 1840. In 1861 he was in business for him- 
self at Cedar Rapids, Linn County, Iowa. The news of the firing 
on Sumter was received there on Sunday morning following the 
bombardment, and within thirty minutes after the receipt of this 
news, Mr. Stibbs was parading the street, carrying a banner, and 
calling for recruits to save the Union. During the week following 
he organized a company, which became Company K, First Iowa 
Infantry Volunteers. He declined a commission in the Company, 
and was made Orderly Sergeant. On May 9, 1861, he was mustered 
into the United States Service, and was honorably discharged by 
reason of the expiration of his term of service on August 20, 1861. 
His service was with General Lyon in Missouri, and he participated 
with him in the Battle of Wilson Creek, Missouri, on August 10, 
1861. For his service on that day he received honorable mention. 

On his return to his home, Mr. Stibbs was authorized to recruit 
a company for the three years service. He organized Company D, 
Twelfth Iowa Infantry Volunteers, and was mustered into the 
United States Service as its Captain on October 26, 1861. The regi- 
ment was sent to St. Louis, Missouri ; thence to join General Grant ^s 
forces at Paducah, Kentucky; participated in the capture of Forts 
Henry and Donelson; and at Pittsburg Landing he fought in the 

Hornets* Nest'* as a member of Tuttle's Brigade of General Wm. 
H. L. Wallace's Division. At 5:30 P. M. on Sunday, April 6th, the 
remnant of the regiment remaining on the field was captured, and 




Mr. Stibbs was held a prisoner for more than six months. He was 
paroled at Richmond, Virginia, on October 13, 1862, and exchanged 
five weeks later. When the regiment was reorganized in the win- 
ter of 1862-1863, a very large majority of the line officers joined in 
a petition for his promotion to Major, and he was commissioned as 
such on March 23, 1863, and was mustered July 30, 1863. In 
April, 1863, his regiment joined General Grant's army at Duckport^ 
Louisiana, and participated in the Vicksburg Campaign and subse- 
quent movements of the Army in that vicinity. 

On August 5, 1863, Mr. Stibbs was commissioned Lieutenant 
Colonel, and mustered as such on September 5, 1863; and from 
that time until January, 1865, he was almost continually in com- 
mand of the regiment. 

In November, 1863, Colonel Stibbs 's regiment was sent up the 
river to Memphis, and thence to Chewalla, Tennessee, where it re- 
mained until the last of January, 1864. While there a very large 
majority of the regiment reenlisted as veterans. 

In February, 1864, he went with General Sherman back to Vicks- 
burg, and in March following was sent home on veteran furlough. 
He returned to duty at Memphis, Tennessee, on May 2, 1864, and 
two weeks later was sent with six companies to establish a post at 
the mouth of the White River, Arkansas, where he remained four 
weeks. When General A. J. Smith returned from the Red River 
Expedition on June 10, 1864, Colonel Stibbs 's regiment was as- 
signed to its old place in the Third Brigade, First Division, 16th A. 
C, and was with him in all the subsequent movements of his com- 
mand. At Tupelo, Mississippi, on July 14, 1864, Colonel Stibbs 's 
regiment bore the brunt of the fight. On December 1, 1864, at 
Nashville, Tennessee, all commissioned officers of his regiment, 
except five, were mustered out, and when he went into the battle 
there two weeks later, his companies were all commanded by 
non-commissioned officers. However, the work of his men proved so 
satisfactory that he was brevetted Colonel United States Volunteers, 
to rank from March 13, 1865. His commission dated April 5, 1865, 
and reads "for distinguished gallantry in the battles before Nash- 
ville, Tenn." 



On February 11, 1865, he was commissioned Colonel of his regi- 
ment, but as it had fallen below the minimum, he could not be 
mustered until November 11, 1865. The War Department, in re- 
sponse to a special request of the Governor of Iowa, issued special 
order No. 594, ordering his muster as Colonel to date September 
11, 1865. 

While at Eastport, Mississippi, early in January, 1865, General 
Stibbs was ordered to Iowa and thence to Washington, D. C, on 
official business, and while in Washington was assigned to special 
duty and retained there until his final muster out, April 30, 1866, 
on which day his commission as Brevet Brigadier General was issued, 
to take effect from March 13, 1865, for meritorious services during 
the war". 

From the middle of April, 1861, to the first of May, 1866, his en- 
tire time was devoted to the service, either in service or in raising 
and organizing companies. He was actually in the service for a 
period of four years, nine months, and fifteen days. 



VOL. IX — 11 


By an act of the Legislative Assembly of the original 
Territory of Wisconsin, approved December 21, 1837, John- 
son Connty was established;^ but provision for the organ- 
ization of the government of this county was not made until 
1838. In the meantime it was temporarily attached to 
and considered in all respects a part of Cedar County. 
By the act of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of 
Iowa, approved June 22, 1838, provision was made for the 
organization of the county ^^from and after the fourth day 
of July". This act also provided for the holding of two 
terms of the district court annually; and the town of Na- 
poleon was designated as the first seat of justice.^ 

According to the provisions of the act of December 21, 
1837, Johnson County included twenty congressional town- 
ships. This, however, was but a temporary arrangement, 
since by the act (of January 25, 1839) of the Legislative 
Assembly of the Territory of Iowa, locating the boundaries 
of the County of Washington, three townships were taken 
from the southern tier of Johnson County and added to 
Washington County. (See Map I.)* Again, in 1845 the 
Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Iowa detached 
that portion of township seventy-seven, north, range six 
west, which lies east of the Iowa River, from Washington 

^Lmos of the Territory of Wisconsin, 1837, p. 135. 

2 Laws of the Territory of Wisconsin, 1837, p. 136. 

3 Laws of the Territory of Wisconsin, 1838, p. 543. The town of Napoleon 
has long been extinct. 

4: Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838, p. 100. 



County and added it to Johnson County, thus making the 
Iowa Eiver the western boundary of that portion of the 
county. (See Map 11.)^ 

Previous to the formation of civil townships the county 
was divided into precincts for election purposes. Al- 
though few in number these precincts may be regarded as 
the historical precursors of the civil townships. At first 
it appears that the entire county was divided into two 
electoral precincts — a division that was authorized by the 
County Commissioners on March 6, 1840. The southern 
part of the county was designated as precinct number one 
and the northern part as precinct number two. The line 
separating these two precincts was not defined at this 
meeting of the Board, although the places of election are 
named as Iowa City and the house of "Warren Stiles re- 
spectively.^ That no division line was named at the March 
session appears to have been an oversight on the part of 
the Commissioners, for it appears that they established the 
line at the regular session in the following July. As de- 
fined on July 8, 1840, the line of division commenced at the 
northeast corner of section twenty-four, township eighty 
north, range five west, and followed the line between sec- 
tions thirteen and twenty-four westward to the Iowa River, 
and from this point up the river to the county line.'^ (See 
Map IIL) 

On April 8, 1841, that part of the county lying west of 
the Iowa River was declared to constitute ^'an electoral 
precinct and to be known as precinct number three"; and 
the elections in this precinct were to be held at the house 
of John Hawkins.^ (See Map IV.) At this same session^ 

5 Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1845, p. 66. 
^Records of the County Commissioners, Book I, p. 15. 

7 Records of the County Commissioners, Book I, pp. 24, 25. 

8 Records of the County Commissioners, Book I, p. 77. , 


the place of elections in the second precinct was changed 
from the house of Warren Stiles to that of Abner Arro- 

A further division of the county was made in 1842, at 
the January session of the Commissioners, by dividing the 
third precinct by a line beginning on the Iowa Eiver and 
running due west between sections twenty-two and twenty- 
seven, township seventy-nine north. All the territory 
south of this line was designated precinct number four, 
and the place of holding elections was located at the house 
of Jacob Fry. At the same session of the Board precinct 
number five was created by dividing the second precinct 
by a line running north and south one mile east of the 
township line dividing ranges six and seven. The house of 
M. P. McAllister was named by the Commissioners as the 
polling place.^ (See Map V.) One finds on the records 
for this session a change in the place of election in the 
second precinct from the house of Hamilton H. Kerr to the 
town of Solon; but no mention is made of the time when 
the house of Abner Arrosmith was abandoned, as the place 
for elections, for the house of Kerr. 

Proper names were assigned to some of these precincts 
in 1843, since election judges are named by the Commis- 
sioners for Iowa City precinct, for Big Grove precinct, and 
for Monroe precinct. The other two were known by num- 
bers until July 3, 1844, when according to the records all 
of the five are referred to by names instead of numbers. 
Thus precinct number one was called Iowa City; precinct 
number two. Big Grove; precinct number three. Clear 
Creek; precinct number four. Old Man's Creek; and pre- 
cinct number five, Monroe.^ *^ 

No provision was made for the establishment of civil 

9 Eecords of the County Commissioners, Book I, p. 153. 

10 Eecords of the County Commissioners, Book II, pp. 24, 25, 85, 111. 


townships in Johnson County until petitions came before 
the Board of County Commissioners at the January session 
in the year 1844. On this occasion three separate petitions 
for the establishment of townships west of the Iowa Eiver 
were presented for their consideration. Owing to the con- 
fusion of overlapping boundaries, as requested in the pe- 
titions, no action was taken on the subject by the Commis- 
sioners at this session.^^ In April of the same year (1844) 
another petition came up *^from sundry citizens" of Clear 
Creek voting precinct, requesting the establishment of a 
civil township in that vicinity. The record breaks off sud- 
denly, which seems to indicate a want of information or a 
postponement of consideration for the session. The words 
commencing at the southeast corner of township eighty", 
being all that is found in this connection, suggests that the 
civil township under consideration was number eighty 
north, range seven west.^^ 

It was not until April, 1845, that any civil township was 
established in Johnson County. Then the Commissioners 
took the initiative, so far as can be learned, and decided 
upon the name of *^Big Grove" for township eighty-one 
north, range six west. The first election for the local of- 
ficers of the township was held at the Big Grove school 
house on the first Monday in April, 1846 — which was the 
regular election day for township officers throughout the 

11 Eecords of the Qounty Commissioners, Book II, p. 70. 

''On the 1st and 2nd days of tMs session three Petitions were presented 
to this Board for the Organization of Townships of a portion of this County- 
west of the Iowa Eiver, and the Board having duly considered sd Petitions, 
find that the bounds as proposed, interfere with each other, and therefore — It 
is considered that no action shall be had on either of said petitions at this 

12 Eecords of the County Commissioners, Book II, p. 81. 

On the petition of sundry citizens of Clear Creek Precinct for the organiza- 
tion of a township with the following bounds: ''Commencing at the South- 
East Corner of Township 80". 


Territory.^ 2 (See Map VI.) Moreover, early in the year 
1846 there appears to have been a general demand for the 
establishment of civil townships throughout the county, 
which, with but a single exception, resulted in the prelimi- 
nary definition of boundaries for all the territory of the 
county in the form of civil townships. 

The first petition in 1846 came from the settlers in town- 
ship eighty-one north, range five west; and it will be no- 
ticed that this territory lies just east of Big Grove town- 
ship which was established in the fall of 1845. The petition 
was heard and favorably considered by the Commissioners. 
The name Cedar" was given to the new township; and 
the first election was called at the house of Philo Haynes. 
(See Map VII.) No date being mentioned, one must con- 
clude that the election was held on the same day as that of 
the other townships, namely, the first Monday in April, 

Moreover, it appears that the first townships established 
coincided with the congressional lines according to the pe- 
titions of the citizens who occupied the territory. This was 
also true of Iowa City township, for the establishment of 
which no petition was presented from the inhabitants. In 
this instance the record of the Commissioners reads that 
township seventy-nine north, range six west, shall be 
known as Iowa City township, and the first election shall 
be held at the court house in Iowa City^.^^ (See Map 
1 VII.) 

At an extra session of the Board of Commissioners which 
was held in February, 1846, the chief business was that of 

Becords of the County Commissioners, Book II, p. 159; Laws of the 
Territory of Iowa, 1845, p. 27. 

14 Becords of the County Commissioners, Book II, p. 207. , ; { 

I 15 Becords of the County Commissioners, Book II, pp. 207, 217. 

j The court house in which this election was held stood on the southeast 

corner at the intersection of Clinton and Harrison streets. 


establishing and naming civil townships. At this time it 
was customary for the people of a certain neighborhood to 
fix upon the boundaries, which were then usually specified 
in the petition asking for the establishment of the town- 
ship. The Commissioners as a rule followed the lines as 
described in the petition. This method as a matter of fact 
frequently resulted in the division of congressional town- 
ships in the formation of civil townships, which led to 
many readjustments in township boundaries in the subse- 
quent history of the county. All of the first elections in 
the townships established at this extra session of the Board 
took place on the first Monday in April, 1846. 

According to the records Scott township was to include 
all the territory of congressional township seventy-nine 
north, range five west. This is definite and simple, the 
thirty-six square miles needing no other description. (See 
Map VII.) The first election was to be held at the school 
house near the home of Matthew Tenicke, 

Pleasant Valley township was to be composed of all that 
part of Johnson County south of township seventy-nine 
north, ranges five and six west, lying east of the Iowa 
Eiver. It included congressional townships seventy-seven 
and seventy-eight north, range five west, and the fractions 
of the same townships in range six, lying east of the Iowa 
Eiver. (See Map. VII.) The first election was to be held 
at the house of Eobert Walker.^ ^ 

Monroe township is described as formed from the part of 
Johnson County which lies in congressional townships 
numbered eighty-one north in ranges seven and eight west, 
and north of the Iowa Eiver. (See Map VII.) Here the 
first election was to be held at the home of William Du- 

16 Becords of the County Commissioners, Book IT, p. 217. 
Becords of the County Commissioners, Book II, p. 218. 


Penn township requires a more detailed description 
which, as found in the records, reads: ^ * Commencing at the 
middle of the main Channel of the Iowa Eiver, where the 
north line of township number seventy-nine range six 
crosses the same, then west along this township line to the 
northwest corner of the same township, then north on the 
range line two miles, then west one mile, then north one 
mile, then west to the west line of township eighty north, 
range seven west, then on the range line to the Iowa Eiver, 
and then with the river to the place of beginning.'' (See 
Map VII.) The first election in this township was to be 
held at the school house near Chapman 's.^^ 

In the description of Penn township no mention is made 
of the change in the boundaries of Big Grove township as 
established in 1845. As a matter of fact the portion of 
township eighty-one north, range six west, lying south of 
the Iowa River now became a part of Penn township. 
(Compare Maps VI and VII.) This change made little 
difference, however, in the affairs of the township of Big 
Grove, since elections had not yet been held in any of the 

One of the larger divisions of the county made at this 
time for civil purposes was the township of Clear Creek, 
which was composed of fractions of several congressional 
townships. Commencing at the northwest corner of con- 
gressional township seventy-nine north, range six west, the 
boundary line of this civil township follows the southern 
and western boundary of Penn township until it reaches the 
north-west corner of township eighty north, range seven 
west ; then it runs west on the township line until the west 
line of the county is reached; then down the county line 
until it reaches the middle of township seventy-nine, range 
weight west; then east along this line to the west line of 

18 Eecords of the County Commissioners, Book II, p. 218. 


township seventy-nine, range six west; then north to the 
place of beginning. (See Map VII.) The first election 
was called at the house of Bryan Dennis, who was a citizen 
of the district described. 

It is noticeable that the boundaries of Clear Creek town- 
ship leave the fractional part of township eighty-one, range 
eight west, lying south of the Iowa Eiver, without any or- 
ganization, since it was left out of Monroe at the time of 
its organization and is not now included in Clear Creek.^^ 
(See Map VIL) 

Newport township in its original form included all of 
congressional township eighty north, range five west, and 
all of the same township in range six, lying east of the 
Iowa Eiver. (See Map VII.) It will be remembered that 
Penn township was, in part, composed of the remainder of 
congressional township eighty north, range six west, which 
lay west of the river. The first election was called at the 
house of Cornelius Lancaster. 

Liberty township was at first composed of a part of that 
portion of the county which lies along the southern bound- 
ary of the county and may be best described in the lan- 
guage of the order by which it was established. It in- 
cludes all that part of Johnson County Commencing at 
the south line of the County on the west bank of the Iowa 
Eiver, then up the river to the south line of township sev- 
enty-nine, range six west, then west to the south west corner 
of said township, then north on the range line to the center 
of the west line of the same township, then west to the cen- 
ter of township seventy-nine, range seven west, then south 
to the county line; then east to the place of beginning''. 
(See Map VIL) In this township the first election was 
ordered to be held at the house of John Smith.^^ 

19 Records of the County Commissioners, Book IT, p. 219. 

20 Records of the County Commissioners, Book II, p. 219. 


The last of the orders of the Commissioners in fixing the 
preliminary boundary lines for civil townships in the year 
of 1846 relates to the township of Washington, which lies 
in the southwest corner of the county. In the beginning 
this township included more than twice its present area. 
The lines limiting it were the western boundary of the 
township of Liberty, commencing in the middle of the south 
line of township seventy-eight, range seven west, then run- 
ning north to the middle of township seventy-nine, range 
seven west, then west to the county line, then south to the 
corner of the county, and finally east to the place of begin- 
ning. (See Map VII.) The first election was to occur at 
the home of William Fry.^^ 

This completes the original division of the territory of 
Johnson County into civil townships — with the exception 
of the small fraction of township eighty-one north, range 
eight west, lying south of the Iowa Eiver. This first dis- 
tricting of the county into civil districts was accomplished 
by the Board in 1845 and 1846 and is fully illustrated by 
Maps VI and VII. 

In April, 1847, a petition was presented from seventeen 
citizens of Scott township asking to have that township 
attached to Iowa City township for civil purposes. The 
Commissioners took the petition under consideration and 
finally agreed to place it on file until their next session, 
which would occur in July.^^ Careful examination of the 
records of the July meeting reveals no record of any fur- 
ther action on the subject. Not, indeed, until the October 
session of the Board was any change made in the bound- 
aries of this township, Then the boundaries were altered 
so that sections thirty-four, thirty-five, and thirty-six and 
the south half of sections twenty-seven, twenty-six, and 

21 Records of tJie County Commissioners, Book II, p. 220. 

22 Eecords of the County Commissioners, Book II, p. 280. 


twenty-five of township eighty north, range five west, were 
attached to Scott township ^^for all civil and judicial pur- 
poses It will be observed that these sections and frac- 
tions of sections were taken from Newport township, thus 
altering the boundaries of that township as described in 
1846. (See Map VIIL) 

During this same October, 1847, session of the Commis- 
sioners, and without petition or suggestion so far as the 
records show, the lines of other civil townships were 
changed, indicating the uncertainty of what was thought 
best to be done with the scattered settlements of the time. 
Washington township was enlarged by taking the north 
half of congressional township seventy-nine, range eight 
west, from Clear Creek and giving it to Washington. This 
left Clear Creek in a very unsatisfactory shape for a civil 
township, as will be observed by a study of Map VIII.^^ 
Moreover, it is interesting to notice the next move of the 
citizens of township seventy-nine north, range seven west, 
which, however, did not occur until five years had passed, 
or until 1852. 

At the August, 1852, session the County Court was pe- 
titioned to make a new township out of congressional town- 
ship seventy-nine north, range seven west. County Com- 
missioners were no longer sitting in judgment on these pe- 
titions, since by this time they had been succeeded in au- 
thority by the County Judge. The petition in question 
came from citizens of three civil townships as then estab- 
lished, namely. Clear Creek, Washington, and Liberty. 
They declared in their petition that they were put to great 
inconvenience in attending elections and public meetings 
in the townships as then established, pointing out that the 
new arrangement would be much better for all concerned. 
Judge Lee heard the request, which was signed by John 

2z Records of the County Commissioners, Book II, p. 297. 


D. Abel, Edward Tudor, and thirty-three other citizens. 
After due consideration it was ordered by the Judge that 
the boundaries of the new township, called Union, be fixed 
as ^ Sprayed for'^, which meant that it would include the 
whole of congressional township seventy-nine north, range 
seven west. Thus Union township was made up of terri- 
tory taken from three civil townships previously organized. 
(See Map IX.) The first election was to be held at the 
house of James Seaborn on the first Monday in April, 

In March, 1854, Ebenezer Bivins, P. P. Cardwell, William 
A. Howard, and thirty-seven others petitioned the County 
Judge to divide Monroe township on the range line between 
ranges seven and eight so that it would retain all of town- 
ship eighty-one north, range eight west, lying north of the 
Iowa Eiver; while a new township, to be called Jeiferson, 
was to be established including the remainder of Monroe 
as first established and organized, or all of township eighty- 
one north, range seven west, lying north of the Iowa River.. 
(See Map X.) The request was granted; and the first 
election was ordered to be held as usual on the regular day 
for the election of officers of civil townships, at the house 
of Walter F. Lloyd.^^ 

Union township was also modified at this time, although 
one might suppose its boundaries were as near perfect as 
they could be made. A German citizen, Gotleb Rossler 
(probably Gottlieb Rossler), presented his individual peti- 
tion for a change that is rather peculiar. He wished to 
have sections 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 of town- 
ship seventy-eight north, range seven west, except the 
south-west one-fourth of section seven, added to Union 
township. The Judge appears to have taken a favorable 

Records of the County Judge, Book III, p. 163. 
25 Records of the County Judge, Book HI, p. 349. 


view of this request — although one can not see why the 
exception should be made in the case of section seven. Ac- 
cordingly, the changes were ordered as requested and the 
boundaries re-formed by giving detailed outlines. No sys- 
tematic order of beginning is observed in the description, 
but the aim seems to have been to find a point that could 
be located without error. In this case the description of 
the boundary line begins at the northeast corner of town- 
ship seventy-nine north, range seven west, runs south on 
the range line to the southeast corner of section twelve, 
township seventy-eight north, range seven west, then west 
on the section line to the southwest corner of the southeast 
quarter of section seven of the last-mentioned township, 
then north to the center of section seven, then west to the 
west line of the congressional township, then north on the 
range line to the northwest corner of township seventy- 
nine north, range seven west, and then east to the place of 
beginning.2^ (See Map X.) 

The large territory included in Clear Creek township as 
originally established was gradually reduced by the forma- 
tion of other townships. Union had been taken largely 
from it; and now in 1856 a petition comes for a second 
township to be formed from congressional township eighty 
north, range eight west, and the fractional part of township 
eighty-one, range eight, lying south of the Iowa River, 
(See Map XI.) The petition was signed by W. H. Cotter, 
Luther Doty, Hiram B. McMicken, and forty-one others. 
The township name selected by the petitioners was Ox- 
ford ''.^^ This was ten years after the establishment of 
Monroe township, the fractional part of the congressional 
township of which Monroe was a part not having been pro- 
vided for until this time. (See Map VII.) The first elec- 

Becords of the County Judge, Book III, p. 350. 
27 Eecords of the County Judge, Book III, pp. 589, 590. 


tion for Oxford township was ordered to be held at the 
house of John L. Hartwell. 

. Graham township dates its establishment from 1857 when 
Judge Lee described the boundaries in these words: ^^Com- 
mencing at the southeast corner of township eighty north, 
range five west, north on the county line to the northeast 
corner of the same township, west to the northwest corner 
of section five, south on the section line to the southwest 
corner of section thirty-two, then east to the place of be- 
ginning." (See Map XII.) This was in fact a division of 
Newport township as established in 1846. The first election 
was ordered to be held at the house of Miles K. Lewis.^^ 

The first official mention of Fremont township is in the 
returns of an election on the question of issuing bonds for 
the construction of a railroad. This occurred in April, 
1857. For services at this election in Fremont township 
Daniel S. Ball was allowed one dollar and fifty cents.^^ 
As organized in 1846 Pleasant Valley included the territory 
now in Fremont. In 1870, the township of Lincoln did not 
embrace that portion of the county which is today included 
in Fremont township. The conclusion follows then, from 
other data mentioned above, that the township was organ- 
ized in the early part of 1857. (See Map XII.) The coun- 
ty records, however, throw no light on this subject beyond 
the item mentioned, and inquiry fails to produce any fur- 
ther information. 

The establishment of Oxford township left Clear Creek 
township with a small territory. This seems to have led 
several citizens to petition for a change in boundaries by 
which some of the territory of Union would be added to 
Clear Creek. According to the changes ordered by Judge 
Lee in July, 1857, the boundaries of Clear Creek were 

2SBecords of the County Judge, Book IV, p. 71. 
29 Eecords of the County Judge, Book IV, p. 117. 


brought to their present description on the sonth. The 
northern line was not changed. The sonth boundary be- 
gan at the southeast corner of section one, township sev- 
enty-nine north, range seven west, and followed the section 
line west to the range line. This change took six sections 
from Union township.^^ (See Map XII.) 

Hardin township was very simple in its establishment 
and organization. It appears that William Hardin and 
others presented a petition to Judge McCleary early in 
1858 for a change in the boundaries of the township called 
Washington by giving a separate organization to congres- 
sional township seventy-nine north, range eight west, which 
was to be called Hardin ".^^ (See Map XIIL) But the 
civil township thus erected on the basis of congressional 
township seventy-nine did not remain long with these 
boundaries as will be seen in another petition. The first 
election in Hardin township was held at the school house 
in the village of Windham, which was located on section 

On the petition of George T. Davis and others Judge 
McCleary ordered another civil township to be formed out 
of congressional township seventy-eight north, range seven 
west. This was done in the year 1858. Before this time 
congressional township seventy-eight was included in the 
civil townships of Liberty and Washington — the west 
half being in Washington and the east half in Liberty. 
This, indeed, had been its situation from 1846 to 1858. 
(See Map VII.) 

The change made in the lines of Union township in 1852, 
by which the two tiers of sections on the northern boundary 
of township seventy-eight north, range seven west, except- 
ing one quarter section, were added to Union (See Map X.), 

30 Records of the County Judge, Book IV, p. 147. 

31 Records of the County Judge, Book IV, p. 244. 


was now (in 1858) restored, making the new township of 
Sharon a full congressional township as it remains at the 
present time.^^ (See Map XIII.) 

A slight modification of the boundaries of three town- 
ships was made by Judge McCleary in 1858 on petition of 
citizens of the different communities. A. H. Humphreys 
presented the request as one of the number. The change 
asked for as given in the records reads : Commencing at 
the south-east corner of township seventy-nine, range eighty 
then west three-fourths of one mile, then north three miles, 
east three-fourths of one mile, then south to the place of 
beginning". The territory thus described was to be added 
to Union township. Again, the north half of the north half 
of section one, township seventy-eight north, range eight 
west, was also to be added to Union. This petition, more- 
over, came from citizens of three different civil townships* 
Against this proposed change A. D. Packard and others 
filed a remonstrance protesting against the inclusion of the 
territory taken from Hardin township. The matter was 
continued from the session of the County Court in which 
it was presented until the January session in 1859 by agree- 
ment of the parties in the case.^^ At the meeting of the 
Court in January no mention is made of the matter, and it 
is probable that the remonstrance was withdrawn. At any 
rate the petition was granted and the additional territory 
given to Union township. It will be noticed that this took 
a fourth of one section from Washington township, a con- 
dition which, if records are complete, is found to exist at 
the present day. (See Map XIII.) 

In the meantime, that is between the offering of the pe- 
tition last above mentioned and its determination, a change 

s^Eecords of the County Judge, Book IV, p. 256. 

33 Eecords of the County Judge, Book IV, pp. 403, 420. See Plat Book and 
Tax List of Union Township for 1910, Tax List, pp. 16, 3, 12, 22. 

VOL. IX — 12 


was made in the boundaries of Iowa City and Newport 
townsMps by the taking that part of sections thirty-three 
and thirty-four in township eighty north, range six west, 
which lies east of the Iowa Eiver from Newport and placing 
it under the jurisdiction of Iowa City township. This came 
about through the petition of Sylvanus Johnson and other 
citizens of these sections.^^ (See Map XIII.) 

The official act of the County Judge in reference to the 
establishment of Madison township can not be found, since 
the county records for 1860 are wanting. There is a record 
furnished by the clerk of that township, William Shrimp, 
who filled that office some years ago, probably about 1880. 
He gives the date of establishment as 1860. George Mc- 
Cleary was judge at that time and it is for the last year of 
his term that the record is not available. But it is not 
difficult, however, to surmise the description of the portion 
of Penn township (See Map VII.) which was to be included 
in the new township. It will be remembered that in 1846 
the Iowa Eiver formed the boundary of Penn township for 
many miles on its northern border. The new plan reduced 
the size of the latter materially, as will be seen by compar- 
ing the two Maps VII and XIV. Details of the lines which 
describe Madison are as follows: Commencing at the 
southeast corner of section fourteen, township eighty north, 
range seven west, the boundary line follows the section line 
north until it intersects the Iowa Eiver. From this point 
it follows the river until the range line between ranges 
seven and eight west is crossed; then it follows this range 
line until the southwest corner of section eighteen, town- 
ship eighty north, range seven west, is reached; and from 
this point it proceeds eastward to the place of beginning. 
Thus, Madison township includes the fractional parts of 
two congressional townships. If a petition was presented 

stBecords of the County Judge, Book IV, p. 419. 


at the time, which can not now be determined, it contained 
probably the suggestion of the boundaries described if not 
the exact wording thereof. Furthermore, the township 
may have been named by the citizens in their petition.^^ 
(See Map XIV.) The first election of officers was to be 
held at the log school house near Swan Lake. 

After 1860 the changes in township boundaries become 
less frequent and are of a minor nature. The large di- 
visions had been practically agreed upon. Moreover, it is 
noticeable that in all the modifications that have thus far 
occurred no objection was raised on the part of the county 
authorities to the arrangements proposed by the petition- 
ers. At least the records indicate no such opposition. 
Only one remonstrance is recorded in any case and that 
came from a body of citizens. 

The Board of Supervisors came into office and began 
their duties in January, 1861. Their first official act with 
reference to township organization was to divide Pleasant 
Valley township by a line commencing at the northern 
boundary of township seventy-eight north, range five west, 
on the half section line of section five and following this 
half section line to the south line of the township named, 
dividing sections five, eight, seventeen, twenty, twenty- 
nine, and thirty-two. The territory west of this line re- 
tained the name of Pleasant Valley while that east of the 
line was called Lincoln township. The question of election 
this time was referred to the committee of the Board on 
township organization. It appears from the minutes that 
the movement resulting in this division was begun by 
Supervisor Dilatush, and the date of the order was June 
8, 1870. 

Later in the same month it was ordered by the Board that 
the officers of Pleasant Valley should exercise the same 

35 Johnson County History, 1883, p. 732. 


authority over Lincoln township that they did over their 
own township until an election should be held, the same as 
if no division had occurred.^^ The cause of the delay in 
holding the election in Lincoln township was the opposition 
of certain citizens to the change. They presented petitions 
of protest, and the question was not finally determined 
until April, 1871, when the parties appeared before the 
Board of Supervisors to argue the case. After the argu- 
ments were heard the Supervisors took some time for con- 
sideration.^^ Later at the same session it was decided, by 
a vote of two to one in committee, to change the line of di- 
vision as described on the half section line to the section 
line between sections four and five and then to the south 
boundary. This, it will be seen, moved the line of division 
one half mile to the east. (See Map XV.) The first com- 
mittee on this matter were S. H. Hemsted, Christopher 
Fuhrmeister, and Wm. T. Buck. The second committee in- 
cluded Supervisors Samuel Spurrier, M. J. Morsman, and 
L. E. Wolf. 

In 1873 citizens of Iowa City township asked to have an 
organization separate from that of the city so far as town- 
ship government was concerned, and they offered a petition 
in support of this request. After investigation a special 
committee of the Board of Supervisors reported on the 
matter in January, 1873. According to their report the 
census of 1869 gave the population of Iowa City as ex- 
ceeding four thousand, or 6,548. The signers of the peti- 
tion living outside of the city, according to the poll books 
which were examined, constituted the required number, of 
a majority. The committee reported that all the conditions 
of the law had been complied with. The official act estab- 
lishing the township of Lucas followed this report. All the 

30 Minutes of the County Supervisors, Book II, pp. 485, 501, 523, 524. 
37 Minutes of the County Supervisors, Book III, p. 35. 


territory outside of the corporate limits of Iowa City was 
to form one township to be called Lucas, while the city area 
was to retain the name of Iowa City township. (See Map 
XV.) Polling places for the coming general election were 
fixed at the court house for the people of Iowa City town- 
ship and the fair grounds for the people of Lucas town- 
ship.s« (See Map XV.) 

The first change in the boundaries of Iowa City town- 
ship, after the formation of Lucas from the territory out- 
side of the corporation, was due to the changes in school 
districts. Some discussion arose between the independent 
district of Iowa City and the school township of Lucas, and 
as a result it became desirable to rearrange the lines of 
Iowa City township. The changes then (April 7, 1879) 
included the small portion of territory added to the inde- 
pendent district. It began on the left bank of the Iowa 
Eiver at the southwest corner of lot three as surveyed by 
the United States government, in section fifteen. From 
this point the boundary extended eastward to the southeast 
corner of the northwest quarter of the southwest quarter of 
section fourteen ; then north to the northeast corner of the 
west one-half of the southwest quarter of section two ; then 
west to the northwest corner of the east half of the south- 
east quarter of section three; and then south to the north 
line of section ten. This, together with the original terri- 
tory of Iowa City township, became the new township of 
Iowa City.^^ (See Map XV.) 

38 Minutes of the County Supervisors, Book III, pp. 158, 159. Also Sec- 
tion three, Chapter Fifty-two, Acts of the Fourteenth General Assembly, 1872, 
p. 60. 

Keturns of assessor for the year 1872 showed that there were 472 legal 
voters outside the city corporation. Of these 284 signed the petition, that is, 
a majority as required by the law. Samuel Spurrier was the special committee 
appointed by the Board of Supervisors to investigate and report. 

39 Minutes of the County Supervisors, Book IV, p. 31. See Lucas township 
School Board Minutes, August 26, 1876, and April 13, 1878. See township 
plats as compared with original surveys by F. H. Lee. 


Originally the boundaries of Lucas township correspond- 
ed to the congressional township of Iowa City as estab- 
lished in 1846 — if the change in the line of West Lucas can 
be accounted for. Somewhere between the years 1858 and 
1870 the west three-fourths of sections nineteen, thirty, and 
thirty-one of what was Iowa City township, or congression- 
al township seventy-nine north, range six west, was added 
to Union township; but no record can be found to show 
when or how this change was made. It happens that the 
portion of the township mentioned is the exact counterpart 
of that on the west line of Union which was added by peti- 
tion in 1858. It may have been added then as a matter of 
accommodation ; but this is merely an inference, there being 
no specific authority in the records for such a conclusion. 
The natural division of Lucas township into two parts by 
the river led to the establishment of two election precincts 
on June 2, 1874 ; and in the returns of elections the divisions 
came to be called West Lucas and East Lucas without the 
term precinct'' thereto attached. Hence it was quite 
natural to speak or write of West Lucas township ; and as 
a matter of fact in the minutes of the County Board of 
Supervisors this term does appear before its use is war- 
ranted by any authority other than custom.^^ The same 
term is again used in the minutes for 1891 — probably after 
a petition was offered but before any authority was given 
for such use.*^ The actual division into East Lucas and 
West Lucas was ordered on April 8, 1891. Since a change 
in the boundaries of these townships is given below in full 
it is not necessary to repeat here the outside boundaries of 
the townships. The only change that took place since the 
establishment of the first boundaries of Iowa City town- 

40 Minutes of the County Supervisors, Book IV, p. 323. 

41 Minutes of the County Supervisors, Book V, pp. 476, 481. 


ship has been mentioned above in connection with the Union 
township boundary. 

The last change in boundaries, the description of which 
contains the outlines of East Lucas and West Lucas and 
the boundaries of Iowa City townships, was as recent as 
September, 1910. The minutes of the Board of Supervis- 
ors relative to these boundaries are exact and, indeed, were 
drafted to correspond with the drawing prepared by the 
city officers. To describe West Lucas it is necessary to fol- 
low the lines very closely to make the change clear either 
in language or on the map. Commencing at the township 
line between congressional townships seventy-eight and 
seventy-nine north, range six west, on the west bank of the 
Iowa Eiver, the boundary follows this side of the river 
to the limits of Iowa City; then it runs west to the south- 
west corner of the northwest quarter of the southeast quar- 
ter of section sixteen, township seventy-nine; then it pro- 
ceeds north along the east line of the west half of sections 
sixteen and nine to the north side of the State Eoad to New- 
ton and follows the north side of this road to the west line 
of section nine ; thence it runs north to the west bank of the 
river; then follows the river to the northeast until the north 
line of section nine is reached ; then runs east to the north- 
west corner of section ten; and thence north to the west 
bank of the river. At this point there is a confusing prob- 
lem that compels one to retrace his steps, following the 
west bank of the river in a southwesterly and finally north- 
erly direction around the bend until the north line of sec- 
tion four, township seventy-nine north, range six west, is 
reached. The description from this point is the same as 
for West Lucas township in 1891, namely; west from the 
river on the township line between townships seventy-nine 
and eighty to the range line between ranges six and seven ; 
then south to the southwest corner of section eighteen ; then 


east to the northeast corner of the northwest quarter of the 
northeast quarter of section nineteen; then south on the 
east line of the west half of the east half of sections nine- 
teen, thirty, and thirty-one to the township line; and then 
east to the starting point on the river. (See Map XVI.) 

The East Lucas boundary commences at the southeast 
corner of section thirty-six and follows the township line 
between townships seventy-eight and seventy-nine to the 
river. Then it runs north to the city limits and east to the 
right of way of the main line of the Eock Island Railroad. 
It follows this right of way in a southeasterly direction 
until the east line of section fourteen is reached, then it runs 
north along the east line of this section to the northeast 
corner of the same, then west along the north line of section 
fourteen, to the northwest corner of the northeast quarter 
of section fourteen, then north along the east line of the 
west half of sections eleven and two of township seventy- 
nine north, range six west, to the south side of the Dubuque 
road in section two, then in a westerly direction along the 
Dubuque road, on the south side to the southeast corner of 
the northwest quarter of the northwest quarter of section 
two, then west to the southwest corner of the northwest 
quarter of the northwest quarter of section three, then 
south on the west line of section three to the east bank of 
the river. It follows the east bank of the river until the 
north line of section thirty-four, township eighty north, 
range six west, is reached, then runs east to the northeast 
corner of the same section thirty-four, then south to the 
southeast corner of the same section, then east to the north- 
east corner of section one in township seventy-nine north, 
range six west (the original Iowa City township), and 
finally runs south on the range line between ranges five and 
six to the place of beginning.^^ (See Map XVI.) 

42 Minutes of the County Supervisors, Book VIII, p. 38. 

VOL. IX 13 




VOL. IX 13* 







Civil Townships after the Creation op Hardin and 
Sharon in 1858 


Civil Townships after the Creation of Madison in 



Civil Townships in 1873 after the Creation of 
Lincoln and Lucas and Other Changes 





Big Grove : — Established by order of the Board of Com- 
missioners under date of April 9, 1845; first election held 
on first Monday in April, 1846; subsequent changes in 
boundaries occur in 1846. 

Cedar : — Established by order of the Board of Commis- 
sioners under date of January 7, 1846 ; first election held on 
the first Monday in April, 1846 ; no subsequent changes oc- 
cur in boundaries. 

Clear Creeh: — Established by order of the Board of 
Commissioners under date of February 10, 1846 ; first elec- 
tion held on the first Monday in April, 1846; subsequent 
changes in boundaries occur in October, 1847, August, 1852,, 
March, 1856, and July, 1857. 

Fremont : — Established by order of the Judge of the 
County Court in the early part of 1857; mention of the 
township made in connection with special election for rail- 
road tax held on April 6, 1857 ; no subsequent changes occur 
in boundaries. 

Graham: — Established by order of the Judge of the 
County Court under date of January 5, 1857 ; first election 
held on April 6, 1857 ; no subsequent changes occur in 

Hardin: — Established by order of the Judge of the 
County Court under date of January 4, 1858 ; first election 
held on April 5, 1858; subsequent changes in boundaries, 
occur in February, 1858. 

Iowa City : — Established by order of the Board of Com- 
missioners under date of February 10, 1846; first election 
held on the first Monday in April, 1846 ; subsequent changes 
in boundaries occur in January, 1859, January, 1873, and 
September, 1910. 

Jefferson: — Established by order of the Judge of the 

VOL. IX — 14 


County Court under date of March 6, 1854; first election 
held on April 3, 1854; no subsequent changes occur in 

Liberty: — Established by order of the Board of Com- 
missioners under date of February 10, 1846; first election 
held on the first Monday in April, 1846 ; subsequent changes 
in boundaries occur in March, 1854, and February, 1858. 

Lincoln : — Established by order of the Board of Super- 
visors under date of June 8, 1870; first election held on 
second Tuesday in October, 1870; subsequent changes in 
boundaries occur in April, 1871. 

Lucas : — Established by order of the Board of Super- 
visors under date of January 15, 1873; first election held 
on second Tuesday in October, 1873 ; subsequent changes in 
boundaries occur in April, 1891. 

Lucas J East : — Established by order of the Board of 
Supervisors under date of April 8, 1891; mention of the 
township made in connection with the general election of 
1891; subsequent changes in boundaries occur in Septem- 
ber, 1910. 

Lucas, West: — Established by order of the Board of 
Supervisors under date of April 8, 1891; mention of the 
township in connection with the general election of 1891; 
subsequent changes in boundaries occur in September, 1910. 

Madison : — Established by order of the Board of Super- 
visors in 1860; first election probably held on the second 
Tuesday in October, 1860 ; no subsequent changes occur in 

Monroe : — Established by order of the Board of Com- 
missioners under date of February 10, 1846; first election 
held on the first Monday in April, 1846 ; subsequent changes 
in boundaries occur in March, 1854. 

Newport : — Established by order of the Board of Com- 
missioners under date of February 10, 1846; first election 


held on the first Monday in April, 1846 ; subsequent changes 
in boundaries occur in October, 1847, January, 1857, and 
January, 1859. 

Oxford: — Established by order of the Judge of the 
County Court under date of March 3, 1856; first election 
held on April 7, 1856; no subsequent changes occur in 

Penn : — Established by order of the Board of Commis- 
sioners under date of February 10, 1846 ; first election held 
on the first Monday in April, 1846; subsequent changes in 
boundaries occur in October, 1860. 

Pleasant Valley : — Established by order of the Board of 
Commissioners under date of February 10, 1846 ; first elec- 
tion held on the first Monday in April, 1846; subsequent 
changes in boundaries occur in June, 1870. 

Scott : — Established by order of the Board of Commis- 
sioners under date of February 10, 1846 ; first election held 
on the first Monday in April, 1846 ; subsequent changes in 
boundaries occur in October, 1847. 

Sharon: — Established by order, of the Judge of the 
County Court under date of February 1, 1858 ; first election 
held on the first Monday in April, 1858; no subsequent 
changes occur in boundaries. 

Union : — Established by order of the Judge of the Coun- 
ty Court under date of August 30, 1852 ; first election held 
on April 4, 1853; subsequent changes in boundaries occur 
in March, 1854, July, 1857, February, 1858, and some time 
between 1858 and 1870. 

Washington: — Established by order of the Board of 
Commissioners under date of February 10, 1846 ; first elec- 
tion held on the first Monday in April, 1846; subsequent 
changes in boundaries occur in October, 1847, August, 1852, 
March, 1854, January, 1858, and February, 1858. 

Claeence Eay Auknee 

Iowa City, Iowa 




In the year 1820 a line of outposts extending from the 
Lakes to the mouth of the Mississippi marked the military 
frontier in the West. At the northern end of this line stood 
the island town and fort of Michilimackinack in the straits 
of Lakes Michigan and Huron. Thence southward lay Fort 
Howard on Green Bay and Prairie du Chien at the mouth 
of the Wisconsin River. Two regiments of infantry were 
encamped along the Missouri River ; while in the South, the 
Sabine River was guarded by a small detachment. Thence 
eastward several small posts completed the border defenses 
through Louisiana to New Orleans.^ 

A glance at the census map of 1820 will show that there 
existed a gap between this far-spreading military line and 
the established settlements.^ In the South the pioneers had 
advanced beyond the Mississippi into Missouri and Arkan- 
sas ; and parts of western Louisiana had long been occupied. 
But north and west of the Missouri settlements the Missis- 

^ Niles' Weeldy Eegister, Vol. XIX, p. 251; American State Papers, Military 
Afairs, Vol. II, p. 37. For a picture of army life on this frontier, see Colonel 
Cooke's Adventures in the Army (Philadelphia, 1859). 

2 Map facing page xxii, Eleventh Census, Population, Vol. I, Part 1. See 
also Turner's Colonization of the West in the American Historical Review, Vol. 
XI, p. 307. For a comparison of the "farmer's frontier" and the military 
frontier, see Turner's Significance of the Frontier in American History in the 
Annual lieport of the American, Historical Association, 1893, p. 211. 




sippi Valley was unbroken Indian country. On the eastern 
side of the river, the body of settlements had hardly ad- 
vanced further northward than a line drawn from the mouth 
of the Missouri Eiver to Detroit in Michigan. 

Eastward, also, within the interior lay large districts 
barren of legal habitation, because the Indian title had not 
been extinguished. Along the old Spanish border of Flor- 
ida, the army had but recently been employed in subduing 
the Seminoles and their allies. Again, in the States of Indi- 
ana and Illinois and in the Territory of Michigan there were 
extensive wildernesses where the Chippewas, Ottawas, Pot- 
tawatomies, Winnebagos, Menomonees, Miamis, and Sac 
and Fox Indians still retained their possessory rights to the 
soil and sullenly resisted the encroachment of settlers. 
Even as far east as the State of Georgia the Cherokees and 
the Creeks stubbornly clung to their native land, as did the 
Choctaws and Chickasaws in Mississippi and Alabama. 
White settlements encroached upon these Indian lands from 
all directions, so that some tribes like the Cherokees and 
the Creeks were almost surrounded by citizen pioneers. 
Thus conflicts between the two races were inevitable. 
Frontiersmen, impatient at the Government's delay in ac- 
quiring the Indian title to these rich valleys, frequently 
staked out their little claims within the Indian territory and 
thereby brought down upon themselves the resentment of 
the original claimants who retaliated by pilfering corn and 
stealing cattle. The Indians on their part, after ceding 
their lands to the United States and agreeing to retire to 
other possessions, were often loath to leave and hung about 
the new settlements much to the annoyance of the settlers.^ 

The relations between the pioneers and the aborigines were 
theoretically prescribed by Federal laws. These trade 

3 The American State Papers, Indian Ajfairs, contain a mass of evidence 
concerning the relations of the backwoodsmen and the Indians. 


and intercourse acts," as they were called — the first one 
being passed as early as 1796 — provided severe penal- 
ties not only for attempting to settle upon any lands, the 
Indian title to which had not yet been extinguished, but 
they even imposed a penalty for going into the Indian coun- 
try without a passport. The military force of the United 
States might be used to expel such intruders.^ But in spite 
of these Federal enactments, there always existed on the 
frontier more or less irritation and tension. Pioneers im- 
patient for land eluded the scattered dragoons of the small 
western army and encroached upon the Indian country. 
The Iowa country was thus invaded by a few bold settlers 
who crossed the Mississippi at Dubuque in 1830.^ The ma- 
jority of the frontier pioneers were content to wait until 
the Government had bought the Indian title to the western 
lands. But even after this title had been secured troubles 
sometimes arose — due to the failure of some Indians to 
comprehend the papers which they had signed or on ac- 
count of their simple and savage unwillingness to perform 
their obligations.^ 

To this state of things the plan to remove all tribes from 
the east to the west of the Mississippi owes its origin in the 
early years of the nineteenth century. Jefferson was the 
first to elaborate the idea. Colonization in Upper Louisiana 
was the plan that occurred to him in the year 1803.''^ Al- 

4 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. I, pp. 470, 745; Vol. II, p. 139; Vol. 
Ill, p. 332. 

5 Parish 's The Langworthys of Early Dubuque and Their Contributions to 
Local History in The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, Vol. VIII, No. 
3, p. 317. 

6 The Indians' side of the story is well told in the Life of BlacJc HaivTc 
(Boston, 1834). Mrs. Gratiot's Narrative in the Wisconsin Historical Col- 
lections, Vol. X, p. 261, is a good type of the pioneer accounts. 

7 Ford's The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, Vol. VIII, pp. 241-243. Jef- 
ferson's first proposal of such a plan to any tribe was his address to the Chick- 
asaws in 1805. — Washington's Writings of Thomas Jefferson, Vol. VIII, p. 199. 


though he made no definite recommendations thereon to 
Congress his views were widely known by correspondence 
and personal conversations ; and through such means it was 
that the sixteenth section of the Louisiana Territorial Act 
of 1804 was written, empowering the President to exchange 
Indian lands east of the Mississippi for lands on the 
west side. Attempts to secure removal during Jefferson's 
administration were neither energetic nor successful, al- 
though the application of this remedy to the Indian problem 
was urged by the Governor of the Territory of Indiana, 
William Henry Harrison, and was occasionally advocated 
in Congress.^ 

The idea of westward removal appealed most strikingly 
to Southerners. Four great tribes — the Cherokees and 
Creeks and the Chickasaws and Choctaws — were coming to 
be a most serious menace to the progress of the southwest- 
ern frontier. These tribes still retained their possessive 
rights to large tracts of most fertile land in Tennessee, 
Georgia, and the Territory of Mississippi, and thus their 
presence threatened seriously to retard industrial develop- 
ment. In the Northwest the need of removal beyond the 
Mississippi was not so ardently demanded until after the 
War of 1812 because the over-strenuous administrations of 
General Anthony Wayne and Governor Harrison acquired 
from the Indians vast sections of land years in advance of 

The origin of the removal policy is exhaustively discussed by Dr. Abel in 
Indian Consolidation West of the Mississippi in the Annual Beport of the 
American Historical Association, 1906, Vol. I, p. 235 et seq. Dr. Abel de- 
scribes the Indian removal chiefly from the side of the Executive Department, 
Tvhile Phillips in Georgia and State Eights describes the episode of the Creek 
and Cherokee removals from the viewpoint of the States concerned. — Annual 
Beport of the American Historical Association, 1901, Vol. II. On the other 
hand, the removal of Indians across the Mississippi is portrayed from the In- 
dians^ side in the monograph by Eoyce entitled The CheroTcee Nation of In- 
dians in the Fifth Annual Beport of the Bureau of Ethnologyy p. 129. 

^Annals of Congress, 1st Session, 8th Congress, pp. 41, 440. Senator James 
Jackson of Georgia and John Eandolph of Virginia casually mention the plan. 


the actual economic need of that section of the country ; and, 
moreover, the Lidians themselves retreated westward more 
rapidly than did their southern brothers before the stream 
of eastern emigration. Perhaps the first serious proposal 
to exchange the lands of the northern Indians for lands be- 
yond the Mississippi occurred in 1817, when Lewis Cass, 
Governor of Michigan Territory, was instructed by Mon- 
roe's Secretary of War to propose to the Lidians of the 
Ohio that they exchange their lands for equal tracts beyond 
the Mississippi — reserving, however, a certain number of 
acres in the ceded territory to each head of a family who 
wished to remain.^ A year later the first treaty whereby a 
northern tribe — in this case the Delawares — ceded their 
lands in Indiana for a tract beyond the Mississippi was ne- 
gotiated by Lewis Cass and two other commissioners.^^ In 
1819 a similar treaty was negotiated with the Kickapoos of 
niinois.^^ Then the score of years following was marked 
with similar zealous and successful efforts to evict the In- 
dians from the Old Northwest under the guise of solemnly 
negotiated treaties. 

In July of the year when removal was inaugurated in the 
Indian affairs of the North, Andrew Jackson secured with 
much effort a treaty with a southern tribe, the Cherokees, 
providing for the removal of such individuals of that tribe 
as were willing to make the change.^^ The question of the 
removal of these Indians and the Creeks soon became in- 
volved in the fierce controversy between these nations and 
the State of Georgia. Thereupon the whole affair was sev- 
eral times reviewed in Congress as will be further noted. 

These then were the beginnings of the removal policy. 

9 Americcm State Papers, Indian A fairs, Vol. II, p. 136. 
loKappler's Indian Affairs, Laws and Treaties, Vol. II, p. 170. 
11 Kappler's Indian A fairs, Laws and Treaties, Vol. II, p. 182. 
i2Kappler's Indian A fairs, Laws and Treaties, Vol. II, p. 140. 


Its origin was executive, not congressional. Indeed, we 
' shall see that the stimnlus for a national plan of removal 
came almost entirely from the Executive Department, al- 
though local interests never ceased to memorialize Con- 
gress for the removal of individual tribes whose presence 
annoyed particular States. Before the third decade of the 
century the plan was little dreamed of; but what the atti- 
tude of Congress would be when it should seriously con- 
sider the subject was already forecasted. Commiseration 
for the retreating Indians, whether maudlin or philanthrop- 
ic, was to be put aside. The story of Clay's futile elo- 
quence on behalf of the Seminoles has already been told.^^ 
On all points was Jackson's decisive conduct with the Flor- 
ida Indians sustained, not only in the Fifteenth Congress 
but as well in the first session of the Sixteenth Congress.^^ 


Of the thirteen original States, Georgia was the only one 
possessing in 1820 a considerable frontier.^^ In the North, 
the Indian frontier had passed westward beyond Ohio, al- 
though a few isolated tribes and individuals still remained 
in New York and in New England. From Virginia the bor- 
der difficulties in the back country which filled the corre- 
spondence of Governor Patrick Henry were now long van- 
ished. Even Kentucky — the first of the admitted States in 
the West — was quite free from aboriginal inhabitants. 
Prosperous plantations covered these once famous hunting 

13 The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, Vol. VIII, No. 1, pp.. 

14 Annals of Congress^ 1st Session, 16th Congress, p. 1542. 

15 No less a historian than Frederick J. Turner has included the back coun- 
try of Georgia, during the years following 1820, as a part of the western 
frontier. — Bise of the New West, p. 57. The settlers who were encroaching 
upon the Cherokee and Creek lands west of the Ocmulgee Eiver had much in 
common with the settlers who were crossing the Mississippi at the same time. 

VOL. IX — 15 


But Georgia presents another story. One-tMrd of the 
State, in fact all of the lands north and west of the Ocmul- 
gee Eiver, was still held by the Creeks and Cherokees.^^ 
The Cherokees were semi-civilized but annoying. The 
Creeks were more war-like. Divided in their councils, a 
part had struck the Government in the War of 1812, while 
the other part had been actively loyal. The danger of their 
presence was ever a source of worry ; and this the Georgia 
delegation often told Congress.^^ **The unprotected situa- 
tion of the frontiers invited aggression and the predatory 
and sanguinary depredations of a dark and insidious ene- 
my, whose track was to be traced by blood and desolation, 
cried aloud for vengeance'', declared one Georgian Eepre- 
sentative.^^ This utterance was made when Georgia was ad- 
vocating her Militia Claims. The debates upon these 
claims, although referring to conditions at the close of the 
eighteenth century, reflect much of the contemporary atti- 
tude of the Georgia delegation. As an example of the hun- 
dreds of similar claims presented to Congress by western 
members almost every year they may beg the attention of 
the reader for a moment. The Georgia Militia Claims orig- 
inated in the border outbreaks of 1792, when the State had 
employed her militia in suppressing the Indians. Some 
years later Georgia demanded recompense therefor, al- 
though these claims were said to have been liquidated in the 
transactions of 1802 when Georgia ceded her lands to the 
United States.^ ^ For a score of years thereafter the im- 
passioned speeches of the Georgians presented Congress 

16 Annals of Congress, Ist Session, 18th Congress, p. 465. 

17 Gilmer's SJcetcJies of the Settlers of Upper Georgia, p. 504 et seq. 
'i-^ Annals of Congress, 2nd Session, 17th Congress, p. 163. 

i» The argument for these claims is given at length in Senator Elliott's re- 
port of 1822. — Annals of Congress, 1st Session, 17th Congress, p. 383, Annals 
of Congress, 2nd Session, 7th Congress, p. 461. For the argument against the 
claims, see pp. 523, 535. 


with a vivid picture of the State's border position. That 
eastern members could never appreciate the horrors of 
Georgia's exposed condition nor comprehend the service 
that she was rendering to the nation by standing as a bul- 
wark against the Indians was the burden of these har- 
angues. Heart-thrilling accounts of the midnight char- 
acter of Indian hostility" depicted in rather lively col- 
ors this frontier and idealized the settlers who ventured 
with their families so close to the aborigines.^^ Persistence 
in these addresses finally won an appropriation from Con- 
gress in the year 1827, in spite of the bar to the claims.^^ 
Meanwhile Georgia had carried to Congress the most ob- 
stinate of all frontier problems. Should the Creeks and 
Cherokees continue to hold wildernesses in a civilized State 
and bar the progress of American settlement? True, the 
Cherokees were of all American tribes the most civilized; 
both they and the Creeks had made progress in agriculture 
and were becoming attached to the land they occupied by 
stronger bonds than those which bound the roving Indians 
of the Northwest to their hunting grounds.^^ But the eco- 
nomic interests of Georgia were ready for expansion upon 

20 Mr. Wiley Thompson of Georgia exclaimed that Georgia had been ' * del- 
uged by the blood of her citizens, slaughtered in defending the United States; 
and still justice .... is withheld from them." — Register of Debates, 
2nd Session, 18th Congress, p. 81. 

Indian troubles were unavoidable, Thompson contended. Eastern States 
seemed not to appreciate Georgia's position — how she stood as bulwark 
between the Indians and the interior States, while she received the death stroke 
of the Indian tomahawk in her own bosom". — Register of Debates, 2nd Ses- 
sion, 19th Congress, p. 1245. 

John Forsyth charged that the claims had been rejected simply because the 
State operations against the Creeks and Cherokees had taken a direction of- 
fensive to the Administration. — Eegister of Debates, 2nd Session, 18th Con- 
gress, p. 581. 

^^Begister of Debates, 2nd Session, 19th Congress, pp. 1266, 488. 
22Eoyce's The CheroTcee Nation of Indians in the Fifth Annual Beport of 
the Bureau of Ethnology, p. 231. 


the Indian lands ; the aggressive settlers demanded portions 
of the unused districts still held by the Creeks and Chero- 
kees; but demand as they might, these tribes began stub- 
bornly to refuse any further cessions of their remaining 
domain. 2^ 

Such a condition boded trouble indeed. One third of a 
Commonwealth in the hands of some thirty thousand per- 
sistent aborigines was a fact which naturally provoked the 
citizens, who were nearly two hundred thousand in number 
and rapidly increasing.^* 

The problem would have been quickly solved had the 
State controlled the lands in question. But in 1802 Georgia 
had ceded her public lands to the United States. In the 
compact, however, the Federal Government stipulated that 
the title to Indian lands lying within the State should be 
extinguished as early as could be peaceably done upon rea- 
sonable terms.2^ This the Federal Government proceeded 
to accomplish, and by treaties with the Creeks and Cher- 
okees secured for both Georgia and Alabama prior to the 
year 1824 some fifteen million acres of land.^^ Ten million 
still remained in the possession of the two tribes when they 
manifested their determination to cede no more. 

Since 1802 the Executive Department had been sincerely 
willing to fulfil its promises, although ever insisting upon 
treating the Indians with diplomatic courtesy. And Con- 
gress as well had voted generous appropriations to conduct 
treaties of cession. Now, however, it was apparent that if 
the diplomatic attitude of the Executive continued no more 

23 For a comparative map of Indian land cessions in Georgia, see the Eight- 
eenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, Part 2, Plate XV. 

24 For population of Creeks and Cherokees, see American State Papers, In- 
dian Afairs, Vol. II, p. 546. 

25 American State Papers, Public Lands, Vol. I, p. 125, 

20 Report of Secretary of War. — Annals of Congress, 1st Session, 18th Con- 
gress, p. 465. 



cessions conld be obtained. A commanding attitude was 
necessary to make these Indians retreat ; and the Georgians 
were disappointed and provoked because such a course of 
action was not vigorously followed by Monroe and Madi- 
son.2^ ^J^l^Q Governor and legislature frankly told the. Gov- 
ernment so at different times with increasing irritation.^^ 
That the Federal Executive was disinclined to coerce the 
Cherokees and Creeks was evident in Monroe's message of 
March 30, 1824. have no hesitation'', wrote the Presi- 
dent, * ' to declare it as my opinion, that the Indian title was 
not affected in the slightest circumstance by the compact 
with Georgia, and that there is no obligation on the United 
States to remove the Indians by force." But he added: 
^'My impression is equally strong that it would promote es- 
sentially the security and happiness of the tribes within 
our limits, if they could be prevailed on to retire west and 
north of our States and Territories, on lands to be procured 
for them by the United States, in exchange for those on 
which they now reside. ' '^^ 

27 Calhoun when Secretary of War under Monroe disapproved the policy of 
treating with the Indian tribes as with States or nations. — American State 
Papers, Indian Afairs, Vol. II, p. 276. 

The attitude of Monroe and Adams in this respect is open to just criticism. 
The Georgia delegation pronounced formal treaty-making to be a farce. Why 
should the Government act as if the Indians were foreign powers? asked For- 
syth. The question seems never to have been satisfactorily answered. — Register 
of Debates, 1st Session, 19th Congress, p. 2614. 

For an army officer's opinion in later days, see Centennial of the United 
States Military Academy at West Point (Washington, 1904), p. 527. 

28 Phillips's Georgia and State Bights in the Annual Beport of the American 
Historical Association, 1901, Vol. II, p. 52 et seq. The attitude of Georgia was 
nicely expressed in the memorial addressed by the legislature to the President 
of the United States in 1819. ''The State of Georgia", read this protest, 
''claims a right to the jurisdiction and soil of the territory within her limits. 
. . . . She admits however, that the right is inchoate — remaining to be 
perfected by the United States, in the extinction of the Indian title ; the United 
States pro hac vice as their agents." — See Worcester vs. State of Georgia, 6 
Peters 585. 

Annals of Congress, 1st Session, 18th Congress, p. 463. The Message and 


Monroe admitted that the question had developed beyond 
executive control ; and he therefore submitted to the consid- 
eration of Congress, trusting that the Indians as well as the 
people of Georgia would receive equal justice. If Monroe 
hoped by this message to throw the responsibility for action 
upon Congress he was doomed to disappointment. The so- 
lution which he tentatively proposed was to peaceably in- 
cline the Cherokees toward accepting the removal plan. 
But Congress was not ready to assume the responsibility. 
The President possessed the treaty powers under the Con- 
stitution. Why should he not continue to treat and the 
Senate to ratify? 

While Congress hesitated to touch the affair, the Georgia 
delegation were loud in their attempts to secure decision. 
**If the Cherokees are unwilling to remove," they said, 
*^the causes of that unwillingness are to be traced to the 
United States. If a peaceable purchase cannot be made in 
the ordinary mode, nothing remains to be done but to order 
their removal to a designated territory beyond the limits of 
Georgia ".^^ It is needless to say that their efforts were in 
vain. The Senate Committee on Indian Affairs passed over 
the matter without reporting.^^ The House Committee, be- 
ing headed by John Forsyth, naturally reported that im- 
mediate removal was wise, but the measure was lost in the 
House.^^ The times were premature for drastic solution, 
although the issue had become well defined. If the Georgia 
Indians refused to emigrate should their possessive rights 

accompanying documents were printed in Senate Documents, 1st Session, 18th 
Congress, No. 63. 

30 Annals of Congress, 1st Session, 18th Congress, p. 471. 

31 The Senate referred the Georgia Indian controversy to its Committee on 
Indian Affairs, of which Benton was chairman. — Annals of Congress, 1st Ses- 
sion, 18th Congress, p. 474. The Journal of the Senate does not indicate that 
the Committee reported during the session. — Journal of the Senate, 1st Session, 
18th CongresB, p. 28. 

32 Annals of Congress, 1st Session, 18th Congress, p. 2348. 


to soil in Georgia's jurisdiction be maintained by Federal 
authority? Or, should the stubborn Indians be forced to 
emigrate? The first horn of this dilemma was intolerable 
to the State of Georgia and to her sympathizers ; while nei- 
ther eastern Congressmen nor the President would seize 
the latter. 


The Georgia delegation little realized that their persist- 
ent demands in Georgia's behalf would gradually force 
Congress and the Executive to the adoption of some general 
plan for disposing of the Indians. But that event was to 
be in the future and at present was little contemplated by 
members of Congress, although signs of the disastrous pol- 
icy, then being pursued, were not lacking even in the halls 
of Congress. In December, 1823, a most egregious blunder 
had been exposed, concerning the assignment of lands to the 
Choctaws and Cherokees west of the Mississippi. It ap- 
pears that the most fertile of the lands ceded to these tribes 
during the years 1817 to 1820, in exchange for their eastern 
possessions, lay within the Territory of Arkansas and were 
already occupied in part by white * ^ squatters ' '. In the case 
of the Cherokee tribe the United States agreed by treaty to 
remove all intruders upon the ceded lands ; while the Choc- 
taws relied upon the promise of General Jackson, who was 
acting as commissioner on the part of the United States, 
that ^ ^ the arm of the Government was strong, and that the 
settlers should be removed. ' 

Their reliance upon the Government was disastrous to 
themselves, for within a few years local interests caused 
even the national legislature to undermine their rights. 

ssKappler's Indian A fairs, Laws and Treaties, Vol. II, p. 142; American 
State Papers, Indian Affairs, Vol. II, p. 549. For a map of the cessions, see 
Royce's Indian Land Cessions in the Eighteenth Annual Report of the Bureau 
of Ethnology, Plate VI. 


The occasion was an angry remonstrance from the Terri- 
torial legislature of Arkansas against the action of Con- 
gress in establishing the western boundary of the Terri- 
tory.^* This line, the citizens complained, cut off from the 
Territory large numbers of **most respectable inhabitants'* 
who had intruded upon the public domain. Henry Conway, 
the Delegate from Arkansas, loudly maintained the alleged 
rights of the intruders. can never consent'', he wrote 
to the Secretary of War, **to any measure which is calcu- 
lated to check the prosperity of my Territory, or to destroy 
the interests of any portion of its inhabitants."^^ 

Li the Senate the memorial from Arkansas was presented 
by Benton and it was referred to a select committee con- 
sisting of Benton, King of Alabama, and Lowrie of Penn- 
sylvania.^^ This occurred in December, 1823. In March 
the committee reported a document of surprising ingenu- 
ity.^^ There were three questions comprising the solution 
of the case, the committee began to explain. Should the in- 
habitants cut off by the line of 1823 be left as they were 
without law to govern them? Or, should they be compelled 
to come within the present limits of the Territory? Or, 
should the western boundary be extended to include them? 

The first method the committee rejected, for reasons ^*too 
obvious to require specification. ' ' The second was also re- 
jected with a confusing number of objections. And so, by 
elimination, what was left but the third plan? Accordingly, 
the committee reported a bill for the extension of the west- 
ern boundary. How the adjustment of the Choctaw and 
Cherokee boundary lines with this new Territorial line 

34 American State Papers, Indian Affairs, Vol. II, p. 556 ; United States 
Statutes at Large, Vol. Ill, p. 750. 

35 American State Papers, Indian A fairs. Vol. II, p. 556. 
86 Annals of Congress, l»t Session, 18th Congress, p. 47. 

37 Annals of Congress, 1st Session, 18th Congress, p. 420. 


might be accomplished the committee did not venture to 
prophesy, save merely to express a hint that the Executive 
would find such conflicts occasions for further treaties with 
the Indians. 

The bill as later amended in the Senate directed the Presi- 
dent to treat with the Choctaws for a modification of the 
Treaty of 1820.^^ In this form it passed both houses and 
became law in May, 1824. Thus the Executive Department 
was forced into the position of breaking public faith with 
the western Choctaws. The consequence was what might 
have been expected : the Choctaws were compelled, in 1825, 
to retire west of the Arkansas line, leaving their promised 
lands in the hands of the irrepressible pioneers.^^ The 
Cherokees on the lands to the north of them soon met the 
same fate.^^ 

That such miserable procedures were the inevitable out- 
•come of the haphazard and sporadic attempts in solving the 
Indian problem, Monroe was more than ever convinced. 
The last years of his administration were enough to show 
him that sectional bickerings and extravagant expense 
would ever be attendant upon a continuation of the present 
unsystematic Indian policy. With the opening of the sec- 
ond session of the Eighteenth Congress barely three months 
of legislative sittings were left to his administration ; yet he 
did not evade the bold presentation of the problem in its 
larger scope. He recommended to Congress the advisabil- 
ity of adopting ^^some well digested plan'' of establishing 

38 Annals of Congress, 1st Session, 18th Congress, p. 778 ; United States Stat- 
utes at Large, Vol. IV, p. 40. 

The Executive Department apparently disregarded that part of the act which 
extended the boundaries of the Territory of Arkansas west of the southwest 
corner of Missouri. — Note the United States Statutes at Large, Vol. VII, p. 
311; Vol. V, p. 50; Congressional Glohe, 2nd Session, 26th Congress, p. 54. 

39Kappler's Indian A fairs, Laws and Treaties, Vol. II, p. 211. 

4oKappler'9 Indian Affairs, Laws and Treaties, Vol. II, p. 288. 


an Indian district between the limits of our present States 
and territories, and the Eocky Mountain [s] where the 
Government should carefully supervise their progress in 

Having announced his attitude, the President left the 
elaboration of his ideas to his Secretary of War, John C. 
Calhoun. Calhoun developed a plan — one unusual com- 
pared with those hitherto proposed. It was communicated 
to Congress on the 27th of January, 1825.*^ It contemplated 
the establishment of a permanent Indian Territory west of 
the settlements with a government uniting all tribes in one 
organization. To this end the Secretary recommended that 
Congress provide for a convention of the leaders of all east- 
ern tribes in order to explain to them the views and prom- 
ises of the government. 

Already the committees on Indian affairs in both houses, 
were considering the first suggestions of Monroe in his mes- 
sage at the opening of Congress. Benton, the chairman of 
the Senate committee, approved a definite national plan of 
relieving the western States from their undesirable Indian 
population. The bill which this committee reported came 
from the pen of Calhoun and gave legal form to the *^well 
digested'' plan which Monroe had suggested. Its title an- 
nounced it as an act for the preservation and civilization of 
the Indians. On February 23rd it passed the Senate.*^ 

In the lower chamber the bill was referred to the standing 
committee of which John Cocke of Tennessee was chairman. 
The records do not indicate that it was ever considered in 
the Committee of the Whole House — perhaps because of 
the press of other matters. A bill of similar nature, con- 

41 Begister of Debates, 2nd Session, 18th Congress, Appendix, p. 7. 

'i^ Register of Debates, 2nd Session, 18th Congress, Appendix, p. 57; Senate 
Documents, No. 21; Niles' WeeJcly Register, Vol. XXVII, p. 404. 

Journal of the Senate of the United States, 2nd Session, 18th Congress,, 
p. 187. 


cocted by the House committee itself, met the same fate. To 
the proposals of the President little further attention was 
given, save by the easily frightened Delegate from the Ter- 
ritory of Arkansas, who demanded that no lands of his con- 
stituency be granted to the emigrating Indians.^^ 

Such apathy on the part of western Congressmen, when 
Illinois, Indiana, Michigan Territory, Missouri, Mississippi, 
Alabama, and Georgia were looking with restless glances at 
the Indians within their borders, can only be explained by 
the supposition that sectional interests had not yet been 
combined into one great national plan. While Elliott of 
Georgia supported Calhoun's bill in the Senate,^ ^ the re- 
mainder of the Georgia delegation appeared strangely si- 
lent in the House, except in respect to their own grievances 
with the Creeks and the Cherokees. Headed by Forsyth 
they called for the vengeance of Congress to descend upon 
these stiff-necked Indians. Their vexation — fanned into a 
passionate rage by the inertia of Congress — adopted the 
method of blocking all proposals to extend any act of cour- 
tesy or justice to these Indians, ev^n when such acts would 
not interfere with the rights of Georgia.^^ 

4^^mies' Weelcly Begister, Vol. XXVII, p. 271. 

45 Begister of Debates, 2nd Session, 18th Congress, p. 639. 

46 The Cherokee claim in regard to the Wafford Settlement gave one occasion 
for this ungenerous display on Georgia's part. Among the items of the mili- 
tary bill, the Committee on Ways and Means had included an appropriation to 
cancel the obligation of the long neglected treaty ceding the lands in question. 
— Begister of Debates, 2nd Session, 18th Congress, p. 536. 

The gist of the matter was that the Government had undertaken in the year 
1804 to protect certain settlers who had invaded the Indian lands in violation 
of the Federal laws and treaties, but had failed to recompense the Cherokees 
for the land thus illegally seized. — Eoyce's The CheroTcee Nation of Indians in 
the Fifth Annual Beport of the Bureau of Ethnology, p. 186. 

John Forsyth and his colleagues protested against this appropriation. They 
were outvoted. — Begister of Debates, 2nd Session, 18th Congress, p. 546. 

The episode is an illustration of Congress condoning illegal settlements. 
''The Cherokees", said McLane of Delaware during the debate, ''were in pos- 
session of this land within the limits of Georgia, in 1804, Their lands were in- 



Before the last session of his administration had closed 
Monroe was able to submit to the Senate tangible results of 
his efforts to continue the policy of treaty-making with the 
Creeks in Georgia. At Indian Springs on the 12th of Feb- 
ruary the commissioners of the Government had succeeded 
in persuading certain chiefs of the Creek nation to sign a 
treaty ceding all their lands lying within the State of 
Georgia.^ Without inquiring too closely into the history 
of the negotiations Monroe transmitted it, late in February 
and only a few days before the end of his administration, to 
the Senate. This body, on the third of March, hastily ad- 
vised and consented to ratification,^^ although the fact had 
become officially known that the Alabama chiefs of the 
Creek nation had never agreed to the cession.^^ On March 

traded on by citizens either of that state or some other; and an application 
was, in consequence, made by the Cherokees to the United States to dispossess 
the intruders. The Government of the United States felt that it was their duty 
to do so. Orders were issued accordingly, and, military force sent to put them 
into execution. When the troops arrived on the spot, they found that the set- 
tlers, for the most part, had crops then growing, and not gathered; and the of- 
ficers interceded with the Cherokees to delay the removal of the intruders until 
their crops could be gathered in, and finally succeeded in persuading them to 
sell the land to the United States. The Government accordingly issued a com- 
mission to Messrs. Meigs and Smith, to negotiate for the purchase. A treaty 
was held, in which the Indians agreed to sell, and the commissioners to buy their 
land. ... As soon as this treaty was made, the Indians abandoned their 
land, and the settlers were suffered to remain, and others to enter. The Indians 
executed the treaty in good faith, and the only question that we ought to have 
any difl&culty in deciding, would be, not whether they are entitled to receive the 
arrearages of the annuity, but whether we ought not to allow them interest for 
the whole time it has not been paid, — Eegister of Debates, 2nd Session, 18th 
Congress, p. 539. 

47 Kappler's Indian Affairs, Laws and Treaties, Vol. II, p. 214. 

^» Executive Journal of the Senate (1828), Vol. Ill, p. 424. 

'^9 Memoirs of John Quincy Adams, Vol. VII, p. 12. The correspondence 
transmitted to the Senate along with the treaty, must have appeared to a care- 
ful peruser strangely suspicious. — American State Papers, Indian A fairs, Vol. 
II, p. 579. 


7tli John Quincy Adams, respecting the acts of his prede- 
cessor, proclaimed the treaty without ado.^^ 

To the Georgians, who coveted the Creek lands like the 
vineyard of Naboth, the treaty was most gratifying. It 
promised to end their long contention with the Creeks and 
nndonbtedly would have ended the affair had the treaty 
been genuine. But the scandalous conduct of the commis- 
sioners, although legalized by the Senate, was not to stand 
unrepudiated by either the President or the Senate itself- 
Before the next session of Congress the ugly rumors and 
hints of the early part of the year were fully confirmed in 
Washington. It became well known that an impotent and 
discredited faction of the Creeks had signed the treaty in 
direct opposition to the will of the whole nation. Acting up- 
on this light Adams directed the Secretary of War to nego- 
tiate a new treaty with the accredited chiefs of the Creeks 
who had journeyed to the capital protesting the affair of 
Indian Springs.^^ 

By his action the President found himself immediately at- 
tacked by Governor Troup and the Georgia delegation in 
Congress.^2 While Governor Troup directed the quarrel 
with so much vehemence that his name was ever after known 
for angry defiance to the Federal Executive, the Georgia 
delegation in Congress were none the less extreme.^^ On 
J anuary 7, 1826, they declared to the Secretary of War that 
Georgia would never admit the invalidity of the treaty of 
Indian Springs. Their method of proving its genuineness 
was an argumentum ad ignorantiam. The citizens of 

Memoirs of John Quincy Adams, Vol. VII, p. 12. Compare with the mes- 
sage to the Senate, January 31, 1826. — Richardson 's Messages and Papers of 
the Presidents, Vol. II, p. 324. 

51 Memoirs of John Quincy Adams, Vol. VII, pp. 74, 108. 

52 Phillips 's Georgia and State Bights in the Annual Eeport of the American 
Historical Association, 1901, Vol. II, p. 59. 

53 American State Papers, Indian A fairs, Vol. II, p. 747. 


Georgia, they maintained, being * * resident near the scene of 
this controversy, and deeply interested in its result .... 
have been attentive observers of the process by which it has 
been conducted" — evidently meaning to imply that the 
Georgians were better judges than the Federal Government. 

The President did not surrender to the demands of 
Georgia, although his position was rendered the more per- 
plexing by the Creeks who, while willing to legally cede part ' 
of their lands, refused to cede any west of the Chatta- 

In his annual message on December 6th, Adams had prom- 
ised to submit the whole tangled affair to the consideration 
of Congress.^^ If the President hoped thereby to secure 
congressional cooperation in solving the problem as Monroe 
had hoped in the preceding year he evidently changed his 
mind, for the special message was never transmitted. Web- 
ster undoubtedly helped him to this decision by his sound 
advice that nothing would be gained, since Congress would 
do nothing. He even explained to the President the various 
motives by which different members would be actuated 
to do nothing, leaving the Administration to pursue its way 
alone.^^ Adams was so impressed with the fear of provok- 
ing a damaging controversy in Congress that he submitted 
none of the papers concerning the Georgia question when at 
last he sent to the Senate the new treaty which Barbour had 
negotiated with the Creek delegation in Washington as a 
substitute for the Treaty of Indian Springs.^^ 

Barbour's treaty did not provide for the cession of the 
entire Creek country in Georgia.^^ So its reception by the 

54 Memoirs of John Quincy Adams, Vol. VII, p. 66. 

55 Eegister of Debates, 1st Session, 19th Congress, Appendix, p. 4. 
50 Memoirs of John Quincy Adams, Vol. VII, p. 73. 

57 Memoirs of John Quincy Adams, Vol. VII, p. 110. 

58 Kappler 's Indian A fairs. Laws and Treaties, Vol. II, p. 264. 


Senate Committee on Indian Affairs might easily be fore- 
known, since Benton was chairman and Cobb of Georgia a 
leading member. The committee reported on March 17, 
1826, that the Senate should not advise and consent to the 
ratification.^^ Two weeks later Adams was able to submit a 
supplementary article by which the Creeks conceded the 
Senate's point and ceded what was then supposed to be all 
their remaining lands in Georgia.^^ Benton's committee of 
course accepted this concession, and reported back to the 
House the article without amendment.^^ In the Committee 
of the Whole a stubborn but unsuccessful effort was made 
by Berrien of Georgia to alter the first article so as to annul 
the treaty of Indian Springs without reflecting upon the na- 
ture of its negotiation.^^ Upon the final question of advis- 
ing and consenting the vote stood thirty yeas and seven 
nays.^^ The negative vote was headed by the two Georgia 
Senators. The five Senators who voted with them probably 
based their objection to the treaty on constitutional consid- 

Realizing that the Indians wouM be loath to emigrate 
even from the ceded lands, Berrien immediately introduced 
resolutions looking toward the Government's assisting and 
encouraging such emigration.^^ With that purpose in view 
a bill appropriating sixty thousand dollars passed both 

59 Executive Journal of the Senate (1828), Vol. Ill, p. 521. 
60Kappler's Indian A fairs. Laws and Treaties, Vol. II, p. 267. 
Executive Journal of the Senate (1828), Vol. Ill, p. 526. 
Executive Journal of the Senate (1828), Vol. Ill, p. 531. 
Executive Journal of the Senate (1828), Vol. Ill, p. 533. 
64 This at least was the supposition of contemporaries. — See Niles ' WeeTcly 
Register, Vol. XXX, p. 297. 

^5 Executive Journal of the Senate (1828), Vol. Ill, pp. 527, 532; Eegister 
of Debates, 1st Session, 19th Congress, p. 620. 

Eegister of Delates, 1st Session, 19th Congress, p. 2623; United States 
Statutes at Large, Vol. IV, p. 187. 


Within a week of the ratification of the Washington 
Treaty the Committee on Appropriations in the House in- 
troduced a bill to carry into effect its provisions. The dis- 
cussion thereon was almost entirely by the Georgia delega- 
tion, who protested against the late action of the Senate and 
criticised the whole policy of Federal control of Indian Af- 
fairs as an abridgment of State sovereignty.^"^ Their 
speeches did not, however, long delay the roll call on the bill 
which passed with 167 affirmative votes. All but one of the 
Georgia delegation voted in the negative.^^ Again return- 
ing to the Senate we find Senator Benton self -righteously 
assuming the task of amending the bill so as to prevent the 
corrupt distribution of the purchase money among a 
few chiefs'' instead of to the whole nation.^^ 

The ratification of Barbour's Treaty would have prac- 
tically ended the Creek Indian contention with Georgia had 
not Governor Troup insisted upon surveying the boundary 
between Georgia and Alabama before the date set for the re- 
linquishment of the Indian lands — and, moreover, the line 
which he sought to establish passed through lands not ceded 
by the treaty."^ ^ This action of surveying territory where 
the Indian title had not been extinguished was a palpable 
violation of the treaty and of the Federal trade and inter- 
course law of 1802."^^ Adams ordered Governor Troup to 
desist but the Governor supported by his legislature 

67 Register of Debates, 1st Session, 19tli Congress, pp. 2606 et seq. Adams 
was also criticised by the opposition for not fulfilling his promises concerning 
submitting the whole Georgia transactions to Congress. — Begister of Debates, 
1st Session, 19th Congress, p. 2607. 

68 Begister of Debates, 1st Session, 19th Congress, p. 2626. 

69 Benton's Twenty Years' View, Vol. I, p. 60. 

70 Phillips 's Georgia and State Bights in the Annual Beport of the American 
Historical Association, 1901, Vol. II, p. 60 et seq. 

71 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. II, p. 141. — See Section 5. 

72 American State Papers, Indian Affairs, Vol. II, p. 744. 


again violently defied the Federal authorityJ^ The United 
States Attorney for the District of Georgia refused to obey 
the President's order to prosecute the surveyors J* 

On February 5, 1827, Adams appealed to Congress. He 
sent ^^the most momentous message he had yet written' 
In both houses it was referred to select committees ; of the 
one Senator Benton was chairman, and over the other Eep- 
resentative Edward Everett of Massachusetts presided. 
The report of Benton 's committee on March 1st upheld the 
claims of Georgia ; while the House report maintained that 
the Treaty of Washington should be executed by *^all neces- 
sary constitutional and legal means ''."^^ Both advised the 
Executive to continue his exertions to obtain a cession of the 
remaining Creek lands in Georgia as the only possible al- 
leviation of the embarrassment. This, indeed, was what 
Adams had already undertaken."^ Late in the year the hun- 
dred and ninety thousand acres of pine barrens still held by 
the Creeks in Georgia were relinquished by treaty.*^^ Thus 
Georgia 's contention with these Indians was brought to an 
end. But this was not the end of all Indian quarrels. Ten 
thousand Cherokees still remained on Georgian soil, prom- 
ising troubles of their own ; while the attitude of the State of 
Alabama toward the Creeks still within her borders prom- 
ised a repetition of the strife so lately consummated in the 
sister State."^^ 

'^s American State Papers, Indian A fairs, Vol. II, p. 149 et seq.; Niles' 
WeeTcly Register, Vol. XXXII, p. 16. 

74 Phillips's Georgia and State Bights in the Annual Beport of the American 
Historical Association, 1901, Vol. II, p. 62. 

'^5 Memoirs of John Quincy Adams, Vol. VII, p. 221. 

76 Begister of Delates, 2iid Session, 19tli Congress, pp. 498, 1534, The Sen- 
ate report is in Senate Documents, 2nd Session, 19th Congress, No. 69. 

House Documents, 1st Session, 20th Congress, No. 238, p. 7. Secretary 
Barbour to Colonel Crowell, January 31, 1827. 

78 Kappler 's Indian A fairs. Laws and Treaties, Vol. II, p. 284. 

79 American State Papers, Indian A fairs. Vol. II, p. 644. 

VOL. IX — 16 



Meanwhile the movement for westward colonization of the 
Indians was gaining ground. The story of the Senate bill 
of 1825 for ^^the preservation and civilization" of the In- 
dians — how it failed in the House — has already been told. 
The next congressional attempt at a general plan originated 
in the House, and likewise received inspiration and direction 
from the Executive Department, particularly from the new 
Secretary of War, James Barbour. In the early months of 
his administration Barbour tentatively nursed a plan for in- 
corporating the Indians in the body politic of the several 
States.^^ By the time, however, that the House Committee 
on Indian Affairs applied to him for advice in January of 
the year 1826 he had completely revised his first opinions.^ ^ 

The project of a bill which the Secretary prepared for the 
House committee aimed to establish an Indian Territory to 
be maintained by the United States and quite similar in de- 
tails to the first grade of territorial government.^^ Tj^^g 
dian government he proposed to locate west of the existing 
States and Territories and entirely west of the Mississippi, 
save that it was to include a part of the Michigan and "Wis- 
consin country. That the bill proposed an Indian reserva- 
tion so close to the settlements in the Northwest would have 
been an object of protest had it received much attention in 
Congress. Despite this mistake Barbour's intentions were 
evidently, as he himself said, the result of a * ' desire to com- 
ply with the requests of the People of the United States re- 
siding in the neighborhood of Indian settlements.'' As it 

80 Memoirs of John Quincy Adams, Vol. VII, p. 89. 

81 Memoirs of John Quincy Adams, Vol. VII, p. 113. The Committee on In- 
dian Affairs had considered reporting to the House Calhoun's bill of the pre- 
ceding session. — Eegister of Debates, 2nd Session, 24th Congress, Appendix,, 
p. 55. 

82 Eegister of Debates, Ist Session, 19th Congress, Appendix, p. 40. 


was Chairman Cocke of the House committee reported a bill 
comprising the essential features of Barbour's plans on 
February 21st but the records indicate that the Commit- 
tee of the Whole House never reported progress thereon. 
There can be no doubt of Cocke 's earnestness in the matter 
of removal and that he really did view with regret, as he 
said he did, the condition of the aborigines.^* 

In the next session the opinion of the Secretary of War 
was again sought, this time by a resolution of the House re- 
questing information upon the obstacles in the way of re- 
moval beyond the Mississippi.^^ The mover of the resolu- 
tion was John McLean of Ohio. Another Eepresentative, 
Haile of Mississippi, presented a resolution exhibiting a 
different side of the removal question.^^ It has already 
been noted that settlers were intruding upon lands in 
Arkansas granted to the Choctaws who had migrated from 
Mississippi and Alabama.^ ^ Haile now demanded an in- 
vestigation. Such breaches of the public faith, he explained, 
were causing suspicions among the remaining Indians in 
the State of Mississippi and increasing their opposition to 
emigrate. **If these encroachments are permitted,'' he 
said, **the Indians will be fastened upon us without the hope 
of removal." 

The Delegate from Arkansas, who two years before had 
[ so energetically defended these pioneer intruders in the 
western boundary episode, moved an amendment to the res- 
olution, the real purport of which was to exonerate the citi- 
zens upon the lands in question. The House readily agreed 

Journal of the House, 1st Session, 19th Congress, p. 276. The title of this. 
I bill copied that of the year 1824, namely : ' ' A bill for the preservation and civ- 
ilization of the Indian tribes within the United States. ' ' 

84 American State Papers, Indian A fairs, Vol. II, p. 667. 

85 Register of Debates, 2nd Session, 19th Congress, p. 538. 
■ 86 Eegister of Debates, 2nd Session, 19th Congress, p. 544. 

87 See above p. 207. 



to the amendment.^ ^ The question was too trifling for de- 
bate, but a world of prophecy lay hidden therein and por- 
tended the fate of the wanderers. Was the tragedy of the 
eastern portion of the Mississippi Valley to be repeated on 
the western side? Were local interests to hamper and clog 
the already weak policy of Indian preservation? Were 
these tribes to be cast from territory to territory as soon as 
their lands were desired by settlers, all for the lack of a def- 
inite national system of removal and colonization? 

Congress had been advised for years that some system 
should be adopted. Jefferson, the Eeverend Jedidiah 
Morse, the Eeverend Isaac McCoy, Monroe, Calhoun, and 
Barbour had outlined plans and formulated projects for 
bills, but to no purpose. Local communities easily pre- 
vailed upon Congress to effect local removals ; but a nation- 
al plan to colonize the removed went begging. 

While Haile in the House was attempting to interest the 
Government in the removal of the Mississippi Indians, Sen- 
ator Eeed of the same State was calling upon the Adminis- 
tration for the causes of the failure of the late negotiations 
with the Choctaw and Chickasaw Indians.^^ Personally he 
attributed the failure to the interference of certain whites 
living among these Indians, and hinted that missionaries to 
these tribes were also not above suspicion. The wretched- 
ness and misery of the Indians is so great, he said, that they 
*^are desirous of seeking a new abode on our Western bor- 
ders but are prevailed upon to remain by the intrigues 
of *^a few interested individuals, white men, and mixed- 
blooded Indians ' \ Continuing Eeed said : 

It is well understood, that a great many white men, fleeing from 
their crimes, and from debt, have sought refuge from the conse- 
quences of both, upon the Territories occupied by the Indian tribes 

88 Begister of Debates, 2nd Session, 19th Congress, p. 546. 
80 Register of Debates, 2nd Session, 19th Congress, p. 71. 


within the State of Mississippi. They are there contrary to the 
laws of the United States to the great detriment of the Southern 
country; and provision ought, long since, to have been made for 
their removal. Those are the People, many of them more savage 
than the Indians themselves, who instigate the tribes, for their own 
purposes, to decline every overture made for their removal, and for 
a cession of their Territory.^^ 

In the House it appears that John Cocke of Tennessee, 
chairman of the Committee on Indian Affairs, also held 
that removal was retarded by the influence of a number of 
profligate white men, who had fled from their debts or from 
justice, and had a personal interest in preventing the re- 
moval of the Indians. And when John Woods of Ohio 
expostulated at the coercive language used by the late com- 
missioners who had attempted to negotiate a treaty with 
the Choctaws and Chickasaws, Haile in reply thanked *^the 
gentleman from Ohio for the sympathy he had manifested 
towards the Indians of Mississippi. The Indians are re- 
moved beyond the limits of the State of Ohio, and they no 
longer annoy the gentleman. His sympathy manifests it- 
self at a late period. ' '^^ James K. Polk of Tennessee also 
defended the commissioners against the charge of using co- 
ercive language,^^ as did John Forsyth of Georgia, who 
could not well refuse aid to a sister State in the same pre- 
dicament that Georgia had faced from the beginning of the 
national epoch.^^ 

The session passed with no more serious accomplishment 
than calling upon the Executive Department for informa- 
tion concerning the obstacles to removal. The reports 
which Barbour and his Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 

90 Begister of Debates, 2nd Session, 19th Congress, p. 73. 

91 Begister of Debates, 2nd Session, 19th Congress, p. 838. 

92 Begister of Debates, 2nd Session, 19th Congress, p. 839. 

93 Begister of Debates, 2nd Session, 19th Congress, pp. 842, 843. ? 
Begister of Debates, 2nd Session, 19th Congress, p. 847. 1, 


Thomas McKenney, prepared gave encouraging signs that 
a well directed continental plan of colonization would meet 
the disposition of the Indian tribes and succeed in prac- 
ticed^ But Congress responded with no law. 

When Congress again convened on December 3, 1827, 
there was a brighter prospect for the adoption of some 
scheme of removal. In the summer of 1827 Thomas McKen- 
ney had made a tour of the southern States in the interests 
of removal and had returned confident that at least three of 
the principal nations in the South were disposed to emi- 
grated^ The results of his investigation were summed up 
by the Secretary of War and transmitted to Congress in the 
President's annual message.^"^ Another stimulus to action 
was found in the person of Isaac McCoy, a Baptist mission- 
ary to the Pottawatomies who had become convinced that 
removal and colonization was the only hopeful solution 
of the Indian problem and who arrived in Washington to 
lobby for that purposc^^ 

Early in the session the House Committee on Indian Af- 
fairs took into consideration a plan for the gradual removal 
and establishment of a Territorial government for all the 
Indians.dd But distracting sectional jealousy robbed the 
plan of its national scope and allowed it to develop into an 
undignified scramble of the several States to insure their 
individual accommodations. The Georgia delegation know- 
ing that Georgia's legislature contemplated extending the 
State jurisdiction over the remaining Cherokee lands in 
that State refused to consider any plan which did not have 

95 Bouse Documents, 2nd Session, 19th Congress, No. 28. 

98 mies' WeeTcly Begister, Vol. XXXIII, p. 274. 

97 Begister of Debates, 1st Session, 20th Congress, p. 2789. 

9S Register of Debates, 1st Session, 20th Congress, p. 661; Memoirs of John 
Quincy Adams, Vol. VII, p. 410; McCoy's History of Indian Affairs, p. 321; 
Bemarhs on the Practicability of Indian Beform (Boston, 1827), p. 25. 

99 Begister of Debates, 1st Session, 20th Congress, pp. 819, 823. 


peculiar reference to Georgia. The Mississippi delegation 
blocked all proposed legislation which did not conform to 
their peculiar needs.^^^ And two Eepresentatives of Ohio 
in the House, Woods and Vinton, intentionally embarrassed 
the proposition — the former because he opposed any plan 
of inducing the Cherokees to emigrate from Georgia, and 
the latter because he was seized by a fear that the proposed 
Indian Territory might be so placed as to impede the ex- 
pansion of Free-soil territory. The Delegate from Ar- 
kansas did not fail to denounce all proposals for removing 
the Indians in the direction of his Territory.^^^ And an un- 
expected opposition was found in a New York Representa- 
tive — Henry E. Storrs — who opposed removal to the West 
as placing ^*an insuperable bar to the progress of emigra- 
tion, in that direction, by the Whites ' ^ A sparse and un- 
civilized Indian population, he contended, should never hold 
these lands in the face of industrious white citizens who 
would turn the wilderness into fruitful fields.^*^^ 

There were not lacking, however, signs that the day for 
the adoption of a concerted policy was about to come. In 
June, 1828, Barbour was sent on the mission to England. 
He was succeeded in the portfolio of War by Peter B. Por- 
ter of western New York. The Indian policy of the new 
Secretary forecasted what might be expected when would 
begin the inevitable administration of the Tennesseean 
whose four years of waiting were now nearly at an end. 
Porter believed that the missionaries and teachers among 
the Indian tribes were defeating the efforts of the Govern- 
ment agents to further the project of emigration. He rec- 

100 Note the wrangle over the Indian Appropriation Bill. — Begister of De- 
bates, 1st Session, 20th Congress, p. 1533 et seq. 

101 Begister of Debates, 1st Session, 20th Congress, pp. 1539, 1566, 1568-1584. 

102 Begister of Debates, 1st Session, 20th Congress, p. 2494. 

103 Begister of Debates, 1st Session, 20th Congress, p. 2482. 


ommended that Federal aid to the cause of civilizing the 
Indians be withdrawn from all tribes east of the Mississippi 
and be expended solely upon those in the far West.^^* A 
similar opinion had been held by Cocke who was chairman 
of the House Committee on Indian Affairs in the eighteenth 
and nineteenth Congresses and who once reported to the 
House that the failure of the removal policy was due to the 
obstinacy of the Indians arising from their partial civiliza- 

But despite these manifestations the removal policy had 
not gained sufficient momentum to call for a definite com- 
mittal on the part of Congress. It is a curious commentary 
on American legislation to note that the western States did 
not attempt to conceal their true motive for expelling the 
Indians. No veil was thrown over the thoughts which rose 
uppermost in the minds of Congressmen from the frontier. 
The demands of western communities were hid under no 
shabby coats of hypocrisy. It was seldom if ever denied 
that the settlers coveted the lands of *^the children of the 
forest". White of Florida referred to the Seminoles as the 
Indians which are the annoyance of my constituents", 
and Lumpkin of Georgia declared that the Cherokee s should 
learn the destiny of their race, namely, to flee before the 
face of civilization.^ An Alabama Eepresentative frankly 
pronounced the Indians a curse upon the newer States ".^^^ 
Nor were there lacking Eastern members to sympathize 

104 Register of Debates, 2nd Session, 20tli Congress, Appendix, p. 10. 

105 It is interesting to note that Indian Commissioner McKenney reported to 
Barbour, in 1827, that all teachers of Indian schools were believed to be, with 
a single exception, in favor of emigration westward. Concerning the effects of 
becoming civilized in prejudicing the Indians against removal Cocke was right. 
Witness for instance the tenacity with which the most civilized tribe, the Cher- 
okees, clung to their Georgian lands. 

106 Register of Debates, 1st Session, 20th Congress, pp. 1537, 1587. See also 
Ist Session, 24th Congress, p. 1463. 

107 Register of Debates, 2nd Session, 19th Congress, p. 838. 


with the West. A Maryland Representative declared that 
he had seen the Indian half-breed, whose hand he declared 
was against every man and every man's hand against him; 
and for his own part he would rather have him **a little 
farther off^'.^^s M'Duffie of South Carolina held it to be 
**the settled opinion of a large majority of the House, that 
the Indians within the limits of our settled States must ei- 
ther be induced to emigrate, or must infallibly sink into a 
state of indescribable and irretrievable wretchedness." He 
considered *Hhe idea of civilizing and educating them as 
wholly delusive. The experiment had been tried, and the 
result had proved, that, while surrounded by the whites, the 
Indians acquired all the vices of a civilized People, and none 
of their virtues. "^^^ 

Strangely enough it remained for a western Represen- 
tative to suggest at this time that the pioneers were respon- 
sible for the sufferings and degradation of the Indians. In 
a most sarcastic speech Vinton of Ohio declared that it 
would ever be impossible to place the Indians beyond the 
pale of corruption. 

If it were so much as known to what district the Indians were to 
remove, no matter how distant the country .... the pio- 
neers would be there in advance of them; men of the most aban- 
doned and desperate character, who hang upon the Indians to de- 
fraud them. You cannot run away from these men nor shut them 
out from access to Indians, scattered over the wilderness ; for, with 
the pioneers, the law is a jest, and the woods their element; the 
farther you go with the Indians, with just so much more impunity 
will they set your laws at defiance.^^^ 

Harshly stigmatizing the plan of colonization as ^*a high 
handed outrage upon humanity", he maintained that the 
Indians were fully capable of civilization, and proposed as 

108 Eegister of Debates, 1st Session, 20th Congress, p. 1566. 

109 Eegister of Debates, 1st Session, 20th Congress, p. 1540. 

110 Eegister of Debates, 1st Session, 20th Congress, p. 1579. 


an absolute solution of the whole matter that they should 
be granted farms in fee simple like the settlers. 

Before sectional jealousies and diversity of opinion the 
project of colonization crumbled again with the adjourn- 
ment of the first session of the Twentieth Congress. Four 
sessions had now opened and adjourned since Monroe first 
asked for some well-digested plan for relieving the western 
States of their Indian encumbrance and preserving the In- 
dians from the inevitable and destructive pressure of west- 
ern settlements. Many plans had been suggested but none 
crystallized into law. It was indeed with a melancholy but 
an altogether true reflection that Adams referred to the 
subject in his last annual message. ^^We have been far 
more successful'', he said, *4n the acquisition of their lands 
than in imparting to them the principles, or inspiring them 
with the spirit, of civilization. ' '^^^ 


President Adams, although deeply interested in the wel- 
fare of the Indians, lacked the confidence of Congress to 
inspire any far-reaching solution of the problem; nor is it 
certain that he had any definite solution in mind. It re- 
mained to the President of the eleventh administration, 
filled with the spirit of the West, to grip the discordant 
clamors of sectional interests into a nation-wide scheme: 
and that scheme was of course westward removal. 

Jackson understood the Indian problem. He was a 
Tennessee pioneer, educated in the life of the woods, the 
prairies, and militia camps. His military prestige rested 
as well upon his exploits as an Indian fighter as upon his 
defense of New Orleans against Pakenham. In three 
pitched skirmishes he had vanquished the Creeks, and the 
episodes of his Seminole campaign were household stories. 

Ill Eegister of Debates, 2nd Session, 20th Congress, Appendix, p, 5. 



As an Indian commissioner lie had been the guardian of 
many tribes. Four important treaties with Creeks, Cher- 
okees, and Chickasaws he had negotiated in person. There 
was scarcely an Indian community in the South but had en- 
dured his chastisement or listened to his talks. Those who 
had accepted his advice had seldom regretted it ; those who 
had repulsed him had learned to rue their mistake. But 
withal Jackson had attained a reputation for justice. In 
some peculiar way he impressed the minds of his savage 
wards with respect, trust, and confidence. His election as 
President was actually hailed by the Cherokees with re- 

The first year of the new administration sufficed to show 
how utterly useless were their hopes. The Cherokees had 
attempted to establish a national government upon their 
lands within the State of Georgia. The President's atti- 
tude toward this anomalous Indian organization was in- 
stantly hostile, and the first annual message in December, 
1829, minced no words in declaring that all attempts on the 
part of the Indians to erect independent governments with- 
in States would be rigidly suppressed. * ^ It is too late to in- 
quire read the message, whether it was just in the 
United States to include them and their territory within 
the bounds of new States. . . . That step cannot be re- 
traced. A State cannot be dismembered by Congress, or 
restricted in the exercise of her constitutional power. ^'^^^ 
But in order to render a tardy justice to this long neglected 
race, Jackson resurrected the old plan of an Indian district 
west of the Mississippi. 

Despite the air of justice which pervaded the message 
there was one sentence which to Adams men wore the veil 
of hypocrisy. These words were : ^ ^ This emigration should 
be voluntary: for it would be as cruel as unjust to compel 

112 Eegister of Delates, 1st Session, 21st Congress, Appendix, pp. 15, 16. 


the aborigines to abandon the graves of their fathers, and 
seek a home in a distant land." From any charge of in- 
consistency, however, Jackson saved himself at this point 
by the admission that if the Indians chose to remain within 
the limits of the States they might so remain providing 
they be subject to State laws. And in return for their obedi- 
ence they would without doubt, thought Jackson, be pro- 
tected in the enjoyment of those possessions which they 
have improved by their industry. ' ' These fair words could 
hardly have deceived anyone into believing that Jackson's 
policy was any other than a force policy. Could anyone 
doubt the true meaning of the closing sentence which read : 
*^It seems to me visionary to suppose that . . . . 
claims can be allowed on tracts of country on which they 
[the Indians] have neither dwelt nor made improvements, 
merely because they have seen them from the mountain, or 
passed them in the chase ' \ 

A month later the President's attitude was tersely inter- 
preted by Governor Cass of Michigan Territory. The Pres- 
ident offers them a country beyond the Mississippi, wrote 
the frontier governor in the North American Review, but 
those who refuse to migrate must submit to the jurisdiction 
of the States.^^^ Congress and the country needed no 
further elucidation of the Presidential program. 

The new Congress received the dictation of the White 
House with a willingness that boded a speedy conclusion to 
the whole matter. The Committee on Indian Affairs in 
both houses immediately took the matter into consideration. 
Their reports might easily have been predicted by a perusal 
of their membership. Of the Senate Committee, Hugh L. 
White of Tennessee was chairman, and his four colleagues 

Its North American Eeview, January, 1830, Vol. XXX, p. 86. This article 
provoked various controversial replies among which may be noted the semi- 
religious appeal in the American Monthly Magazine (Boston: 1829-1831) Voh 
I, p. 701. 


were Troup of Georgia, Hendricks of Indiana, Benton of 
Missouri, and Dudley of New York.^^* The House Com- 
mittee was also headed by a Tennessee member, John Bell ; 
and his colleagues were Gaither of Kentucky, Lewis of Ala- 
bama, Storrs of Connecticut, and Hubbard of New Hamp- 

On February 22, 1830, the Senate Committee reported an 
elaborate argument in favor of removal, and a bill *^to pro- 
vide for an exchange of lands Two days later the 
House Committee made its report accompanied by a bill 
**to provide for the removal of the Indian tribes The 
two bills were practically the same; and since the Senate 
bill was passed first the Committee of the Whole in the 
lower house substituted it for the original House bill.^^^ 
The fact could not long be concealed from the Whigs that 
the leaders of the Democrats were making the bill a party 
measure and that the friends of the Administration were 
pledged to support it.^^^ Jackson had issued his pronuncia- 
mento : the Indians must be removed. That fact was reason 
enough for the Jacksonian Democrats to vote aye. And the 
votes of most States Rights Democrats might certainly be 
relied upon in this affair. 

The crux of the subject was contained in the second sec- 
tion of the bill. It empowered the President to exchange 
any lands occupied by Indian nations within the boundaries 
of a State or Territory for lands beyond the Mississippi.^^^ 

Journal of Senate, 1st Session, 21st Congress, p. 23. 

Journal of the House of Eepresentatives, 1st Session, 21st Congress, p. 30. 

116 Eegister of Del>ates, 1st Session, 21st Congress, Appendix, p. 91. Senate 
Documents, No. 61. 

117 Eegister of Debates, 1st Session, 21st Congress, p. 581. 

118 Journal of the House, 1st Session, 21st Congress, pp. 570, 648. The House 
asked the President for estimates of the expense of removing and supporting 
the Indians west of the Mississippi. — House Documents, No. 91. 

ii^Niles' WeeUy Eegister, Vol. XXXVIII, p. 402. 
Miles' WeeTcly Eegister, Vol. XXXVIII, p. 234. 


Not one word of coercion was employed. To all ontward 
appearances the act called for voluntary removal. But the 
friends of the Indian read between the lines and found there 
extortion, force, and heartlessness.^^^ For if the bill be- 
came law, would not its executor be the hero of the Seminole 
Indian War? 

The philanthropists of the East were now fully aware 
that the crisis in Indians affairs was reached and about to 
be passed. The rise or fall of the Administration's Indian 
policy was to be determined by the vote on Senator White 's 
bill. And if at first there was any doubt as to what this 
policy was, that doubt had entirely vanished on the appear- 
ance of the bill. Churches and benevolent societies, colleges 
and villages began to frame protesting petitions by the 
score.^^^ The friends of the Indians" had studied the 
able articles of Jeremiah Evarts appearing in the National 
Intelligencer under the name of William Penn. Cursed 
be he, that remove th his neighbor's landmark. . . . 
Cursed be he that maketh the blind to wander out of the 
way", exclaimed this devoted idealist; and the New England 
people said ^^Amen".^^^ 

As the Opposition were convinced that the inherent evil 
of the bill lay more in the drastic manner with which the 
pioneer President would certainly enforce it than in its con- 
tents, so the delegations from Georgia, Alabama, and 
Mississippi and from the northwestern States saw the In- 
dians within their borders disappear before the iron hand 
of the President when he should come to apply the second 
section. Especially did the Georgia delegation rejoice that 
at last legal means for disgorging the Cherokees were in 

121 Compare Niles' WeeUy Eegister, Vol. XXXVIII, p. 67. 

Senate Documents, Ist Bession, 2l8t Congress, Nos. 56, 66, 73, 74, 76, 77, 
et cetera; House Documents, Nos. 253, 254, et cetera. 

123 Essays on the Present Crisis in the Condition of the American Indians 
(Boston: 1829), p. 100. 


sight and they thereupon lost no opportunity to maintain 
the proposition of States Eights in the debate.^ The case 
for Georgia was strong. Who was there but would admit 
that such a condition as the erection of an independent In- 
dian government within the borders of a State and not un- 
der the jurisdiction of the State was not only intolerable but 
unconstitutional? Constitutionally there could not be an 
imperium in imperio. But what if the Indians resisted the 
jurisdiction of civilization! Could there then be a better 
solution to the whole problem than to remove them to the 
far West — gently if possible, harshly if necessary? In the 
Senate the case for removal was tersely stated by Forsyth 
of Georgia, White of Tennessee, and McKinley of Ala- 

Not only did these advocates base their argument upon 
State Sovereignty, but they also flung wide the doctrine that 
removal was in the best interests of the ill-fated Indians. 
Their position had been well canvassed in the committee re- 
port itself. How can Georgia have a republican form of 
government, read this document, unless a majority of the 
citizens subscribe to the rules to which all must conform? 
The Indians must either submit to State law or they must 
remove. The committee apprehended no reason that any of 
the States contemplated forcing them to abandon the coun- 
try in which they dwelt, should they subject themselves to 
the laws of these States. But obstinacy on the part of the 
Indians would, the committee admitted, result only in 
further distress. 

Frelinghuysen of New Jersey replied for the Opposition^ 
and he was ably supported by Sprague of Maine and Eob- 

^24: Register of Debates, 1st Session, 21st Congress, p. 325 et seq. 

125 Begister of Debates, 1st Session, 21st Congress, pp. 305, 324, 325, 377^ 

126 Register of Debates, 1st Session, 21st Congress, Appendix, pp. 91-98. 


bins of Ehode Island.^^^ Their speeches, while maintaining 
a dignified reserve, were nevertheless scathing criticisms of 
both the doctrine of State Sovereignty and of Georgia 's at- 
tempt to oust the Indians from their lands. That the claim 
of the Cherokees outdated the Constitution was their prin- 
cipal contention. 

In the end the bill passed the Senate.^^^ Webster and 
Clayton were among the nineteen who voted in the nega- 
tive, although neither spoke at length against the bill. 
From the beginning of the session the result had been evi- 
dent although the Opposition, small as it was, had been so 
persistent as to cause much anxiety to Judge White. On 
April 28th, the Chairman expressed his relief in writing to 
a friend in these words : 

The Bill to provide for a removal of the Indians west of the 
Mississippi has finally passed the Senate by a vote of 28 to 19. This 
has taken off my mind a burthen which has been oppressive from 
the commencement of the session. I hope it may pass the other 

Cold as the notice taken of our exertions in the Telegraph is, no 
Georgian nor Tennessean will ever be mortified by hearing the de- 
bate spoken of, if truth be told. We had, I think, in the estimation 
of all intelligent men, at least as much ascendancy in the argument 
as we had in the vote. As good fortune would have it. Judge Over- 
ton, Collingsworth, district attorney of West Tennessee, Major 
Armstrong, and many others from different quarters, were present, 
and know that our side was sustained in a style which gratified our 
friends, and mortified our enemies.^^^ 

While congratulating himself upon the ascendancy of the 
Administration's argument. Judge White rejoiced that his 
bill had escaped the lime-light of the Webster-Hayne de- 

127 Begister of Debates, 1st Session, 21st Congress, pp. 305, 343, 374. 

128 Journal of the Senate, 1st Session, 21st Congress, p. 268. 

120 Scott's Memoir of Hugh Lawson White, p. 270. The newspaper referred 
to, the Telegraph, was the organ published by Duff Green in the interests of 


bate. In the lower house, on the other hand, he had more 
to fear. Here the opposition was to be more intense. The 
sharp discussion was such as might be expected from a 
party measure. On May 13th the debate began in the Com- 
mittee of the Whole.^^^ Bell of Tennessee, Lumpkin, 
Wayne, and Wilde of Georgia contended with Bates of 
Massachusetts, Edward Everett of Massachusetts, Storrs 
and Judge Spencer of New York, and Evans of Maine. 
Storrs in a logical speech pointed out the usurpation 
of the President when he refused protection to the Cher- 
okee nation from the Georgia laws of 1828.^^^ By this 
action, Storrs maintained, the President had (without 
consulting Congress) not only admitted the sovereignty 
of the State of Georgia, but also virtually nullified the Fed- 
eral intercourse laws and denied the validity of Indian 
treaties solemnly ratified by the Senate. The Executive has 
no power, declared Storrs, to abrogate treaties *^by an or- 
der in council'', or to ^^give the force of law to an executive 
proclamation. ' ' 

Everett adroitly confronted the argument that removal 
would improve the condition of Georgia Indians by an em- 
barrassing question. What benefit would accrue to the al- 
ready civilized Cherokees to be driven from their houses, 
their farms, their schools and churches ' ' to lead a wander- 
ing and savage life in the wilderness 1^^^ He produced evi- 
dence to show the advanced stage of civilization attained by 
the Cherokees, and attempted to prove that the Choctaws 
and Chickasaws were not far behind them. Wilde of 
Georgia answered Everett with an argument similar to that 
displayed in the report of the Senate committee. He main- 
tained that Georgia would not object to permitting the 

130 Begister of Debates, 1st Session, 21st Congress, p. 988. 

131 Begister of Debates, 1st Session, 21st Congress, p. 1000. 

132 Begister of Debates, 1st Session, 21st Congress, p. 1069. 

VOL. IX — 17 


Cherokees to remain and occupy such land as they could 
cultivate, provided they submitted *4n obedience to our 
laws, like other citizens. ''^^^ But what right had the Cher- 
okees under the present conditions to impede progress by 
refusing their lands for settlement! If five-sixths of the 
Cherokee lands in Georgia were ceded there would yet re- 
main one thousand acres to every Indian family. Foster of 
Georgia further expanded the idea of the Indian obstruction 
to the progress of civilization.^ They possessed, he main- 
tained, no national sovereignty: their title to lands was 
based strictly on occupancy. So far he did not exceed the 
opinion of the Supreme Court delivered by Justice Marshall 
in the case of Johnson vs. Mclntosh.^^^ But since that court 
declined to * ' enter into the controversy, whether agricultur- 
ists, merchants, and manufacturers, have a right, on ab- 
stract principles, to expel hunters from the territory they 
possessed, or to contract their limits" it was necessary for 
the Georgia Representative to outdistance the Federal Ju- 
diciary when he proceeded to the last conclusions of his ar- 
gument, namely : the Indians had no rightful claim upon the 
vacant lands surrounding them. And to the support of this 
conclusion Foster called no less an authority than the late 
President himself. Three decades before Adams, in an ora- 
tion delivered at the Anniversary of the Landing of the Pil- 
grims, had given the clearest expressions on this moral 
question, when he said : 

The Indian right of possession itself stands with regard to the 
greatest part of the country, upon a questionable foundation. Their 
cultivated fields; their constructed habitations; a space of ample 
sufficiency for their subsistence, and whatever they had annexed 
to themselves by personal labor, was undoubtedly by the laws of 

'^33 Register of Debates, 1st Session, 21st Congress, p. 1095. 

iS'i Begister of Debates, 1st Session, 21st Congress, p. 1030 et seq. 

135 8 Wheaton 543. 


nature theirs. But what is the right of a huntsman to the forest of 
a thousand miles over which he has accidentally ranged in quest of 
prey? Shall the liberal bounties of Providence to the race of man 
be monopolized by one of ten thousand for whom they were cre- 
ated? Shall the exuberant bosom of the common mother, amply 
adequate to the nourishment of millions, be claimed exclusively by 
a few hundreds of her offspring ? Shall the lordly savage not only 
disdain the virtues and enjoyments of civilization himself, but shall 
he controul the civilization of a world ? Shall he forbid the wilder- 
ness to blossom like the rose? . . . No, generous philanthro- 
pists! Heaven has not been thus inconsistent in the works of its 
hands ! Heaven has not thus placed at irreconcileable strife, its mor- 
al laws with its physical creation. 

All the debates for the last score of years had never ex- 
hibited a more beautiful argument for Indian expulsion. 
Was the contempt of Georgia for the Cherokees better ex- 
pressed than by the words, ^4ordly savages"! Should the 
^ liberal bounties of Providence'' — one-third of the fair 
Georgia — be conferred upon a meagre Indian population, 
while civilization chafed in constrained limits? And should 
philanthropists forbid the wilderness to blossom like the 
rose ? No, generous philanthropists ! 

Throwing sarcasm to the winds Foster's speech discussed 
the question from the broadest view-point. No matter how 
much his opponents might yearn to prove that *^the superior 
title of civilization" could never override the original 
claims of the natives, few were so bold as to attempt this 
impossible argument. Evans, however, did declare that civ- 
ilization should never demand that savages give space until 
its borders were full to over-flowing — which certainly was 
not the case in Georgia nor in the Middle West.^^^ 

But the fate of the bill was to be decided by party votes 
and not by argument. On the 18th of May the Committee of 

136 Oration Delivered at Plymouth, December 22, 1802 (Boston: 1802), 
p. 23; Begister of Debates, 1st Session, 21st Congress, p. 1031. 

137 Begister of Debates, 1st Session, 21st Congress, p. 1043. 


the Whole House reported the Senate bill with amendments. 
These were accepted, and on the 26th the bill passed by a 
vote of 103 to 97 and returned to the Senate.^ For the 
minority, defeated by six votes, there was nothing left but 
to '^record the exposure of perfidy and tyranny of which 
the Indians are to be made the victims, and to leave the pun- 
ishment of it to Heaven'', Adams furiously wrote in his 

On the same day the amendments from the House were 
considered in the Senate. In the upper chamber the attitude 
was plainly intolerant of further discussion. Prompt con- 
currence in the relatively unimportant amendments was the 
ruling sentiment. But Frelinghuysen seized this last oppor- 
tunity to move an amendment providing that all tribes 
should be protected from State encroachment until they 
chose to remove.^ It was voted down. Another amend- 
ment by Sprague to the effect that all existing treaties 
should be executed according to the original intent was 
promptly rejected. Likewise was Clayton's proposal that 
the act extend only to the Georgia Indians.^ The Senate 
thereupon concurred in the House amendments. The Presi- 
dent attached his signature on the 28th of May, and the bill 
facilitating Executive expulsion of Indians from the South 
and Middle West became a law.^^^ 

Such was the victory of the removal scheme under the 
leadership of Jackson. The project long entertained by Jef- 
ferson, Monroe, Calhoun, and Barbour was at last consum- 
mated by a short act of eight briefly worded sections. As a 
measure to relieve the frontier of its encumbering Indian 

Register of Debates, 1st Session, 21st Congress, p. 1135. 
139 Memoirs of John Quincy Adams, Vol. VIII, p. 206. The speeches in' this 
debate were collected into book form and published at Boston in 1830. 
^'io Journal of the Senate, 1st Session, 21st Congress, p. 328. 

141 Journal of the Senate, Ist Session, 21st Congress, p. 329. 

142 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. IV, p. 411. 


population it was all that might be asked; for it granted 
carte blanche to an energetic President — himself a man of 
the frontier. And no one doubted how he would use his 
newly granted power.^*^ But as a measure to promote the 
civilization of the removed aborigines it was an engine of 
destruction. The Indian Territory of Monroe, Calhoun, and 
Barbour had crumbled into dust. 

In despair the Cherokee delegation at Washington came 
to Webster and Freylinghuysen for personal advice: they 
were counselled to expect no relief from the legislature. 
Their last resource, said their counsellors and friends, lay 
in petitioning the Supreme Court. And this advice they ac- 

With the appeal of the Cherokees to the judicial depart- 
ment the problem concerning the removal of this nation 
passed for a time from legislative consideration. The 
Cherokee question, indeed the question of removal of all 
tribes, as far as Congress was concerned, was settled by the 
act of May 28, 1830. Whether the Judicial Department 
would decide against the removal of the Cherokees and 
whether the Executive would enforce any such decision if it 
were rendered were questions outside of legislative com- 


The inadequacy of the Act of 1830 in disposing of the In- 
dians after they had emigrated beyond the Mississippi was 

In 1836 J ohn Boss, the principal chief of the Cherokees, in a memorial to 
Congress, said concerning the act of May, 1830: ''That law, though not so de- 
signed by Congress, has been the source from which much of the Cherokee suf- 
ferings have come. ' ' — Executive Documents, 1st Session, 24th Congress, No. 
266, p. 9. 

For an account of how Jackson used his power, see Abel's Indian Consolida- 
tion in the Annual Beport of the American Historical Association, 1906, Vol. I, 
p. 381 et seq. 

Kennedy 's Memoirs of the Life of William Wirt, Vol. II, p. 254. 


apparent to even the uninterested. The friends of the In- 
dians confidently expected more congressional action, and 
the several years following were full of proposals of all 
sorts.^^^ Even before the birth of the act of 1830 Secretary 
Eaton had recommended the establishment of an Indian 
Territory in his first report of December, 1829.^^^ But the 
emphasis of the Executive had been so emphatically upon 
removal that the complete program of the Government had 
been overlooked. 

By 1832 the confusion of Indian affairs in the "West could 
scarcely be further overlooked. Congress resorted to the 
expedient of providing a commission to examine the appor- 
tioning of tribes to lands in the West and to arrange the 
quarrels among the various tribes. To these duties was also 
added that of preparing a plan for Indian improvement and 
government.^*'^ In short the commission was to devise a so- 
lution of the whole matter. 

By this time had occurred the resignation of Jackson's 
first cabinet. Lewis Cass who had interpreted the Presi- 
dent's Indian policy in 1830 now succeeded Eaton as Secre- 
tary of War. Cass already had his solution in mind. Eight- 
een years of governing both the settlers and Indians of 
Michigan Territory had convinced him that the visions of 
Calhoun and Barbour of an Indian State were as vain as the 
tower of Babel.^^^ In his first report as Secretary he 

145 Tihe Reverend Isaac McCoy, a Baptist missionary to the western Indians, 
commenced in 1835 the publication of an Annual Eegister of Indian Afairs as 
an organ for advocating reform. McCoy's plan embraced the establishment of 
an Indian Territory. 

Among other plans from different sources, should be noticed that proposing 
the assignment in severalty of lands belonging to the emigrating tribes. — 
Senate Documents, 2nd Session, 25th Congress, No. 425. 

146 Eegister of Debates, 1st Session, 21st Congress, Appendix, p. 28. 

147 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. IV, p. 595. 

148 For eighteen years, 1813-1831, Cass was Governor of Michigan Territory. 
The Governor was also Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Territory. In 


summed up Ms conclusions in regard to the proper regula- 
tion of the Indians who had emigrated.^^^ Laying down as 
his first proposals the platitudes that the reservations in the 
West should be permanent, that whiskey should never be 
sold within the reservations, and that military forces should 
preserve peace on the borders, he proceeded to establish the 
proposition that the ownership in severalty of property and 
the pursuit of agriculture should be encouraged, although 
the peculiar tribal relations and institutions of the Indians 
should not be disturbed. These practical considerations of 
Indian conditions quite discredited any idea of an Indian 
State as idealistic and visionary. Coming as they did from 
one so well versed in frontier affairs as was Secretary Cass 
they carried more than ordinary conviction. In spite of 
many plans of the next few years they remained substan- 
tially the policy of the Government for almost half a cen- 

The proposals made by the Commissioners of 1832 de- 
serve, on the other hand, some attention. Their long await- 
ed report was ready in the first session of the Twenty-third 
Congress. The remedy proposed therein was a Territorial 
government for the Indians.^^^ On May 20, 1834, these pro- 
posals took concrete form when Horace Everett of Vermont, 
from the House Committee on Indian Affairs, reported 
three bills — the work of the Commission. One bill assayed 
to reorganize the whole Department of Indian Affairs; 
one to regulate trade and intercourse with the Indians; 

this office the success of Cass as guardian of the Indians is highly praised. — 
McLaughlin's Lewis Cass, p. 131. 

149 Eegister of Debates, 1st Session, 22nd Congress, Appendix, p. 14. In 
1838, Hugh L. White, who from the year 1828 to 1840 was chairman of the 
Senate Committee on Indian Affairs reported to the Senate that the assign- 
ment of Indian lands in severalty was unwise. — Senate Documents, 2nd Session, 
25th Congress, No. 425. 

'^50 Register of Debates, 1st Session, 23rd Congress, Appendix, p. 10. 


and the third to establish a Western Territory for the 

The Trade and Intercourse Bill defined the ' ' Indian coun- 
try ^ ' as that part of the United States west of the Mississip- 
pi and not within the States of Missouri and Louisiana, 
or the Territory of Arkansas, and also all lands east of the 
Mississippi to which the Indian title had not been extin- 
guished. Over this country it extended regulations similar 
to the Trade and Intercourse Law of 1802 providing that 
traders should be licensed, that intruders and settlers should 
be removed by military force, and that the country west of 
the Mississippi for legal purposes should be attached, part 
to the Territory of Arkansas and part to the judicial district 
of Missouri. The first two bills passed both houses, al- 
though late in the session, and were presented to the Presi- 
dent upon the last day.^^^ 

The third bill — the only really new feature of the Com- 
missioners ' work — met instant opposition in the House and 
was tabled.^ It proposed to establish a Western Territory 
for the Indians (who should be organized into a confedera- 
tion of tribes) which should enjoy the right of a Delegate to 
Congress. Ultimate admission as a State might be the log- 
ical outcome of this arrangement. Congress was not ready 
for any such solution nor were the western members willing 
to block the expansion of the West by a permanent Indian 
Territory such as the bill proposed. The excuse for tabling, 
and undoubtedly the chief reason for the moment, was lack 
of time for discussion.^^* 

if'i Register of Debates^ 1st Session, 23rd Congress, p. 4200. Everett ac- 
companied the bills by a scholarly report of his own composition. — See Eeports 
of Committees, Vol. IV, No. 474. 

^■>'^ Journal of the House, 1st Session, 23rd Congress, pp. 852, 911, 912, 915, 
916; United States Statutes at Large, Vol. IV, pp. 729, 735. 

Journal of the House of Eepresentatives, 1st Session, 23rd Congress, p. 
834; Register of Debates, p. 4779. 

1 •'"'4 Note Archer's speech. — Register of Debates, 1st Session, 23rd Congress, 
p. 4775. Niles' Weekly Register, Vol. XL VI, p. 317. 



For several sessions following this first attempt Everett 
-and Senator John Tipton of Indiana introduced bills for an 
Indian Territory. All failed to become law, although Tip- 
ion's bill actually passed the Senate in two succeeding ses- 

The Executive stimulus to removal having been so ef- 
fective, what now were the Executive plans in regard to civ- 
ilization of the Indians in their new homes! Naturally one 
turns to Jackson. In the annual message of 1829 which pre- 
ceded the train of debates leading up to the act of May, 
1830, Jackson distinctly suggested the plan of separate 
tribal governments on allotted lands in the West, with 
enough supervision on the part of the United States to pre- 
serve peace and to protect the Indians from intruders.^^^ 
Jackson evidently gave no favor to the Utopian proposals 
for a united Indian State, although his message of De- 
cember 3, 1833, indicates a disposition open to conviction on 
this subject since he tells Congress that he awaits the report 

155 In February, 1835, Everett bill was taken from the table, half-heartedly 
debated, and then dropped. — Begister of Debates, 2nd Session, 23rd Congress, 
pp. 1445, 1462. On February 19, 1836, Everett reported for the second time a 
bill. — Journal of the House of Representatives, 1st Session, 24th Congress, p. 
369. Again in 1837 he reported a third bill. — Journal of the House of Eepre- 
sentatives, 2nd Session, 24th Congress, p. 325. His fourth bill was introduced 
in the year 1838. — Journal of the House of Eepresentatives, 2nd Session, 25th 
Congress, p. 330. 

In the session of 1835-1836, Tipton introduced a bill supplementary to the 
removal act of May, 1830. This bill omitted many details contained in the 
House bill, outlining a more general plan. An amiable report accompanied it. 
— Senate Documents, No. 246; Annual Begister of Indian Affairs, 1837, p. 71. 
The bill failed. — Journal of the Senate, 1st Session, 24th Congress, p. 220. In 
the next session Tipton's bill was again introduced. — Journal of the Senate, 
2nd Session, 24th Congress, p. 31, 

Again in 1838 Tipton introduced another bill. — Journal of the Senate, 2nd 
Session, 25th Congress, pp. 367, 385. This bill passed the Senate, but failed in 
the House. Again, being introduced in the next session, the Senate passed the 
bill, but it never came to a vote in the House. — Journal of the Senate, 3rd 
^Session, 25th Congress, pp. 35, 272. 

Begister of Debates, 1st Session, 21st Congress, Appendix, p. 16. 



and recommendations of the Commissioners then examining 
western affairs.^^^ It is difficult to see how this Commission 
could much enlighten the President. His detailed knowl- 
edge of Indian affairs and Indian nature has ever been a 
matter of fame. Be that as it may, the President desired 
some definite system of government. As to what this should 
be the awkward phrases of his message of December 7, 1835,, 
indicate some vagueness on his part.^^^ To regulate the In- 
dian affairs of the far West from Washington was a difficult 
matter. But the real need of the emigrant Indians was un- 
doubtedly protection and competent supervision by honest 
government agents resident among the tribes rather than 
any scheme of united Territorial government. If all Indian 
Agents in the West had been men of Jackson's type order 
would have been created out of chaos and the bitter criti- 
cisms of Calhoun would have been unfounded.^^^ 

While the Government was faltering in the choice of an 
Indian policy, projects from all sides were never lacking. 
Horace Everett in the House desired a western Territory 
and perhaps its future admission as a State. Similar but 
less definite views were championed in the Senate by Tipton 
of Indiana. The Reverend Mr. McCoy was ever urging a 
definite system of colonization and intertribal government ^ 
while Forsyth of Georgia presented a plan by which all In- 
dians should become citizens in the year 1900.^^^ But the 
problem was so baffling, the previous efforts at civilization 
so often discouraging, that Senator Robbins might well ex- 
claim : ^ ^ 111 fated Indians ! barbarism and attempts at civi- 

157 Register of Debates, 1st Session, 23rd Congress, Appendix, p. 6. 

158 Register of Debates, 1st Session, 24th Congress, Appendix, p. 10. 
^^>^ Register of Debates, 1st Session, 24th Congress, p. 1459, 

'^^0 Annual Register of Indian Affairs, 1838; Executive Documents, 2nd Ses- 
sion, 25th Congress, pp. 566, 579; Register of Debates, 1st Session, 21st Con- 
gress, p. 327. 


lization are alike fatal to your rights ; but attempts at civi- 
lization the more fatal of the two/^^^^ 

The administration of Van Buren was a wet blanket to all 
proposals for an Indian government. Not that the Presi- 
dent was hostile to an Indian Territory, for he continually 
reminded Congress of the need therefor. But neither 
Van Buren nor his immediate advisers were interested to 
the extent of making definite recommendations. Tacitly the 
bills of Everett and Tipton had the Administration support ; 
but curiously enough they were opposed by Benton as well 
as by Calhoun, while Clay never loaned his eloquence to 
their cause. Why should the most talented champions of 
Indian rights hold themselves aloof? The probable con- 
jecture is that both Clay and Calhoun considered the project 

The year 1839 was not the end of proposals for an Indian 
government. Individual schemes were often projected, but 
never again did any bill similar to Tipton's or to Everett's 
pass either branch of Congress. 


It was soon after the termination of the Seminole Indian 
War that Congress reduced the army of the United States 
to six thousand men. This was during the session of 1820- 
1821. Clay, who was ever an advocate of the employment 
of militia in preference to a standing army, led the senti- 
ment in favor of reduction.^^^ A desire on the part of Dem- 
ocratic members to retrench public expenditures induced 

161 Begister of Debates, 1st Session, 21st Congress, p. 377. 

Congressional Globe, 2nd Session, 25th Congress, p. 7; also 3rd Session, 
25th Congress, p. 7. 

163 For the later history of these efforts, see Abel 's Proposals for an Indian 
State in the Annual Eeport of the American Historical Association, 1907, Vol. 
I, p. 99 et seq. 

^^4: Annals of Congress, 1st Session, 16th Congress, p. 2233. 


them to follow Clay. The proposal was quite unopposed. 
Floyd of Virginia, who for two sessions had been advo- 
cating the military occupation of Oregon, spoke for the re- 
duction bill.^^^ Even western members declared that a 
small army was sufficient for the protection of the frontier 
if supported by the local militia. 

Trimble of Kentucky went into an elaborate discussion 
to show that the line of forts from Michilimackinack to New 
Orleans formed a cordon" of sufficient strength for the pi- 
oneers and was far superior to the protection of the frontier 
in the year 1802. He claimed that the pioneer settlements 
now were stronger than those in the early days of the cen- 
tury, and that the Indians of the West had become less 
numerous and less warlike.^^^ Cannon of Tennessee could 
not refrain from delivering a eulogium upon the superiority 
of militia organized from the hardy sons of the West".^^^ 
Such argument cannot but raise the suspicion that west- 
erners were better pleased to execute the Indian trade and 
intercourse laws with their own hands than to submit to the 
more impartial supervision of regular army officers. As it 
was the bill passed both houses with large majorities.^ 

As if to further relax the Government's control on the 
frontier, the factory system was abolished the next year. 
This department had been established in 1796 upon the 
recommendation of Washington. Its object was to counter- 
act the influence of Canadian fur traders and to control and 
protect the Indians by maintaining trading posts where the 
Indians might exchange their furs for goods at cost.^^*^ 

165 Annals of Congress, 2nd Session, 16th Congress, p. 891. 

166 Annals of Congress, 2nd Session, 16th Congress, p. 879. 

167 Annals of Congress, 2nd Session, 16th Congress, p. 136. 

Annals of Congress, 2nd Session, 16th Congress, pp. 936, 379; Niles' 
Weekly Register, Vol. XXII, p. 75. 

i6!» Kichardson 's Messages and Papers of the Presidents, Vol. I, p. 185. 
Benton's Thirty Years' View, Vol. I, p. 21. 


The move against the department was by Benton. He ac- 
cused the factors of ^ ' scandalous abuse ^ and characterized 
the system as a means ^^to make the West purchase from 
the East ' \ Benton proposed that the trade be left entirely 
in private hands.^"^^ His bill passed both houses, provok- 
ing debate in neither, save a most violent speech by a Ken- 
tucky representative who proposed to repeal all acts at- 
tempting to civilize the Indians.^^^ 

In Congress little attention was thereafter given to de- 
fenses of the northwestern frontier. Nor was there any 
great need of such defenses since peaceful conditions on 
the whole prevailed until the breaking out of the episode 
known as the Black Hawk War.^'^^ Hostilities began in 
the summer of 1831. In the following session of Congress 
the condition of the Northwest received consideration and 
was the occasion of several eulogiums on behalf of the west- 
ern people by western Congressmen. Senator Tipton of 
Indiana declared that the pioneers could not be blamed if 
they exterminated all the Indians from Tippecanoe to the 
Mississippi, unless the Government more energetically 
undertook the defense of the frontier. He said: 

It is our duty, in self-defence, to do this [i. e. exterminate the 
Indians] ; and, after it is done, let me not be told, you Western peo- 
ple are savages; you murdered the poor Indians. Do gentlemen 
expect us to beg the lives of our families upon our knees? . . . 
Congress will adjourn in a few days; and when we return to our 
people, and tell them that we have done all in our power to procure 
men for their defence, and have failed, then, sir, our constituents 
know what to do, and upon you, not upon us, be the charge of what 
follows; for these wars will be brought to a close in the shortest 
possible way.^^^ 

i'^o Annals of Congress, 1st Session, 17th Congress, p. 317 et seq. 

171 Annals of Congress, 1st Session, 17th Congress, p. 1801. 

172 For an account of the war, see Stevens's TJie Black HawTc War. 

173 Eegister of Debates, 1st Session', 22nd Congress, p. 1075. This was the 
same Senator Tipton who later advocated a Western Territory for the Indians., 


Again Senator Tipton declared: 

We must sweep these people [the Indians] from existence, or 
keep them peaceable. ... No one can imagine the distress that 
an alarm on the frontier produces, without witnessing it. Those 
who are at the point of attack, flee with their families ; those next in 
the rear, though more secure, are not safe. No man can leave his 
own family to help his neighbor ; and the consequence is, that they 
break up and desert their homes, taking little with them, and leave 
their property to be pillaged by the dishonest whites, as well as the 

Senator Alexander Buckner of Missouri expressed *'a 
deep feeling for the people of Illinois", which was natural, 
for like Benton and Tipton he himself had fought in Indian 

On June 15, 1832, the bill to raise six hundred volunteers 
was passed — too late, however, to aid even in the closing 
campaign of the Black Hawk War.^^^ The whole affair 
was reviewed by Jackson in his annual message to Con- 
gress in the following December, wherein he urged a more 
perfect organization of the militia for the protection of 
the western country.^^^ After praising the militia of Illi- 
nois and the government troops under Generals Scott and 
Atkinson, Jackson did not let pass the opportunity of point- 
ing out the moral to be learned by the savages from the de- 
feat of Black Hawk. Severe as is the lesson to the In- 
dians,'' he said, *4t was rendered necessary by their un- 
provoked aggressions, and it is to be hoped that its impres- 
sion will be permanent and salutary.'' That the Indians 
in fact were learning this lesson of civilization might be in- 
ferred from another part of the message, where Jackson 
was happy to inform Congress ^Hhat the wise and humane 

^7 Register of Debates, 1st Session, 22nd Congress, p. 1083. 

175 Register of Debates, 1st Session, 22nd Congress, p. 1087. 

170 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. IV, p. 533. 

177 Register of Debates, 2nd Session, 22nd Congress, Appendix, p. 6. 


policy of transferring from the eastern to the western side 
of the Mississippi the remnants of our aboriginal tribes, 
with their own consent and upon just terms, has been 
steadily pursued, and is approaching, I trust, its con- 
summation. ' ^ 

The Black Hawk War was suppressed without any aug- 
mentation of the standing army. But the harrowing scenes 
of this episode were frequently pictured during the debates 
when Benton in the year 1836 proposed an increase of the 
army, avowedly for western defense. 

In the meantime attention was directed to the South. 
Hardly had three years passed after peace in the North- 
west, when there broke out one of the most perplexing of 
Indian hostilities — the Florida Indian War. For seven 
years this conflict continued. The tangled everglades and 
swampy wastes of Florida and the persistence of the In- 
dians long baffled and delayed the generals and troops of 
the United States; and withal some thirty millions of 
dollars were expended before the Seminoles were subdued. 
To an observer from afar the conduct of the war appeared 
bunglesome, its cause unjust, and its ultimate purpose 
simply the oppression and the extermination of a gallant 
band of exiled Indians. So the opposition to the Adminis- 
tration became loud in condemning the war and its manage- 
ment. ^"^^ 

Besides the early discussions upon the Florida War in 
the session of 1835-1836 other questions of similar nature 
were brought before Congress, which gave occasion for a 
review of all phases and problems of the question of south- 
ern frontier protection. Among these were the demand of 
Alabama for the removal of the Creek Indians,^'^^ the 

178 Benton's Thirty Years' View, Vol. II, p. 70. 

^'^^ Journal of the Senate, 1st Session, 24th Congress, p. 146; Senate Docu- 
ments, No. 132. 


threatened hostilities of the Creeks,^^^ the memorials pray- 
ing the recognition of the independency of Texas,^^^ as well 
as the demand from the West for an increase in army pro- 

In regard to the Seminole Indian War it appears that 
Congress took prompt action. No matter whether the 
cause was just or unjust, no delay occurred in providing 
for the immediate protection of the pioneers from the fury 
of the Indians. The first act of the session was an appro- 
priation for suppressing the hostilities of the Seminoles 
and was hurriedly passed on January 14, 1836.^^^ Two 
weeks later the second act of the session was passed, mak- 
ing a still larger appropriation. Three days later a reso- 
lution was passed authorizing the President to furnish 
rations from the public stores to the frontiersmen in Flor- 
ida who had been driven from their homes by the depreda- 
tions of the Indians.^^^ All of these measures were adopted 
without extended debate — only when the second appropria- 
tion was proposed Clay asked the cause of this war which 
was raging with such rancorous violence within our bor- 
ders ".^^^ No one could adequately reply. Webster, the 
chairman of the finance committee who reported the bill, 
avowed that he could not give any answer to the Senator 
from Kentucky; but he added impressively: **The war 
rages, the enemy is in force, and the accounts of their 
ravages are disastrous. The Executive Government has 

180 Begister of Debates, 1st Session, 24th Congress, p. 2556 ; Niles ' Weekly 
Eegister, Vol. L, pp. 205, 219, 257, 321. 

-i 8-^ Register of Debates, 1st Session, 24th Congress, pp. 1286, 1414, 1759, 
1762, 1877. 

Eegister of Debates, 1st Session, 24th Congress, p. 3493. 

183 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. V, p. 1. 

184 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. V, p. 1. 

185 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. V, p. 131. 
Begister of Debates, 1st Session, 24th Congress, p. 290. 


asked for the means of suppressing these hostilities'', 
and he conceived it necessary to provide for the imme- 
diate protection of Florida. Even the loquacious Ben- 
ton, despite the fact that he was in the confidence of the 
Administration, confessed his entire ignorance concern- 
ing the causes of the war.^^"^ 

Nevertheless, after continued appropriations were de- 
manded by the Executive, and a bill to increase the army 
was vigorously advocated by its friends, the Opposition 
began to inquire earnestly into the cause of this commo- 
tion. **One would have supposed", remarked Clay, 
**that all at once a gallant nation of some millions had 
been suddenly precipitated on our frontier, instead of a 
few miserable Indians. ' '^^^ Yet all the bills providing 
for the suppression of the Seminole hostilities which 
Jackson's government asked for were promptly passed.^^^ 
So also was the bill to provide for ten thousand volun- 
teers, Calhoun himself being the manager of the bill on 
the part of the Senate in the conferences between the two 
houses.^^^ But Benton's proposal to increase the stand- 
ing army met disagreement as shall be related below. 

To the opponents of the Government's Indian policy 
the cause of the Seminole hostilities was clear enough. 
Some blamed the pioneers, some the speculators, but all 
blamed the Government. Calhoun, for instance, exoner- 
ated the pioneers but denounced the frauds of the Indian 
Bureau. He regretted that the speculators in Indian 
lands were not the persons to suffer, instead of the 
frontier inhabitants. Indeed, he said, it made his heart 

Begister of Debates, 1st Session, 24th Congress, p. 291. 
^^^Begister of Debates, 1st Session, 24th Congress, p. 1756. 
189 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. V, pp. 1, 8, 17, 33, 65, 131, 135, 152. 
'^^^ Journal of the Senate, 1st Session, 24th Congress, p. 366. 
^^^Begister of Debates, 1st Session, 24th Congress, pp. 1459, 1460. 

VOL. IX — 18 


bleed to think of the sufferings of the innocent frontier 
settlers." All these evils were the result of mismanage- 
ment. The Indian agents had generally been incapable 
or unfaithful. Calhoun continued: 

The Government ought to have appointed men of intelligence, of 
firmness, and of honor, who would have faithfully fulfilled their 
obligations to the United States and to the Indians. Instead of 
that, men were sent out to make fortunes for themselves, and to op- 
press the Indians. ... If they would appoint honest, faithful, 
intelligent men, to transact their business with the Indians, instead 
of broken down politicians, men sent out to be rewarded for party 
services, these Indian disturbances would soon cease; but unless 
that was done, it was apparent that there would be continual dis- 
turbances, creating causes for wars, to be followed by a large in- 
crease of the standing army. 

In the House Mr. Vinton of Ohio expostulated in these 
words : 

When the cry is sent up here that the people of the frontier are 
assailed by Indian hostility, we raise the means of making war upon 
them without a moment's delay; we crush them by our superior 
power. But we never inquire, while the war is going on, or after it 
is ended, into its causes; we make no investigation to learn who 

were the instigators of the war, or who was to blame I 

told the House there were those on the frontier who had an interest 
in exciting Indian wars ; that there were those who disregarded the 
rights of the Indians, and were disposed to encroach upon them; 
that if we omitted to investigate the causes of these disturbances, 
and thus induce those who have an interest in exciting them to 
think they can involve us without scrutiny and without exposure, we 
should have other Indian wars, in all probability, before the end of 
the session. . . . If we suffer ourselves to go on in this way, in 
three years' time every Indian will be driven by force from every 
State and Territory of the Union. In the States and Territories, 
wherever they are, they are regarded as an incumbrance, and there 
is a strong desire to get them out of the way ; and if we will furnish 
the means without inquiry, they will be disposed of. Sir, our 
frontier inhabitants know our strength and their weakness; and if 


we are to stand armed behind them, and let them have their way^ 
we must expect they will overbear and encroach upon them. The 
Indians with whom we are in contact know full well their weakness; 
and our power ; and it is hardly credible that they will open a war 
upon us except from a strong sense of injury. . . . We ought 
to send the immediate means of defending our frontier inhabitants 
from massacre and pillage; and it is, in my opinion, our further 
duty to set on foot immediately an investigation into the cause of 
these disturbances ; and if we are in the wrong, we ought instantly 
to send commissioners to offer them reparation and do them justice. 
When we look at the contrast, and see how weak and defenceless 
they are, and how strong and mighty we are, the character of the 
House, the honor of the country, and the feelings of the world, call 
upon us to pursue this course toward them.^^^ 

Edward Everett summed up the causes of the Florida 
War to be the efforts of the whites to capture negro slaves 
among the Seminoles and to wrest from these Indians 
their lands per fas aut nefas,^^^ But of all the speeches 
the most widely noted denunciation of the war was made 
by Everett's colleague, Adams the ex-President. The 
immediate occasion for Adams's speech was a joint reso- 
lution from the Senate authorizing the President to dis- 
tribute rations to the suffering frontiersmen in Alabama 
and Georgia as had been done to the sufferers in Florida.^^^ 
Although stating that he should vote for the resolution 
because of his sympathy for the sufferers, Adams main- 
tained that **mere commiseration, though one of the most 
amiable impulses of our nature, gives us no power to 
drain the Treasury of the people for the relief of the suf- 
fering ".^^^ After an irrelevant discourse in which the- 

192 Eegister of Debates, 1st Session, 24tli Congress, p. 3767. 
^^sBegister of Debates, 1st Session, 24th Congress, p. 4158. 
^^^Niles' WeeTcly ^.egister, Vol. L, p. 276; Memoirs of John Quincy Adorns^. 
Vol. IX, pp. 290, 298. 

Begister of Debates, 1st Session, 24tli Congress, p. 4032. 

Eegister of Debates, 1st Session, 24tli Congress, p. 4037. 


venerable statesman detected the curse of slavery in 
frontier disturbances, he concluded his discourse by 
charging the cause of the Seminole War to the injustice 
of the present Administration. All preceding Adminis- 
trations, he claimed, had sought to civilize the Indians 
and attach them to the soil upon which they lived. But 
this humane policy was now abandoned. 

Instead of it you have adopted that of expelling by force or by 
compact all the Indian tribes from their own territories and dwell- 
ings to a region beyond the Mississippi, beyond the Missouri, be- 
yond the Arkansas, bordering upon Mexico ; and there you have de- 
luded them with the hope that they will find a permanent abode — 
a final resting-place from your never-ending rapacity and persecu- 
tion. ... In the process of this violent and heartless operation 
you have met with all the resistance which men in so helpless a con- 
dition as that of the Indian tribes could make. Of the immediate 
causes of the war we are not yet fully informed ; but I fear you will 
find them, like the remoter causes, all attributable to yourselves.^^'' 

Toward the end of the session a surprising memorial 
was presented to Congress from citizens resident at the 
seat of the Creek and Seminole hostilities, i. e. Eastern 
Alabama and Georgia.^^^ These memorialists represent- 
ed that the Indian disturbances were caused by individ- 
uals jointly associated under the name of land companies, 
whose proceedings and contracts were of the most ne- 
farious character.'^ The memorialists prayed that an in- 
vestigation be instituted, and intimated that it would be 
found that ^Hhe press of that country is entirely under 
the control of these heartless agitators, and that, through 
bribery and corruption, all channels of information to the 
public and to the Government on this subject are closed.^' 

Lewis of Alabama moved that the investigation be 
placed in the hands of the President with power to prose- 

197 Register of Debates, 1st Session, 24'th Congress, p. 4049. 
Eegister of Debates, Ist Session, 24th Congress, p. 4578. 



cute the guilty persons if any might be apprehended. 
Wise of Virginia, Adams of Massachusetts, and Peyton 
of Tennessee sprang to the opposition. The Virginian 
moved to amend by selecting a committee of the House to 
investigate. Executive officers, he claimed, were impli- 
cated in the charges and to refer the matter to the Presi- 
dent would **have the effect to cover up these frauds, in- 
stead of exposing them.'*^^^ After a hot debate, in which 
Peyton likened Andrew Jackson to Warren Hastings and 
dubbed all Indian agents as petty tyrants" engaged in 
plundering the savages and *^then aiding and encourag- 
ing them to make war upon your defenseless frontier", 
the amendment proposed by Wise was rejected and the 
motion of Lewis passed by so many ayes that the noes 
were not even counted.^^^ 

The last annual message of Jackson in December, 1836, 
called for further appropriations to subdue the Seminoles 
and Creeks and urged an increase of the regular army as 
well as a reorganization of the militia.^^^ The appropria- 
tions were supplied by Congress, but not the increase in 
the standing army.^^^ jj^ ^j^^ following December his 
successor, perforce, repeated similar recommendations not 
only for the increase of the regular army but also to 
continue suppressing the Seminole hostilities.^^^ Al- 
ready the members of Congress who had voted for the 
early appropriations merely in the hope that immediate 
aid would quiet the disturbances on the frontier were 
much provoked because of the never-ending campaigns. 
Webster mildly advised more deliberation in expendi- 

^^^Begister of Debates, 1st Session, 24tli Congress, p. 4583. 

200 Begister of Delates, 1st Session, 24tli Congress, pp. 4597, 4604. 

201 Begister of Debates, 2nd Session, 24th Congress, Appendix, p. 8. 

202 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. V, pp. 135, 152. 

203 Congressional Globe, 2nd Session, 25tli Congress, p. 6. Also Appendix, 
p. 3. 


tures.^^* Twenty million dollars had been expended, lie 
said, and little accomplished. Before greater appropria- 
tions were voted the whole matter should receive a thor- 
ough investigation. Preston of South Carolina also de- 
, manded an investigation.^^^ And Senator Southard of 
^vTew Jersey brought serious charges to the door of the 
Administration by maintaining that *^a fraud was com- 
mitted upon the Florida Indians in the treaty negotiated 
with them for their removal to the West; that the war 
which has ensued was the consequence of this fraud; and 
that our Government was responsible to the moral sense of 
the community, and of the world, for all the blood that has 
been shed, and for all the money that has been expended, 
in the prosecution of this war.''^^^ 

These pleas for investigation called down a torrent of 
abuse and wrath. Benton replied to Southard in a 
trenchant speech, the burden of which was a condemna- 
tion of **the mawkish sentimentality of the day . . . . 
a sentimentality which goes moping and sorrowing about 
in behalf of imaginary wrongs to Indians and negroes, 
while the whites themselves are the subject of murder, 
robbery and defamation. ''^^^ Clay of Alabama replied to 
"Webster and Preston in a harangue quivering with in- 
vective heaped upon philanthropists who assayed 
take care of the national honor T'^^^ Other arguments 
followed depicting the depraved condition of the Indians, 
and therefore their lack of rights. Indeed, almost all of 
the arguments in the entire Seminole War debates con- 
sisted largely of vivid defenses of pioneer character, and 

204 Congressional Globe, 2nd Session, 25th Congress, Appendix, p. 373. 

205 Congressional Globe, 2nd Session, 25th Congress, Appendix, p. 373. 

206 Congressional Globe, 2nd Session, 25th Congress, Appendix, p. 353. 

207 Congressional Globe, 2nd Session, 25th Congress, Appendix, p. 354. 
Congressional Globe, 2nd Session, 25th Congress, Appendix, p. 376. 


philippics against the American aborigines, enlivened 
with bloody descriptions of the scalping knife and toma- 

The following words from the remarks of Towns of 
Georgia well illustrate the tone of these debates : 

Every mail from Georgia tells me the story of death; butcheries 
the most revolting are perpetrated every day in the borders of Ala- 
bama, and on the frontiers of Georgia. . . . One scene of wide- 
spread desolation alone is to be seen in that quarter, where but a 
short time since there was peace, quiet, and prosperity. And such, 
sir, has been the unparalleled devastation of property and life, that 
there is scarcely a human being to be seen in all that country, unless 
it be the merciless foe, or some unfortunate settler flying from the 
tomahawk and scalping-knife. So sudden has been this war, when 
the Indian was ready to deal out death in all its horrors, few, if 
any, were prepared to give the slightest resistance; unprotected 
with arms or ammunition, the honest settler of the country felt it to 
be his first duty to yield to the entreaties of wife and children, to fly 
for safety ; and the melancholy story but too often reaches us, when 
thus flying, that many of them have fallen victims to the most cruel 
of all deaths, the scalping-knife and tomahawk.^^^ 

Alford of Georgia declared that when he heard appeals 
for justice to the Seminole Indians his mind reverted to 
his own people, who deserved the sympathy of the Honse 
more than the savage Indian. "^^^ Eichard M. Johnson of 
Kentucky pictured southern rivers as deluged ^^with the 
blood of innocence'', and that Florida lay bleeding un- 
der the hand of savage barbarity. ''^^^ Mr. Jonathan 
Cilley of Maine declaimed as follows : 

My blood thrills in my veins to hear the conduct of faithless and 
murderous Indians lauded to the skies, and our sympathies invoked 
in their behalf, while in the same breath our own government and 
its most distinguished citizens are traduced and villified to the low- 

Begister of Debates, 1st Session, 24th Congress, p. 4034. 
^'^-0 Begister of Debates, 2nd Session, 24tli Congress, p. 1559. 
^^^Begister of Debates, 1st Session, 24tli Congress, p. 2725. 


est degree. ... I hope gentlemen, whose sensibilities are now 
so much enlisted in the conditions of the Seminoles and Cherokees, 
now in Florida and Georgia, will not forget how their own fore 
fathers .... when they were a frontier people . . . . 
dealt with similar enemies.^^^ 

Li a fiery harangue Mr. Bynum of North Carolina 
asked : 

What are our obligations to protect the exposed inhabitants of 
that Territory [Florida] ? Surely all that is sacred . . . . 
should prompt us to a speedy and determined resolution not only to 
defend, but reserve that Territory at every hazard . . . . 
from the blood-stained hands of these unrelenting savages. Gentle- 
men surely could not be in earnest to talk of peace, until these 
bloody, perfidious, treacherous devils were whipped.^^^ 

Peyton of Tennessee, replying to Adams of Massachu- 
setts, said: *^That gentleman does not know, living, as he 
does, far from such scenes, the vivid feeling of Southern 
and Western men, when they see hostile savages hovering 
around their villages, and lying in ambush, to murder the 
old and the young ''.^^^ 

Thus, figuratively speaking, with brandishing of toma- 
hawk and scalping knife bill after bill appropriating mon- 
ey for the suppression of Seminole hostilities was passed. 

The reactions of Jackson's Indian policy fell upon his 
successor. Throughout the whole of Van Buren's term, 
the Seminole hostilities raged in Florida, and the conduct 
of the warfare was constantly used by the Opposition in 
Congress as a weak point for attacking the Administra- 
tion. At last Benton in 1839, after consultation with his 
Administration friends, proposed a plan for the ultimate 

212 Congressional Glohe, 2nd Session, 25th Congress, Appendix, pp. 78, 79. 

213 Congressional Glohe, 2nd Session, 25t]i Congress, Appendix, p. 75. 
^'i^'^ Register of Debates, Ist Session, 24t]i Congress, p. 3520. 

These speecihes may be compared with such current pamphlets as the Nar- 
rative of the Massacre, hy the Savages, of the Wife and Children of Thomas 
Baldwin (New York: 1836). 



suppression of these long-drawn-out hostilities.^^^ Fed- 
eral encouragement to the pioneers was the basis of Ben- 
ton's scheme. Settlers were to be emboldened to brave the 
dangers of Florida settlement by free grants of land, and 
ammunition, and provisions for one year. Into the de- 
fense of this measure Benton flung himself with his char- 
acteristic vigor, calling upon the North not to begrudge 
generous treatment to Southern pioneers since it was by 
armed occupation only that the treacherous lands of Flor- 
ida might ever be settled.^^^ 

That the pioneers should possess the wilderness was 
Benton's pet axiom. Every inch of territory on this 
continent, now occupied by white people," he exclaimed, 
*'was taken from the Indians by armed settlers and pre- 
emptions and donations of land have forever rewarded 
the bold settlers who rendered this service to the civiliza- 
tion of the world. . . . The blockhouse, the stockade, 
the rifle, have taken the country, and held it, from the 
shores of the Atlantic to the far West; and in every in- 
stance grants of land have rewarded the courage and en- 
terprise of the bold pioneer. "^17 Armed settlement was 
ever the true course of pioneer progress in America. 
* ^ Cultivation and defense then goes hand in hand. The 
heart of the Indian sickens when he hears the crowing of 
the cock, the barking of the dog, the sound of the axe, and 
the crack of the rifle. These are the true evidences of the 
dominion of the white man; these are the proof that the 
owner has come, and means to stay ; and then they feel it 
to be time for them to go."^^^ The story of the recession 

Niles' WeeTcly Begister, Vol. LV, p. 314; Benton's Thirty Years' View, 
Vol. II, p. 167, et seq.; Congressional Globe, 3rd Session, 25tli Congress, p. 89. 

216 Congressional Globe, 3rd Session, 25tli Congress, Appendix, p. 165. 

217 Congressional Globe, 3rd Session, 25tli Congress, Appendix, p. 163. 

218 Congressional Globe, 1st Session, 26tli Congress, Appendix, p. 73. 


of the Lidians before the pioneers as told by Benton 
{himself a pioneer) thrills with a shuddering coldness; 
but its truth can not be gainsaid. 

Both Clay and Webster, as might be expected, opposed 
Benton's bill for armed occupation and free grants — but 
imsuccessfully in the Senate.^ In the lower house the 
bill was lost.220 

Among those who voted against the bill in the House 
was J oshua R. Giddings, who later leaped into prominence 
by his vehement speech in opposition to a bill proposed by 
Thompson of South Carolina. Thompson's bill provided 
for the removal of the Seminoles to the West.^^^ Giddings 
€hose the subject of the Seminole "War not so much to de- 
fend the Indians as to attack the institution of slavery, and 
in his speech of February 8, 1841, he assigned as the causes 
of the Florida War the attempts of slave-hunters to capture 
fugitive negroes who had taken refuge with the Seminoles 
and intermarried with them. All the public treasure spent 
to suppress the hostilities, all the blood of the defenseless 
pioneers, women and children murdered by the Indians, and 
the disgrace to the American army he attributed to the at- 
tempts of the Georgia slaveholders seeking to recover their 
runaway slaves and to the unlawful interference by the 
people of Florida with the Indian negroes ''.^^^ The replies 
which Giddings received were bitter and offensive, and, as 
might be expected, concerned slavery more than they did 
the war. 

In the chaos of the Florida discussion Benton alone ap- 
peared with a clear-cut and consistent remedy for the exas- 

219 Congressional Globe, 3rd Session, 25th Congress, p. 194. 

220 Congressional Globe, 3rd Session, 25tli Congress, p. 235. 
Congressional Globe, 2nd Session, 26th Congress, Appendix, p. 346; 

Memoirs of John Quincy Adams, Vol. X, p. 416. 

222 Congressional Globe, 2n'd Session, 26th Congress, Appendix, p. 349. 


perating condition in that Territory. His bill for armed 
occupation — the same which was rejected by the House in 
1839 — was the embodiment of his program. With his 
usual tenacity Benton introduced this bill in the following 
sessions, and spoke on the subject, as he himself said, when- 
ever no other Senator manifested a desire to speak.^^^ The 
scheme was ably supported in the Senate by Benton's col- 
league, Lewis F. Linn,22* by Clay of Alabama,^^^ and by 
Tappan of Ohio;^^^ and in the House support came from 
Butler of Kentucky — the latter sighing for the days of 
primitive simplicity when it was thought no disgrace to kill 
an Indian enemy. John Eobertson of Virginia,^^^ Crit- 
tenden of Kentucky,^^^ and Preston of South Carolina^^^ 
were opposed. 

**The inducements which you hold forth for settlers 
declared Crittenden, ^^are such as will address themselves 
most strongly to the most idle and worthless classes of our 
citizens. ' ' And again he said that ^ ' these garrison citizens ' ' 
would in no respect resemble, nor could they accomplish the 
achievements of, the hardy and resolute pioneers of the 
West. ' '^^^ Senator Preston prophesied that the settlers un- 
der the proposed act would not be such as the daring, res- 
olute men'' who settled the Northwest frontier, but instead 

speculators, men expecting a bounty rather than desiring 

Congressional Globe, 1st Session, 26th Congress, p. 20; 2nd Session, 
27th Congress, p. 503. 

224: Congressional Globe, 3rd Session, 25th Congress, Appendix, p. 165; 2nd 
Session, 27th Congress, p. 623. 

225 Congressional Globe, 1st Session, 26th Congreiss, Appendix, p. 47. 

226 Congressional Globe, 1st Session, 26th Congress, Appendix, p. 74. 

227 Congressional Globe, 1st Session, 26th Congress, Appendix, p. 669. 

228 Congressional Globe, 3rd Session, 25th Congress, p. 202. 

229 Congressional Globe, 1st Session, 26th Congress, Appendix, p. 80. 

2^0 Congressional Globe, 1st Session, 26th Congress, Appendix, pp. 74, 84. 
Congressional Globe, 1st Session, 26th Congress, Appendix, pp. 80, 81. 


to make permanent settlements ' '.^^^ Tappan of Ohio saw 
the matter in the same light when he said : * ' The men you 
will probably obtain under this law, will be the idle and 
worthless population of our large cities ".^^^ 

Benton's persistence in the end won the day. The bill, 
despite dire predictions, was passed by both houses and 
signed by the President on August 4, 1842.2^* Benton, as he 
tells the story in his Thirty Years' View implies that the 
enacting of this law marked the close of the Seminole Indian 
War.235 There continued, however, a smouldering resist- 
ance from the wretched remnants of Florida tribes, who 
were not transplanted West, long after the announcement 
by the commanding officer of the army in August, 1843, to 
the effect that hostilities in Florida had ceased. Indeed, as 
late as 1858 Giddings, writing in his Exiles of Florida main- 
tained that the United States was still in open war with 
these forlorn people.^^^ 

As far as general interest was concerned, this session 
did mark the end of the discussion of the Florida War, save 
for the intermittent speeches of Abolitionists who used 
the subject as a handle for attacks upon slavery.^^"^ 

232 Congressional Glohe, list Session', 26th Congress, Appendix, p, 75. 

233 Congressional Globe, 1st Session, 26th Congress, Appendix, p. 74. 

234 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. V, p. 502. 

235 Benton 's Thirty Years ' View, Vol. II, p. 70. 

236 Giddings 's The Exiles of Florida, p. 316. 

237 The efforts of this Abolitionist in behalf of Seminole-Negro people are 
not to be cast aside. His exertions for justice to them continued after the 
greater part of them had been transported to their new homes in the Cherokee 
lands of the West. Here he sought in Congress to protect the Seminole-Negroes 
from the Creeks, who claimed them as slaves, and from slave-hunters from the 
States. During his last term in Congress, 1857-1859, Giddings published a re- 
markably inspiring account of the exiles of Florida. The object of this book, 
he frankly stated, was to disabuse the public mind of the opinion that the Sem- 
inole Wars were caused by the depredations of the Indians upon the white 
settlements, but rather by the persecutions of the Southerners and of a gov- 
ernment subservient to the institution of slavery. Giddings closed his tragic 




The war panic in the fall of 1835 stimulated an interest 
in national defense which ultimately accrued to the advan- 
tage of the frontier. The President's annual message of 
December, 1835, had vigorously reviewed the diplomatic 
friction over the Spoliation payments from France, and his 
message of January, 1836, definitely called for naval and 
coast defenses.^^^ Some months later the elaborate report 
of Secretary Cass upon the land and naval defenses was 
sent to the Senate.^^^ But the war sensation was soon end- 
ed. For scarcely a month later the delayed installments 
were in the hands of the United States.^*^ Meanwhile had 
occurred both the desultory debate upon Benton's resolu- 
tion to appropriate the surplus revenues for the purposes 
of national defense and the debate upon the elaborate pro- 
visions of the Fortification Bill reported by the Senate Mili- 
tary Committee. 

In this hubbub Benton and Linn contrived to bring some 
actual advantage to the fortification question. Western 
men were coming to consider the lack of adequate frontier 
defense as a matter of acute danger. For some time Benton 
and Secretary Cass had consulted with each other. Both 
were impressed with the danger of Indian uprisings in the 
Northwest (the region where the Black Hawk "War was not 
soon to be forgotten) and both were of the opinion that the 
Seminole hostilities might stimulate the prairie Indians to 
like bold attacks. Eeports from western army officers con- 
story with a relation of the fate of the exiles whom the United States had 
transported to the West. He pictured this band of miserable people, still har- 
assed by slave-hunters, finally attempting to flee toward Mexico. 

^^^Begister of Debates, 1st Session, 24th Congress, p. 167, Appendix, p. 3. 
Register of Debates, 1st Session, 24th Congress, Appendix, p. 81. 

2'ioBegister of Debates, 1st Session, 24th Congress, p. 1426; Niles* Weekly 
Register, Vol. L, p. 185. 

241 Begister of Debates, 1st Session, 24th Congress, pp. 130, 591. 


firmed their fears.^*^ These military advices were to the 
effect that the force on the frontier was inadequate both to 
protect the settlements and to command respect from the 
warlike la^ibes. This condition was exhibited to the Senate 
in a letter from the War Department early in March.^^^ 
Secretary Cass called attention to the necessity of advanc- 
ing the troops and posts westward, simultaneously with the 
receding Indian country. As a basis for the development of 
the fortification of the new frontier he proposed new mili- 
tary roads and posts west of Missouri and Arkansas, as 
well as an increase of the army. These plans were substan- 
tially repeated in his report on the military and naval de- 
fenses made in April.^** Benton had already reported from 
the Military Committee a bill for the construction of a mili- 
tary road in the West, and now he reported a bill to increase 
the army of the United States in accordance with the recom- 
mendation of the Secretary of War.^^^ 

In the House, Johnson of Kentucky had reported from 
the Military Committee a bill authorizing the President to 
raise ten thousand volunteers, and a bill for a military road 
and forts in the western country .^^^ The bill for the vol- 
unteers had special reference to the Florida War. 

In support of these measures Benton presented the Sen- 
ate with a mass of pertinent and detailed information. 
Using the estimates of Cass, Benton claimed the number of 
Indians upon the western and northwestern border to be 
253,000 souls, of whom 50,000 were warriors.^*^ To protect 

2^2 American State Papers, Military A fairs, Vol. VI, p. 153; Eegister of 
Debates, 1st Session, 24th Congress, Appendix, p. 100, 

243 Eegister of Dehates, 1st Session, 24th Congress, Appendix, p. 96. 

244 Eegister of Debates, 1st Session, 24th Congress, Appendix, p. 81. 

2'ir> Congressional Globe, 1st Session, 24th Congress, Appendix, p. 126; Jour- 
nal of the Senate, p. 244. 

24C Journal of the House of Eepresentativcs, 1st Session, 24th Congress, pp. 
253, 454, 3593. 

247 Eegister of Debates, 1st Session, 24th Congress, p. 1746. 



the people of the West and Northwest from the incessant 
danger of snch a vast array of savages only a small part of 
the small United States army was employed. The six thou- 
sand soldiers of the United States were distributed along 
the lake, maritime, gulf, and western frontiers — a circuit 
of some twelve thousand miles. The fortifications upon the 
maritime and gulf coast required a great part of the force 
and of that allotted to the West a part had to be kept not on 
the frontier but at a convenient position for mobilization. 
The greater division of the western troops were now on the 
Eed Eiver, watching the progress of events on the Texas 
frontier. The result was that the Middle West and North- 
west, always insufficiently guarded, were nearly stripped of 
defense — and this at a time when the Indian wars in the 
South were exciting the Indians in all quarters. The East- 
ern States, moreover, owed a moral obligation to protect 
the Western States from the hordes of Indians which had 
been and were still being removed westward in order to< 
relieve the old States from a dangerous and useless popu- 

In his dramatic manner Benton appealed to the Senators 
'*in the name of that constitution which had for its first ob- 
ject the common defense of the whole Union" to prevent a 
repetition in the Northwest of the scenes of **fire and blood,, 
of burnt houses, devastated fields, slaughtered inhabitants, 
unburied dead, food for beasts and vultures, which now dis- 
figure the soil of Alabama, Florida, and Georgia ' Ben- 
I ton's fascinating arguments were reinforced by the earnest 
appeals of his colleague, Lewis F. Linn, and of Alexander 
i Porter of Louisiana. The former maintained that the pres- 
I ent frontier population of Missouri was ^^very different 
i from those hardy and warlike adventurers who conquered 
the valley of the Mississippi. They were generally per- 

248 Begister of Debates, 1st Session, 24th Congress, p. 1750. 


sons in easy circnmstances, who had emigrated from the 
East for the purpose of acquiring land for their growing 
families, and were more fitted for the pursuits of peace 
and industry than the hardships and dangers of Indian war- 
fare.'' To such it was all-important to pursue their usual 
vocations without the constant dread of savage depreda- 
tions. There was no doubt but that they could conquer the 
Indians, but it would only be after ^^many fair fields had 
been made desolate, and many a widow would be weeping 
over her fatherless children. "^^^ Linn also referred to the 
consequences of the removal policy. The Government was, 
he asserted, peculiarly responsible for the protection of the 
frontier States, after ^ throwing large masses of Indians on 
them, contrary to the wishes of the frontier States, and in 
defiance of the solemn protest of one of them.^^so 

The unprotected condition of the Texan frontier was an- 
other argument for military augmentation. Besides Linn, 
Preston of South Carolina, Porter of Louisiana, Buchanan 
of Pennsylvania, and Walker of Mississippi in the Senate 
prophesied much trouble from this direction and urged a 
more careful patrol of the southwestern border line.^^i 

Of the various army bills under consideration, the Senate 
passed Benton's for the increase of the standing army, but 
passed it too late in the session to get action in the House.^^^ 
On the other hand the House passed Johnson's bill for the 

249 Register of Debates, 1st Session, 24tli Congress, p. 1852. 

250 Eegister of Debates, 1st Session, 24th Congress, p. 1386. See also p. 

251 Eegister of Debates, 1st Session, 24th Congress, pp. 1386, 1391, 1394, 
1417, 1755. Linn, however, denied that he urged the bill with a view toward 
the state of affairs in Texas. — See p. 1395. 

In the issue of the National Intelligencer, December 24, 1835, Eice Garland, 
a Eepresentative from Louisiana published a statement declaring that the 
Government had acquired too much land by extinguishing Indian titles and 
locating the Indians on the southwestern border. 

2-''2 Eegister of Debates, 1st Session, 24th Congress, p. 1854. 


ten thousand volunteers and Ms bill for a military road and 
posts in the West, and the Senate concurred therein.^^^ 

Benton was determined, however, to increase the stand- 
ing army. In the next session he introduced another bill. 
The Senate was willing to pass it, with a majority of thir- 
teen, but the House deferred.^^* The next regular session 
(1837-1838) , however, saw the triumph of the bill. The irri- 
tating hostilities in Florida as well as the universal feeling 
of insecurity for the western frontier militated against 
further postponement. Even the sensation caused by the 
Caroline affair on the Canadian border contributed to the 
merits of the discussion.^^^ But the basic argument was 
that of defense for the West. Benton spoke in these words : 

The whole Indian population of the United States are now ac- 
cumulated on the weakest frontier of the Union — the Western, 
and Southwestern, and Northwestern frontier — and they are not 
only accumulated there, but sent there smarting with the lash of 
recent chastisement, burning with revenge for recent defeats, com- 
pletely armed by the United States, and placed in communication 
with the wild Indians of the West, the numerous and fierce tribes 
towards Mexico, the Eocky Mountains, and the Northwest, who 
have never felt our arms, and who will be ready to join in any in- 
road upon our frontiers.^^® 

A Senator from the new State of Arkansas made a plea 
for his people. The Indians with whom our forefathers 

t contended, he argued, were wholly undisciplined, and 
armed only with war clubs and bows and arrows''; they 
were remote from each other and at war with each other. 
But the Indians who face the Arkansas frontier are better 

j armed than even our citizens. These western Indians were 

I Register of Delates, 1st Session, 24th Congress, pp. 3375, 3756, 1523,, 

j 1930. 

' 254:Begister of Debates, 2nd Session, 24th Congress, p. 840 j Journal of the 
I Bouse of Bepresentatives, p. 600. 

255 Congressional Globe, 2nd Session, 25th Congress, p. 484. 

256 Register of Debates, 2nd Session, 24th Congress, p. 813. 

j VOL. IX— 19 


located thousands of miles from this Capitol, and hun- 
dreds of miles distant from the nearest points from which 
relief to the frontier settlements could be brought in the 
event of war. They have been taken from . . . . 
Georgia, Alabama, Indiana, Illinois, Ohio, and the Caro- 
linas, and located together upon the borders of the weakest 
and most remote States in the Union. ''^57 

Linn replied to the charge made against the Missouri 
people of having plundered and oppressed the Indians on 
her borders ; 

There was not a man in either Missouri or Wisconsin who did not 
possess too much sense to attempt to plunder Indians. They 
all knew that at that game they were very sure to come off losers: 
for the Indians could beat all the white men on the face of the 
earth at stealing. No ; the people of Missouri had never robbed or 
trampled on these natives of the forest. All the injuries in the case 
had been perpetrated by Indians upon the peaceable white settlers 
and their families. The Indians had been represented as a poor, 
spiritless, down-trodden race, ignorant of their own rights, and con- 
tinually imposed upon by the whites. Nothing could be more op- 
posite to the truth. A deal of trash of this kind had been uttered in 
the course of this debate, by those who ought to know better. No 
people on the face of the earth were keener sighted, or more fully 
awake to their rights and interests, than the North American In- 
dians. . . . Never had they been more fierce, never more bent 
on war.^^^ 

Such speeches exhibited much solicitude on the part of 
western members; but their statements were so sweeping 
and so generalizing that the suspicion of exaggeration 
might well arise, Calhoun, Clay, and Crittenden of Ken- 
tucky called in question this warlike panic. *^What had 
created so great a dread of those 70,000 Indians,'' ex- 
claimed the latter, '^composed of the fragments, the broken 

257 Eegistcr of Debates, 2nd Session, 24th Congress, p. 835. 
2B8 Begister of Debates, 2nd Session, 24th Congress, p. 837. 



fragments, of a poor, disheartened, dispirited, down-trod- 
den people? It was in vain to effect a terror of this now 
fallen race, trampled in the dust, and broken in spirit, as an 
argument for the increase of the standing army."^^^ The 
pioneers of Kentucky and Tennessee, Crittenden told the 
Senate, had conquered their wilderness without the aid of 
Federal troops. Why should not the pioneers of the far 
West do the same in their region? 

Concerning the influence that annuities might have in pre- 
serving peace with the Indians, the opinions of Calhoun and 
Linn directly opposed each other. Calhoun believed that 
the Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, and Chickasaws, all of 
whom were friendly to the United States and received large 
annuities from the Government, would never forfeit these 
bounties by a hostile act.^^^ Linn replied : 

The great tribes, to whom large annual payments in money had 
been guaranteed, would not go to open war with this Government, 
lest their annuities should be forfeited ; but there were some smaller 

259 Begister of Debates, 2nd Session, 24th Congress, p. 829. 

The technical objection to Benton 's bill which pertained to a point of military 
economy was that of replenishing the file of the regiments or of increasing the 
regiments. In other words that of increasing or not the proportion of privates 
to^ the officers. Calhoun, who it will be recalled was Secretary of War under 
President Monroe, held that the staff of the army should be increased, and 
not the file. Clay disfavored a considerable standing army and advocated re- 
liance on the militia. — Register of Debates, 1st Session, 24th Congress, p. 18&2 ; 
Congressional Globe, 2nd Session, 25th Congress, p. 133. 

It is interesting to note some of the other objections to increasing the stand- 
ing army. For instance, Everett of Vermont objected because any increase in 
the army must be made up chiefly from an enlistment of foreigners, and he 
hoped never to ''see that day when Irishmen, Englishmen, and other aliens 
should be organized and armed to keep the citizens of his State in order.'' — 
Congressional Globe, 2nd Session, 25th Congress, p. 484. 

260 Register of Debates, 2nd Session, 24th Congress, p. 808. 

Calhoun's position on this point is self-explanatory. As told by the con- 
gressional reporter, Calhoun said in part: — ''The bill proposed to increase 
our existing military establishment. ... by the addition of 5,500 men, 
. . . and augmenting the expense of its maintenance by a million and a 
half or two millions of dollars. Was this necessary? He contended that it was 


tribes not so restrained; these were not unlikely to commence a 
hostile movement ; and, the moment they should do so, there were 
multitudes of the young warriors from the larger tribes ready and 
eager to join them.^^^ 

not. . . . Abroad we were at peace with all the world; and as to Mexico,, 
he believed no gentleman seriously contemplated that we were to go to war 
with her. Never had there been a time when so little force was necessary to 
put our Indian relations upon the safest footing. Our Indian frontier had, 
within a few years, been contracted to one half its former dimensions. It 
had formerly reached from Detroit all the way round to the mouth of the 
St. Mary's, in Georgia; whereas, at present, its utmost extent was from St. 
Peter's to the Eed river. To guard this frontier, the Government had nine 
regiments of artillery, seven of infantry, and two of dragoons. He would 
submit to every one to say whether such a line could not be amply defended by 
such a force. Supposing one regiment to be stationed at St. Louis, and an- 
other at Baton Eouge, there still remained seven regiments to be extended 
from St. Peter's to Eed river. Supposing one of them to be stationed at 
St. Peter's, one upon the Missouri, one in Arkansas, and one upon the Eed 
river, there were still three left at the disposal of the Government. He con- 
tended that this force was not only sufficient, but ample. He should be told 
that there was a very large Indian force upon this frontier. That was very 
true. But the larger that force was, the more secure did it render our posi- 
tion; provided the Government appointed among them faithful Indian agents,, 
who enjoyed their confidence, and who would be sustained by the Government 
in measures for their benefit. Of what did this vast Indian force consist? 
In the first place, there were the Choctaws, who had removed beyond the 
Mississippi with their own consent; a people always friendly to this Govern- 
ment, and whose boast it was that they had never shed, in a hostile manner^ 
one drop of the white man's blood. Their friendship was moreover secured by 
heavy annuities, which must at once be forfeited by any hostile movement. 
Whenever this was the case, the Government possessed complete control, b^;^ 
the strong consideration of interest. Next came the friendly Creeks, who- 
had all gone voluntarily to the west bank of the river. Then came the friendly 
Cherokees, who had done the same thing; and next the Chickasaws, whom we 
also held by heavy annuities. All this vast body of Indians were friendly 
toward the United States, save a little branch of the Creeks; and it would 
be easy for any prudent administration, by selecting proper agents, and sus- 
taining them in wise measures, to keep the whole of these people peaceable and 
in friendship with this Government, and they would prove an effectual barrier 
against the incursions of the wild Indians in the prairies beyond. But to 
increase largely our military force would be the most certain means of pro- 
voking a war, especially if improper agents were sent among them — political 
partisans and selfish land speculators. Men of this cast would be the more 
bold in their measures, the more troops were ready to sustain them". Note 
also a further speech on p. 826. Compare Niles' WeeMy Begister, Vol. LII,. 
p. 99. 

261 Begister of Debates, 2nd Session, 24th Congress, p. 838. 



Throughout the debate there appeared vague accusations 
against Clay and Calhoun. Were Clay and Calhoun hostile 
to adequate frontier defense ? No one can read the speeches 
on the Army Bill without perceiving that more than a few 
individuals considered them so to be. But such sentiments 
were without foundation. Clay's attitude had been ex- 
pressed on this very question time and time again for a 
score of years. It was always the same. Clay disliked a 
standing army; he would have the western country rely 
upon an efficient militia.^^^ 

As to Calhoun, if he were seeking an alliance between 
South Carolina and the West, as his correspondence during 
this period might lead one to suppose, then there existed a 
powerful political motive to prohibit his taking an attitude 
in any way unfriendly to Benton's Army Bill.^^^ But as a 
matter of fact, Calhoun was ever zealous for western de- 
fense. His administration of the War Department under 
Monroe exhibited in that respect a record which he could 
point to with pride.^^* Like Clay he opposed a large stand- 
ing army. While disapproving Benton's broad plan of mili- 
tary establishment, Calhoun nevertheless voted for the 
Army Bill in 1836;^^^ and during the same session he was 
manager of the Volunteer Bill in the conferences between 
the two houses.2^^ 

262 Clay 's opposition to the Army Bill may have contributed to his unpopu- 
larity in some sections of the West in the same way that his Land Bill did. — 
Pelzer's The Early Democratic Party of Iowa in The Iowa Journal of His- 
tory AND Politics, Vol. VI, p. 30. 

263 Calhoun Correspondence, Annual Beport of the American Historical Asso- 
ciation, 1899, Vol. II, pp. 349, 353, 366. 

^^'^ Register of Debates, 2nd Session, 24th Congress, p. 826. 

Register of Debates, 1st Session, 24th Congress, p. 1853. For Calhoun's 
votes against the bills of 1837 and 1838, see Register of Debates, 2nd Session, 
24th Congress, p. 840; Journal of the Senate, 2nd Session, 25th Congress, p. 170. 

Journal of the Senate, 1st Session, 24th Congress, p. 366; Register of 
Debates, p. 1503. 


More truth, however, lies in the assertion that Benton 
pressed his Army Bills upon Congress with an eye single 
to his elaborate scheme of national defense. Benton was 
almost vindictively opposed to the Surplus Eevenue Dis- 
tribution Bill. So the more surplus of the treasury diverted 
to the army, the less there would be for distribution to the 
States.2^^ The frontier scare was a convenient argument. 

As a matter of fact the Indian outcry of the day was 
somewhat exaggerated.^^* Even Benton admitted that the 

267 Compare with Meigs' Benton, p. 171, and with. Linn and Sargent's Life 
and Public Services of Dr. Linn, p. 280. Many charges were made that the 
Fortification Bill of 1835, as well as the bill for the increase of the army, 
was a political maneuver. For instance, see Begister of Debates, 1st Session, 
24th Congress, pp. 2390, 2436. 

268 The following letters from the southwestern frontier show an ulterior 
motive in spreading rumors of Indian hostilities. One letter dated August 28, 
1836, at Natchitoches, Louisiana, says: ^'One of the ostensible causes of this 
permanent military occupation of Texas is the reported disaffected state of a 
number of tribes or fragments of tribes, of Texian Indians, and some that once 
lived in the United States. The Texans are pleased by the presence of our 
troops as giving their cause countenance, and with that policy they raise and 
spread rumors of threatened attacks." — Niles' WeeTcly Begister, Vol. LI, p. 87. 
Another letter from Camp Sabine declares : ' ' This frontier is perfectly quiet. 
No Indian disturbances, and none likely to take place. The Indians are few 
in number, quietly pursuing their avocations, and in my opinion dare not mo- 
lest the frontier settlements of Louisiana; and it is believed that they have 
never entertained an idea of the kind. A thousand stories have been circulated 
to the prejudice of the Indians, which have proved false. On this frontier, a 
man would be considered very credulous, who should regard the reports that 
daily come from Texas." — Niles' WeeJcly Begister, Vol. LI, p. 162. A letter 
from Camp Nacogdoches, dated September 21st, says: ''There is something 
singular in our occupation of Nacogdoches. There never has been, nor is there 
likely to be, any difficulties with the Indians. — They are as peaceable as could 
be expected, urging the necessity of keeping white men out of their country. ' ' — 
Niles' WeeJcly Begister, Vol. LI, p. 162. 

The maneuvers of General Gaines upon the Texan boundary in the summer of 
1836 raised a storm of protest from those in the United States opposed to 
annexation, and the denials of possible Indian hostilities were quite likely 
exaggerated. However, these were undoubtedly false rumors about Indian 
dangers. Further opinions of the time may be found in Benjamin Lundy's The 
War in Texas (Philadelphia: 1837), pp. 44-51; William Kennedy's Texas 
(London: 1841), Vol. II, p. 291; and Mrs. Mary Austin Holley's Texas (Lex- 
ington, Kentucky: 1836), p. 161. 


western people had their just proportion of the American 
army .2^^ It required no elaborate fortifications of stone 
and mounted cannon to repulse such an enemy as the abor- 
igines. Crudely constructed posts and a few mounted 
dragoons were enough.^"^^ Such defenses were already on 
the frontier. But if adventurers advanced beyond the out- 
posts and into the Indian country, did they deserve any 
further protection from the Government? It was a western 
Eepresentative, Bell of Tennessee, who turned the question 
by suggesting that an army was needed on the border as 
much ^*to coerce our own settlers to an obedience of the 
laws" as to awe the Indians.^"^^ 

The "War Department was interested in the enlargement 
of the army, and recommendations of the nature of Poin- 
sett's report in 1837 carried much weight 2*^2 — ^ig^ 
the mass of reports from regular army officers.^"^^ The De- 
partment outlined for congressional consideration an elab- 
orate system of fortifications in the West ; and in 1838 Ben- 
ton introduced a bill to put it into effect, but the bill was 
lost in the press of other matters.^'^* Congressional atten- 
tion, however, had been definitely called to the need of the 
West, and the appropriation bills for fortifications during 

^^^Begister of Debates, 1st Session, 24th Congress, p. 1746, 

270 This is the opinion of Secretary Cass. — Begister of Dehates^ 1st Session, 
24th Congress, Appendix, p. 81. 

271 Congressional Globe, 2nd Session, 25th Congress, p. 483. 

272 Senate Documents, 2nd Session, 25th Congress, No. 1, p. 171, 
s Senate Documents, 2nd Session, 25th Congress, No. 1, p, 204; Executive 

Documents, No. 276. 

274 Congressional Globe, 2nd Session, 25th Congress, p. 265. 
In the following session Senator Linn's plan of fortifications to extend from 
the Sabine Eiver to Fort Snelling deserves attention. For several sessions also, 
Senator Fulton of Arkansas introduced a bill for setting apart a belt of land 
on the western borders of Missouri and Arkansas as bounty lands, to be 
granted to settlers for a term of years in defense of the frontier. His argu- 
ment therefor may be found in Congressional Globe, 2nd Session, 25th Congress, 
ii Appendix, p. 412. 


the following years contained items for carrying out the 
War Department's plan, especially for establishing posts 
along the Arkansas and Missouri.^'^^ 


The question as to the Cherokees again came to Congress. 
This tribe had failed to obtain relief by their appeal to the 
Supreme Court; and from the Executive Department they 
received only admonitions to sell their lands and depart 
westward.^^^ Now they renewed their earnest but utterly 
vain petition to Congress. Clayton of Delaware presented 
their memorial to the Senate on May 20, 1834.^'^'^ Forsyth 
immediately objected to its reception, but was outvoted — 
three nays to thirty yeas.^"^^ The Senate would not ruth- 
lessly deny these Indians a courteous hearing, nor refuse 
them the right of petition. But little more than this could 
the Cherokees expect from either house. Complete ex- 
tinction of the Georgia Indian title had become a tenet of 
the Government's policy. All further stubbornness on the 
part of the Indians made the business only the more put- 
tering and unpleasant. The Senate had learned a lesson, 
however, from the unfortunate episode of Indian Springs. 
No more minority treaties would be consented to. So when 
in the latter part of the session the President transmitted 
a treaty (negotiated by John H. Eaton as commissioner on 
the part of the United States) which surrendered the Cher- 
okee lands in Georgia, the Senate investigated the negoti- 

275 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. V, pp. 582, 609, 660. 

276 Cherokee Nation vs. State of Georgia, 5 Peters 1. Worcester vs. State 
of Georgia, 6 Peters 515. Niles' WeeUy Register, Vol. XXXVI, p. 257. 

Note also Jackson's supposed remark in regard to leaving Chief Justice 
Marshall to enforce his decision in regard to the Cherokees. — Greeley's The 
American Conflict, Vol. I, p. 106. 

277 Register of Debates, 1st Session, 23rd Congress, p. 1772. 

278 Register of Debates, Ist Session, 23rd Congress, p. 1780. 



Hugh L. White of Tennessee, much to the irrita- 
tion of Jackson, conducted the inquiry; and he found that 
this treaty like the one of Indian Springs was signed by 
only a minority representation. The Senate was advised 
of the situation, and without ado refused ratification.^^^ 

If the Cherokees saw in this rejection of the Govern- 
ment's treaty any signs to encourage their persistence, they 
deluded themselves. Both houses were impatient of grant- 
ing any more consideration to the Cherokees until they 
should acquiesce in the demands of the Georgians and in 
the advice of the Executive. The few speeches of philan- 
thropic New Englanders and Ohioans could never change 
this sentiment. The Georgia members and the delegations 
from the central and western States were omnipresent and 
in the majority. And, indeed, when it came to debate it be- 
hooved the champions of the aborigines to explain the sins 
of their own forefathers. Their perorations invited cyn- 
ical reflections when the Georgia delegation demanded to 
know what had become of the hordes of Indians who once 
occupied the soil of New England. Surely small-pox alone 
had not swept from the woods all of those pernicious crea- 
tures to make room for a sounder growth*', as Cotton 
Mather wrote of the Plymouth fields ! The colonists had 
pushed back the natives. Why should not the Georgians 
follow their example? Did not the oration of John Quincy 
Adams in 1802 on the anniversary of the landing of the Pil- 

Executive Journal of the Senate (1887), Vol. IV, pp. 445, 446. Senator 
White was Chairman of the Committee on Indian Affairs and reported from 
that committee the resolution that the Senate do not advise and consent to the 

280 In a letter to J. A. Whiteside, September 17, 1835, White defended his 
action against the charge that he was hostile to the Administration's Indian 
policy. Speaking of the treaty of 1834, he said: '^I could find no principle 
or precedent which would justify me in calling that a treaty, which not only 
had not the assent of the Indians, but was made against their express wishes; 
therefore I held myself bound not to recommend its ratification." — Scott's 
Memoir of Hugh Lawson White, p. 169. 


grims apply as well to Georgia as to New England? Shall 
the lordly savage", declared the then youthful Adams, *^not 
only disdain the virtues and enjoyments of civilization 
. . . . but shall he control the civilization of a world? 
Shall he forbid the wilderness to blossom like the rose? 
. . . . No, generous philanthropists ! ' '^^^ Adams, now 
in the role of philanthropist himself, was compelled to listen 
to the sarcasm of the Georgians : 

Could the principle which regulated the colonies from their earli- 
est day of strength, and beyond which Georgia has never gone, have 
been more forcibly expressed, or eloquently illustrated [than by 
this same Adams] .... Can it be that in such wide-sweep- 
ing assertion of colonial right, the mind of the orator had nar- 
rowed its vision to the horizon of New England, and the defense 
of his own puritan ancestors ? Who, that has heard the announce- 
ment of such a principle, could for a moment imagine that the mind 
which had adopted, and the tongue which expressed it with such 
eloquence and force, should now utter unmeasured denunciation 
against Georgia for having acted short of the extent of his own 

No, the Cherokees could never ask for further attention 
from Congress unless they quitted their dourness and ac- 
cepted the generous grants in the western country — lands 
indeed desirable, broad in extent and f ertile.^^^ The advice 

281^^ Oration Delivered at Plymouth, December 22, 1802 (Boston 1802), 
p. 23. 

A modern defense of the New England Indian policy may be found in 
Channing's History of the United States, Vol. I, pp. 338-341, 402, 403, Vol. II,, 
pp. 76-79. 

282 Begister of Debates, 1st Session, 24th Congress, p. 4505. 

283 For descriptions of the Cherokee country, see Executive Documents, 1st 
Session, 26th Congress, No. 2, p. 466; 2nd Session, 26th Congress, No. 2, p. 310, 

During the debates on the bill for the armed occupation of Florida, Benton 
elicited information from the War Department which he made the basis for 
a defense — one of the most able ever made — of the United States' Indian 
policy. — Senate Documents, 1st Session, 26th Congress, No. 616. The purpose 
of his contention was to answer De Tocqueville 's rather flippant but withal 
very picturesque account of the American mode for ejecting the Indian peo- 
ples from their lands. — Benton's Thirty Years' View, Vol, I, p. 691, et seq. 



of Webster was as prophetic as that of Jackson was authori- 
tative. They were contending against the inevitable. The 
reception in the Senate of Clay's proposal of February, 
1835, exhibited this fact in a pronounced manner. When 
Clay brought forward a plan whereby the Cherokees who 
did not choose to emigrate westward should receive the pro- 
tection of the courts in confirming their titles to small par- 
cels of land, his proposal was contemptuously brushed aside 
by Cuthbert of Georgia and by Benton, while Hugh L. 
White of Tennessee was provoked into delivering a long 
eulogy upon the now sacred policy of removal whose origin 
he traced to the great Jefferson.^^^ 

Clay might well reflect that his efforts in behalf of the In- 
dians, beginning with his appeal for the Seminoles in 1819, 
had ended in much the same manner. We might ask, what 
motive could this Kentuckian harbor which moved him to 
persist in pleading the Indian cause like Webster and Ev- 
erett, Calhoun and Vinton. Unlike Vinton, Clay did not 
harbor any prejudice in his heart against the men and wom- 
en who left the East to find homes on the frontier.^^^ Clay 
was one of them himself. Indeed, this pioneer trait in his 
own life accounts for his cheerless attitude toward the des- 

Eeeve's Translation of De Toequeville 's Democracy in America (Cambridge: 
1863), Vol. I, p. 436, et seq. 

Benton showed that between tlie years 1789 and 1840, ninety million dollars 
had been paid to the Indians by the Government for their land. This was a 
sum nearly six times as much as the whole of Louisiana cost and three times 
as much as all three of the great foreign purchases of Louisiana, Florida, and 
California. To the Cherokees, alone, for eleven millions of acres, was paid 
about fifteen millions of dollars, the exact price of Louisiana or of California. 
Benton reviewed the patient efforts of the United States to civilize the In- 
dians, and the careful mode of treating with them for land cessions. Lo- 
gicians will indeed concede that he proved the trivialness of De Toequeville 's 

^^■^Begister of Debates, 2nd Session, 23rd Congress, p. 300, et seq. For a 
description of Clay 's eloquence on this occasion, see Mallory 's Life and Speeches 
of Henry CIoaj, Vol. I, p. 177. 

285 See above p. 225. 


tiny of the Indian race. The Diary of John Qnincy Adams 
reveals a light on this phase of Clay's entente, although that 
light is somewhat highly colored.^^^ Adams records that 
when Barbour proposed in the Cabinet meeting of Decem- 
ber 22, 1825, to incorporate the Indians as citizens of the 
States, Clay declared himself as utterly opposed to granting 
the Indians any such privilege. It was impossible to civ- 
ilize them, said Clay ; they were destined to extinction ; and 
although he would never use or countenance inhumanity to- 
wards them, he did not think them as a race worth preserv- 
ing. Their disappearance from the human family would in 
fact, he asserted, be no great loss to the world. 

Such expressions indicate a distinctly pioneer conception 
of the Indian problem — for pioneers never idealized the 
American aborigines. Their judgment was Teutonic and 
harsh. Throughout all of Clay's impassioned appeals in be- 
half of these benighted people there is seldom a glimmer of 
hope for their advancement as a race. His eloquent plead- 
ings for justice were but the promptings of a humane heart 
who pitied their condition, read their destiny, and saw how 
hopeless and cheerless it was. But, withal, there is a deli- 
cate distinction to be noted in Clay's opinion. It was the 
race — namely, the tribal relations, and barbarous customs, 
and separatism — that Clay believed to be unworthy of 
preservation. The civilization of individual members was 
another matter. Indeed, the ethnology of these peoples 
might seem to prove that Clay was not far in the wrong. 

The Twenty-third Congress adjourned unheeding the 
Cherokee petition. The day was now at hand when the 
chapter of Cherokee struggles in Georgia would be closed. 
In December, 1835, the tribe gave way and at New Echota 
signed the treaty exchanging all their lands east of the 
Mississippi for five million dollars and lands in the West; 

280 Memoirs of John Quincy Adams, Vol. VII, p. 90. 


and they promised to remove within the space of two 
years.^^^ A stubborn faction, headed by the venerable 
chief, John Eoss, still protested against this decision and 
denied the validity of the treaty ; but they protested and de- 
nied in vain.288 Senator White, chairman of the Indian 
Committee who in the preceding year had defeated the 
Eaton Treaty, found nothing in the negotiations to inval- 
idate Jackson's new treaty. On April 19th, he reported in 
favor of ratifying.289 A month later the ratification was 
considered in executive session, and the champions of the 
Indians then gave the last battle for Indian rights.^^^ Clay, 
Webster, and Calhoun in turn argued for the rejection of 
the treaty. What they said has not been accurately pre- 
served. But the Administration triumphed on May 18th, 
when one vote more than the necessary two-thirds was cast 
for ratification.2^^ A small number of anti-administration- 
ists in the lower house witnessed the defeat attending the 
efforts of Clay, Webster, and Calhoun in the Senate and pre- 
pared to make a resistance to the appropriation necessary 
to carry the treaty into effect. The Committee on Ways and 
Means did not long delay the little conflict. In the annual 
bill making appropriations for Indian treaties, which was 
soon after reported to the House, an item for the New 
Echota Treaty was found.^^^ Adams, supported by Wise of 
Virginia, moved to strike out.^^^ They were answered by 
Haynes of Georgia, who confused the Opposition with 

287 Kappler 's Indian A fairs : Laws and Treaties, Vol. II, p. 439. 

Executive Documents, 1st Session, 24th Congress, No. 286. John Quiney 
Adams presented the John Eoss memorial in the House of Eepresentatives. — 
Congressional Globe, 1st Session, 24th Congress, p. 576. 

289 Executive Journal of the Senate (1887), Vol. IV, p. 532. 

290 Benton's Thirty Years' View, Vol. I, p. 624, et seq. 

291 Executive Journal of the Senate (1887), Vol. IV, p. 546. 
Register of Debates, Isc Session, 24th Congress, p. 4501. 

I Register of Debates, 1st Session, 24th Congress, p. 4502, et seq. ; Memoirs 

I of John Quincy Adams, Vol. IX, p. 299. 



Adams's own rhetoric on the ^ lordly savages ' '.^^^ Jack- 
son's administration was then energetically defended by 
Haynes as follows : 

When that administration came into power, seven years ago, it 
found a partial system of Indian colonization west of the Mississippi 
in operation. . . . Within the last six or seven years, the 
policy of removing and colonizing the Indians in the States east 
of the Mississippi, to the westward of that river, in a region remote 
from the habitation of the white man, has been among the topics 
of universal and bitter discussion from one end of the Union to the 
other. Nor on any other subject has the course of General Jack- 
son's administration been more violently or unjustly assailed. And 
here I take leave to say, that so far from Indian hostilities having 
been provoked, either by the negligence or injustice of that admin- 
istration, they may, with much greater justice, be ascribed to the 
political philanthropy, so loudly and pharisaically displayed by its 
political opponents; and I will further say, that should war arise 
on the part of the Cherokees, the sin of it lies not at the door of this 
administration, or its supporters. 

Bouldin of Virginia in an attempt to be sarcastic, almost 
raved when he declared : 

What is the policy, the design, of the United States, in regard to 
the Indians? .... Whence did they derive the title to all 
the wide domain of which they are the proud owner ? Did they not 
derive it, or rather wrest it, from the possession of the natives — the 
Indians? and has it not been the uniform and persevering policy 
of the United States, hitherto, to drive them off, or exterminate 
them ? What means this change of policy ? Have they relented, or 
repented, and do they mean to change their policy ? Let them, then, 
give up all the lands they have, by the tomahawk and scalping- 
knif e, or the rifle, taken from that gallant but unfortunate race, and 
I will believe in their pity and their repentance. If they do not 
mean this, what do they mean ? Do they mean, after having driven 
these unfortunate beings from the North and East to the South and 
Southwest, by treaties and cruelties far worse than have been lately 
practiced, to use the whole power of the confederacy, thus acquired, 

294 Begister of Debates, Ist Session, 24th Congress, p. 4505. 


to compel the people of Georgia and their neighbors to submit to 
the sealping-knif e and the tomahawk ? Do they mean that an inde- 
pendent savage nation shall remain forever in the heart of a civil- 
ized sovereign State ? .... Do they mean that these savages 
shall remain there, scalping and tomahawking, under the protec- 
tion of the Federal Court or the Federal Government, until they 
have taken their vengeance on these helpless, defenceless women 
and children, and obtained as much money for their land as they 
may think proper to demand 

Grantland, another Georgia Representative, warned the 
House against * ^misplaced philanthropy But no warn- 
ing was necessary. The amendment offered by Adams was 
rejected without even a division; and Benton was able to 
congratulate the country that the North and the South had 
united, notwithstanding the opposition of Calhoun, in ex- 
pelling the Indians from the South.^^^ 

Jackson's administration was drawing to a close. Much 
had been accomplished for the policy of a general removal 
since the President's inauguration in 1829 ; and Jackson did 
not forget to congratulate the nation upon the success of the 
removal policy in his last annual message of December, 1836. 
He considered this success consummated by the late treaty 
of New Echota.2^^ To the Opposition these felicitations ap- 
peared, perhaps, premature, for the Cherokees under the 
terms of their treaty had still a year of grace before quitting 
their lands. 

The end of the first year of Van Buren's administration 
witnessed an increased public interest in the Cherokee ques- 
tion. The details of Jackson's treaty had become well 
known, and "Webster could truly say in the Senate that there 
was a growing feeling in the country that great wrong had 

295 Begister of Debates, 1st Session, 24th Congress, pp. 4526, 4550. 
Register of Debates, ist Session, 24tli Congress, p. 4554. 
Begister of Debates, 1st Session, 24th Congress, p. 4565; Benton Thir- 
ty Years' View, Vol. I, p. 626. 

Begister of Debates, 2nd Session, 24th Congress, Appendix, p. 9. 


been done to the Cherokees by the treaty of New Echota".^^^ 
Multitudes of petitions adverse to the removal of the Cher- 
okees came to the House, only to be tabled at the motion of 
the Georgia delegation.^^^ Lumpkin denounced the slan- 
ders ' ' cast by these memorials with the evil purpose of dis- 
paraging the State of Georgia. He condemned **the idle, 
silly, and false sympathy set forth'' as coming from a dis- 
tant people **who are obviously ignorant of the merits of the 
subject with which they are impertinently intermed- 
dling. ' '2^^ Clay of Alabama charged the northern Senators 
with an evident desire to ^4oose the tomahawk and scalping 
knife" upon the Alabama frontiersmen.^^^ King of Ala- 
bama declared that the continued discussion of the subject 
in Congress created false hopes in the minds of the Cher- 
okees and would result in dangerous disturbances. And his 
colleague, Senator Clay, said that the recent scenes in Flor- 
ida ought to admonish all of the danger of tampering with 
a subject of such fearful importance, and that firmness and 
energy, with a rigid adherence to the terms of the treaty, 
was the only course to prevent war and bloodshed. ''^^^ 

When Webster ventured to say that **many excellent and 
worthy men had it in their consciences on their pillows, that 
some great wrong had been done to the Cherokees in the 
treaty of Echota ' ', the proverbial reply was made by Alfred 
Cuthbert of Georgia. ^ ^ Where were the Indian tribes which 
once covered the territory of Massachusetts V\ he said, us- 
ing phrases almost stereotyped by repeated expression. 

Where slumbered the consciences of the people of Massa- 

290 Congressional Globe, 2nd Session, 25th Congress, p. 403. 

300 Many petitions came from Massachusetts. — J ournal of the House of 
Bepresentatives, 2nd Session, 25th Congress, pp. 726, 776, 778, 911, 986, 1020, 
1127; Memoirs of John Quincy Adams, Vol. IX, p. 518. 

301 Congressional Globe, 2nd Session, 25th Congress, p. 376. 

302 Congressional Globe, 2nd Session, 25th Congress, p. 263. 

303 Congressional Globe, 2nd Session, 25th Congress, pp. 263, 402. 



chusetts when these tribes were exterminated by them? 
Yes, sir, butchered!'' 

Further discussions were vain. ' ' The treaty must be ex- 
ecuted'', thundered the Georgia delegation on all occasions. 
No bill was passed for Cherokee relief .^^^ And at last, close 
following upon the adjournment of Congress, the problem 
was put forever beyond the pale of Congressional recon- 
sideration when the treaty was enforced in the Cherokee 
country by an officer of the army — General Winfield Scott. 
*^The full moon of May is already on the wane," read his 
proclamation to the Cherokee people, **and before another 
shall have passed away, every Cherokee, man, woman, and 
child .... must be in motion to join their brethren 
in the far west." When the last remnants of these people 
passed the Mississippi their petitions against removal 
ceased to annoy Congress.^^^ 


The census map of 1840 presents a different picture of 
the frontier line than does the map of 1820.^^^ In Louisi- 
ana, Arkansas, and Missouri the settlements had been ex- 
tended westward to Texas and to the edge of the Indian 
country. The country on the right bank of the Mississippi 
Eiver was covered with farms as far north as Prairie du 
Chien, and straggling claims were found even further to 
the north and west. On the east side of the Mississippi the 
northern frontier had been pushed well into the interior of 
Wisconsin and Michigan. And the great inland frontiers 
which appear on the map of 1820 were fast disappearing; 

Congressional Glohe, 2nd Session, 25th Congress, p. 404. The slogan of 
the Georgian delegation is illustrated by Lumpkin's speech, p. 403. 

so^Niles' WeeUy Eegister, Vol. LIV, p. 210. 

306 Eleventh Census, Population, Vol. I, Part 1, Map facing p. xxiv. For the 
military frontier, see Executive Documents, 2nd Session, 27th Congress, No. 2, 
p. 80, pi. D ; and American State Papers, Military A fairs. Vol. VII, Map facing 
p. 780. 

VOL. IX — 20 


for the land titles of the Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, 
Chickasaws, and of the northern tribes (with a few excep- 
tions like the Miamis and the Menominees) had been ex- 
tinguished and their lands surveyed and sold to the pioneers 
and southern planters. The two decades which had passed 
since the year 1820 had witnessed the consummation of the 
policy for Indian removal from the eastern half of the 
Mississippi Valley, and the scene of Indian affairs was 
now shifted across the Mississippi to the further West. 

Benton had long kept before Congress the necessity of 
patroling the southwestern frontier bordering upon Mex- 
ico, which was peculiarly exposed to the attacks of the no- 
madic Comanches and Apaches. In the year 1825 he called 
upon Congress to protect from the depredation of these In- 
dians the overland trade between Missouri, Santa Fe, 
Chihuahua, and Sonora.^^^ Five years previously the trad- 
ers of the prairies had established the Santa Fe Trail over 
the desert prairie between the town of Independence on the 
Missouri Eiver and the capital of New Mexico; and, said 
Benton in 1825, it seemed like a romance to hear of cara- 
vans of trade traversing in season the vast plain between 
the Missouri and the Eio del Norte. The bill Benton intro- 
duced for improving the Trail and pacifying the Indians en 
route was passed by both houses.^^^ 

Starting from the same Missourian locale another and 
longer trail traversed the plains and mountains of the 
Northwest. This was the trail to Oregon. Like the Santa 
Fe Trail its congressional guardians were the Missouri 
Senators, Benton and Linn. At an early day they urged 
Congress to protect the emigrants to Oregon. While the 
story of the struggle for Oregon belongs to another chapter 
of western history, there are parts of the story which too 

307 Eegister of Debates, 2nd Session, 18th Congress, p. 341. 
.'$08 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. IV, p. 100. 



intimately concern the defense of American settlers on the 
frontier to be excluded from this narration. A discussion 
of one particular phase — defense of the Oregon pioneers 
— tangled as it is in a question of greater importance, will 
nevertheless throw a new light on the Oregon question. 

Since Benton and Linn are the heroes of the tale it is well 
to begin with their earliest exertions. Benton in his first 
term as Senator from the newly created State of Missouri 
ably supported Floyd's bill of 1822 for the armed occupa- 
tion of the Columbia River, which bill also contemplated 
grants of land to settlers and supervision of the Indians. He 
had also introduced resolutions on his own initiative looking 
towards the retention of the Oregon country. Sixteen 
years later, February 7, 1838, Lewis F. Linn introduced the 
first of his series of bills for the establishment of an Oregon 
Territory and from that day until his death, he became 
the special advocate for Oregon. 

To what extent Benton and Linn fostered these bills as 
an open defiance to England and a part of the game in the 
Oregon diplomacy and to what extent they favored them 
simply as a means to protect and give the emigrants a 
! government can not be exactly measured; nor would it be 
profitable to elaborately essay any such measurement. The 
latter motive is not to be entirely overlooked, although it is 
probably the lesser, in the case of Benton. It should be re- 
I membered, however, that Benton was a western man ; and of 
|i western problems he studied the real conditions, not merely 
j the theories. Unlike the ex-President who debated the 
same question in the House, and who had played a part in 
the early diplomacy of the case, Benton saw not only the 
raison d'etat but he also saw the great bare plains of the 
Northwest through which ran the Oregon Trail to the South 

309 Annals of Congress, 2nd Session, 17th Congress, p. 246. 

310 Congressional Glohe, 2nd Session, 25th Congress, p. 168. 


Pass, and the thousand slow moving caravans of daring 
men and pioneer women travelling toward the West to make 
their homes in the romantic land of the joint-occupancy. 
The hopes and the fears of these emigrants he understood. 
And being himself of kindred spirit he championed their 
cause. Nor was Benton alone among western members. 
He typified the sentiment of western expansion. Linn and 
Douglas were of his mold. 

On February 6, 1840, Linn gave a new feature to the Ore- 
gon question by moving resolutions calling upon the Secre- 
tary of War for his opinion concerning establishing forts 
along the Oregon Trail for the purpose of encouraging and 
protecting the American fur traders and caravans to the 
new country.^^^ Poinsett's report in reply was agreeable 
to such a scheme and proposed locations for three posts 
along the Trail.^^^ Linn, however, did not include this item 
in his plan of Columbian colonization, although upon the 
28th of April he introduced a bill to extend jurisdiction over 
Oregon. Later, in May, he agreed not to urge the Oregon 
question in any phase, pending the delicate state of affairs 
in the Northeastern boundary negotiations. 

As to the Tyler administration, both the President and 
his Secretary of War, Spencer, were of the opinion that 
forts should be established on the Oregon Trail. Indeed, 
in his annual report of December, 1841, Spencer asked for 
a chain of posts from Council BlufPs to the mouth of the 
Columbia, and Tyler added his recommendation in the an- 
nual message.^^* Both, forsooth, cautiously limited their 
reasons to one, and that was protection of fur traders from 
the Indians. Nine days following the President's message 

311 Congrefisional Glohe, 1st Session, 26th Congress, p. 166. 

312 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 26th Congress, No. 231. 
Congressional Glohe, 1st Session, 26th Congress, p. 363. 

31 'I Congressional Globe, 2n(l Session, 27th Congress, Appendix, pp. 4, 12. 



Linn introduced his Oregon bill revised up to date.^^^ It 
contained a section providing for forts along a trail leading 
from the Missouri into **the best pass for entering the val- 
ley of the Oregon ".^^^ Before it was discussed at length 
Lord Ashburton arrived in Washington, and again congres- 
sional discussion of the Oregon question was postponed be- 
cause of the international negotiations.^^^ 

The treaty with Ashburton was concluded in August of 
1842, and when Congress convened in December the per- 
sistent and patient Linn again introduced his bill.^^^ In re- 
gard to Indian affairs it provided for two agencies to super- 
intend all tribes of the westernmost West.^^^ The omission 
of any compromise on the Oregon boundary in the Webster- 
Ashburton Treaty made the time ripe for acute discussion 
of such a bill. The opposition was decided. First Cal- 
houn,32o then M'Duffie,^^! Choate,322 Crittenden,323 Ber- 
rien,^^^ and Archer^^s gpoke against it. Calhoun interpret- 
ed the measure as an act of hostility toward England, and 
upon this premise he argued for the rejection of the bill. 
The country was unprepared for war if England resented 
the action, was the burden of his thesis.^^^ The section do- 

315 Congressional Globe, 2nd Session, 27th Congress, p. 22. 

316 For details of bill, see Niles ' WeeUy Register, Vol. LIX, p. 338 ; Con- 
gressional Globe, 3rd Session, 27th Congress, p. 112. 

317 Linn and Sargent's Life and Public Services of Dr. Linn, p. 239. 

318 Congressional Globe, 3rd Session, 27th Congress, p. 61. 

319 Congressional Globe, 3rd Session, 27th Congress, p. 112. 

320i Congressional Globe, 3rd Session, 27th Congress, pp. 133, 227 ; Appen- 
dix, p. 138. 

^'^'^ Congressional Globe, 3rd Session, 27th Congress, pp. 198, 240. 

^^"^ Congressional Globe, 3rd Session, 27th Congress, pp. 171, 239; Appen- 
dix, p. 222. 

323 Congressional Globe, 3rd Session, 27th Congress, p. 105. 

^'^'^ Congressional Globe, 3rd Session, 27th Congress, p. 212. 

^"^^ Congressional Globe, 3rd Session, 27th Congress, pp. 104, 220, 244; Ap- 
pendix, p. 130. 

326 Congressional Globe, 3rd Session, 27th Congress, Appendix, p. 139. 


nating lands to settlers he pointedly disapproved as a vio- 
lation of treaty rights.^^T Calhoun believed the tide of 
American emigration would soon reach the Eocky Moun- 
tains of its own accord and be ready to pour into the Oregon 
country. Such a theory would seem to preclude the idea 
that military posts should not precede actual settlement. 
Be that as it may, Calhoun closed his speech with a long 
defense of his conduct as Secretary of War when, perceiv- 
ing the resources of the Northwestern fur trade, he had ad- 
vanced the military stations high up the Mississippi and 

Choate disapproved of the section making donations to 
settlers as a contravention of the Convention of 1827.^^^ 
And he further explained at length how Oregon had been 
exploited by Massachusetts enterprise. Might not the East, 
therefore, be the rightful judge of the disposition to be 
made of the country of the Northwest? 

So far as to the bill being an act of hostility to Great 
Britain it is difficult to conceive such a nature therein, save 
in the section making the donation of land. The other fea- 
tures gave the settlers the protection which Great Britain 
had already given her own Oregon citizens by act of Parlia- 
ment in the year 1821.^^^ But the proposed land grants 
were a questionable matter. Calhoun sought the reference 
of the bill to the Committee on the Judiciary in order to j 
strike out this objectionable feature, but the friends of the , 
bill would permit no such emasculation.^ On the other ! 
hand Calhoun was equally stubborn. When Bayard pro- 
posed an amendment to the effect that the proposed dona- 

327 Congressional Globe, 3rd Session, 27th Congress, p. 134. 

Congressional Globe, 3rcl Session, 27th Congress, Appendix, p. 141. 

Congressional Globe, 3rd Session, 27th Congress, Appendix, p. 222. 
880 1 and 2 George IV, cap. LXVI. 

a"'! Congressional Globe, 3rd Session, 27th Congress, pp. 134, 239. , 



tions should be altered to mere claims against the United 
States, an arrangement which would be in no wise hostile 
to England, Calhoun objected.^ 

On February 3rd, by a vote of 24 to 22 the bill passed the 
Senate; but it failed in the House.^^^ Before the next ses- 
sion of Congress death had come to Senator Linn, leaving 
to his colleagues the legacy of his Oregon bill.^^* 

In the two sessions following Linn's death several differ- 
ent Oregon bills were considered, but all failed to pass both 
houses.^^^ The discussions thereon were of course a part 
of the extensive Oregon debate and may be noticed here 
only because of references to the question of protection 
from the Indians, which was ever but a side issue. Benton 
continued to point out, as in earlier speeches, the dangers 
which would ensue if the agents of the Hudson Bay Com- 
pany should instigate the natives to war upon the emi- 
grants.^^^ Buchanan,^^^ Hannegan of Indiana,^^^ Doug- 
2^g339 — gQQj^ appointed chairman of the House Com- 

mittee on Territories — and Duncan of Ohio^*^ also pointed 
out this danger. 

Arguing from the same fact, namely, the hostilities of the 
Indians, Senator Dayton of New Jersey came to different 

332 Congressional Globe, 3rd Session, 27th Congress, p. 134. 

Congressional Glolye, 3rd Session, 27th Congress, p. 240. For Linn's bill, 
see Appendix, p. 154. Adams from the House Committee on Foreign Relations 
to whom the Senate bill was referred reported that the House do not concur 
therein. — Journal of the House, p. 382. 

334 Benton's Thirty Years' View, Vol. II, p. 486. 

335 Congressional Globe, 1st Session, 28th Congress, pp. 56, 77, 104, 366 ; 
2nd Session, 28th Congress, pp. 36, 38, 63. 

336 Congressional Globe, 1st Session, 28th Congress, p. 637. 

337 Congressional Globe, 1st Session, 28th Congress, Appendix, p. 346. 

338 Congressional Globe, 1st Session, 28th Congress, Appendix, p. 245. 

339 Congressional Globe, 2nd Session, 28th Congress, p. 226. 

54:0 Congressional Globe, 2nd Session, 28th Congress, p. 216; Appendix, p. 


conclusions. He declared that the United States could nev- 
er wisely make Oregon a State of this Union . . . . 
[or] a separate government, the effect of which would be 
to pen up 342,000 Indians between it and our western fron- 
tier. It would either be the cause of exterminating the In- 
dians, or making them a horde of depredators, or both.'^^^^ 
Senator Choate of Massachusetts, one of the most persist- 
ent opponents to the retention of Oregon, sought to prove 
that the Northwestern danger was overrated by western 
congressmen and Adams in the House implied that ' ' the 
enterprising, and warlike young men" of Oregon should be 
able to protect themselves.^ 

In December, 1845, Benton made a sensible move in the 
Oregon question — a move, indeed, which it is a matter of 
wonder was not made long before. He separated the prop- 
osition of immediate protection to the Oregon emigrants 
and the vital issue of the Oregon question. This was done 
by a bill which he reported from the Military Committee, 
providing for a regiment of mounted riflemen and several 
outposts with the object of guarding the Oregon Trail.^^* 
Such a bill was one that could consistently be supported by 
Calhoun and Crittenden, although the latter considered it 
of little real importance.^ The Senate passed it on Jan- 
uary 8, 1846, but the House delayed its becoming law until 
almost a month after the adoption of the joint resolution to 
abrogate the Oregon Convention.^ The credit for this bill 
is not entirely to be laid to Benton. President Polk's bold 
message at the convening of Congress had practically rec- 

341 Congressional Olole, 1st Session, 28th Congress, p. 315. 

Congressional Glohe, 1st/ Session, 28th Congress, p. 407; Appendix p. 


343 Congressional Glohe, 2nd Session, 28th Congress, p. 228. 

344 Congressional Glohe, 1st Session, 29th Congress, p. 108. 
34r, Congressional Glohe, 1st Session, 29th Congress, p. 162. 

340 Congressional Glohe, 1st Session, 29th Congress, pp. 162, 830. 


ommended that the question of providing defenses for the 
pioneers be separated from the question of the acquisition 
of Oregon. In this matter the President and Benton had, 
indeed, been in full accord for some time.^^*^ 

The committees on Indian affairs in both houses reported 
bills to regulate trade and intercourse with the Oregon In- 
I dians and to make peace with them;^^^ but both bills were 
I postponed pending the outcome of the Buchanan-Pakenham 
1 Treaty and were never taken from the table during this ses- 
i sion.2^^ 

On August 5, 1846, almost at the close of the session, Polk 
was able to communicate to Congress the fact that ratifica- 
tions of the convention for the final adjustment of the Ore- 
gon question had been exchanged with Great Britain.^^^ 
, At last the great objection to giving the Oregon settlers a 
j government and protection from the Indians was overcome. 
I The exclusive jurisdiction of the country was now vested in 

I Congressional Globe, 1st Session, 29th Congress, p. 7; Diary of James 

I K. Folic, Vol. I. p. 70. 

It should be noted that President Tyler also had advocated practically a 
separate discussion of protection to the emigrants. In his last annual mes- 
sage, December 3, 1844, after informing Congress that the negotiations of 
Secretary of State Calhoun with the British Government concerning the 
Oregon jurisdiction were still pending, he renewed his previous recommenda- 
tions for laws ' ' to protect and facilitate emigration to that Territory. ' ' Con- 
cerning these measures Tyler said : ' ' The establishment of military posts at 
suitable points upon the extended line of land travel would enable our citizens to 
migrate in comparative safety to the fertile regions below the falls of the 
Columbia, and make the provision of the existing convention for the joint 
occupation of the Territory by subjects of Great Britain and the citizens of the 
United States more available than heretofore to the latter. These posts would 
continue places of rest for the weary emigrant, where he would be sheltered 
securely against the danger of attack from the Indians, and be enabled to 
recover from the exhaustion of a long line of travel. ' ' — Congressional Globe, 
2nd Session, 28th Congress, p. 3. The Executive attitude in 1844-1845 is dis- 
cussed on p. 387, but evidently Tyler's attitude had little weight in the matter. 
348 Congressional Globe, 1st Session, 29th Congress, pp. 121, 888. 

Congressional Globe, 1st Session, 29th Congress, p. 834; Journal of the 
Senate, p. 320. 

i 350 Congressional Globe, 1st Session, 29th Congress, p. 1199. 


the United States; and Congress under the Constitution 
was authorized to give the Territory a government. But 
for two years this power was held in abeyance, and the 
Oregon country remained in the same lawless state for want 
of congressional action. The cause of this inaction had al- 
ready been foreseen. The northern extremists pointed to- 
ward Calhoun. His policy of a ^^wise and masterly inac- 
tivity" in 1845 had been interpreted into **no more free 
soil territory ' % and now his opponents were to find another 
sin to lay at his door. Calhoun was too shrewd a man not 
to know that the northern party would insist upon inserting 
a slavery restricting clause in the Territorial bill for Ore- 
gon. That country was north of the Mason and Dixon line. 
No one asserted that slavery would ever find a root there. 
Why then meet the question of slavery on a bill so vital to 
the Northwest! Simply because this was the logical op- 
portunity to force the issue of the constitutionality of slav- 
^j.y .351 ^j^^ Calhoun's opponents were not loth to accept the 
challenge, no matter what the cost of delay might be to 

As soon as the President's message announcing the ex- 
change of ratifications in regard to the Oregon Convention 
of June and urging the early establishment of a government 
for that Territory was communicated to the House, Douglas 
from the Committee on Territories introduced a bill pro- 
viding both a government and Federal protection for Ore- 
gQj^ 352 rp]^-g ^^Yl had been prepared some months in ad- 
vance of the President's announcement and had been 
framed with an eye single to the welfare of the Territory. 
As introduced it contained no clause on slavery to block its 
passage. But on the same day, after the House had put it 

351 Yor Benton's criticism of Calhoun for ''forcing the issue", sec his Thirty 
Years ' View, Vol. II, p. 698, et seq. 

352 Confjressional Glohc, 1st Session, 29th Congress, p. 1200. | 



ihrongh the first two readings in the Committee of the 
Whole, the bill was amended to forever exclude slavery 
from the Territory. The vote on this amendment was de- 
•cisive — 108 ayes and only 43 nays.^^^ The expedition of 
the House in this matter was commendable. Within a few 
hours time Douglas's bill as amended passed the third 
reading and was sent to the Senate.^^^ 

Undoubtedly the upper chamber would also have passed 
this bill with the same promptness had the slavery restrict- 
ing clause been reversed or entirely omitted. As it was the 
southern majority tabled it at the instigation of Calhoun — 
iSo Benton claims.^^^ Thus the Oregon people were left for 
.a year in their extra-legal status, with no authoritative gov- 
ernment and embarrassed with threatening Indian wars. 
This was also their fate for another year, for the history of 
the first Territorial bill was repeated when the second bill 
came from the House in the session of 1846-1847. The Sen- 
ate tabled it.^^^ 

In the whole Oregon affair there is one man who stands 
out in a peculiarly satisfactory way — and that man is the 
President. Polk viewed the question with the executive at- 
titude. Oregon was without a government and without ade- 
quate protection. Both should be immediately supplied. 
Twice, in a special and in an annual message, Polk told 
Congress this. He had even promised the Oregon settlers 
that he would demand action from Congress but that 
was all he could do. The situation, he rightly described in 

353 Congressional Glohe, 1st Session, 29tli Congress, pp. 1200, 1204. 
Congressional Globe, 1st Session, 29th Congress, p. 1205. 

355 Journal of the Senate, 1st Session, 29th Congress, p. 505; Benton's Thirty 
Years' View, Vol. II, p. 698, et seq. 

356 Congressional Globe, 2nd Session, 29th Congress, pp. 199, 571. 

357 Congressional Globe, 1st Session, 30th Congress, Appendix, p. 40. Com- 
pare Diary of James K. Polk, Vol. II, pp. 444-449 ; also Niles ' Weekly Register, 
¥ol. LXXII, p. 148. 


Ms Diary when lie wrote : ' * The present defenseless condi- 
tion of the people of Oregon is wholly to be attributed to the 
neglect and inattention of Congress to their condition, and 
. . . . refusal to legislate in accordance with the Exec- 
utive recommendation ".^^^ Polk could not lead Congress 
in the thorny path it had elected to pursue on the slavery 

It was with a decided tone of irritation that Polk remind- 
ed Congress in his annual message of December 7, 1847,, 
that no government or Indian agencies for Oregon had been 
established.^^^ The Federal defense of the Oregon Trail 
and the Oregon country at this time was indeed weak. 
Benton's bill of 1846 had provided for a regiment of mount- 
ed riflemen for duty in the Northwest, but they had hardly 
been recruited before they were ordered to service in the 
Mexican War.^^^ The Northwest was left quite defenseless. 
In regard to this condition the report of the Commissioner 
of Indian Affairs sounded a distinct warning.^^^ Thirty 
thousand savages inhabited the Columbia Eiver valley, the 
report pointed out, rendering the position of the settlers in 
this far-away country peculiarly exposed. 

Benton repeated this warning in the Senate. He attrib- 
uted *^all the murderous outrages'' committed by the In- 
dians upon Oregon settlers to the delay of the Government 
in extending its political jurisdiction and protection over 
the new Territory in the Northwest. ' ' Our meritorious set- 
tlers, at a distance of three thousand miles, have deserved 
well of their country from their enterprise", Benton de- 

^^^^ Diary of James K. Folk, Vol. IV, p. 155. 

350 Congressional Globe, 1st Session, SOth Congress, p. 10. 

360 For the history of this regiment, see Diary of James K. Folic, Vol. IV,. 
p. 155; Congressional Globe, 1st Session, 30th Congress, Appendix, p. 20; 2nd 
Session, 30th Congress, Appendix, p. 21; 1st Session, 31st Congress, Appendix,, 
pp. 11, 12. 

361 Senate Documents, Ist Session, 30th Congress, No. 1, p. 752. 


clared, and he hoped *^they would not be left exposed to 
danger and inconvenience from calamities which a proper 
attention to their wants on the part of the Government 
would prevent. ' ^^^^ Senator Hannegan, one of the few re- 
maining Senators who seems to have retained the confi- 
dence of the Administration, called upon Congress to drop 
the useless discussion of slavery in regard to this question 
and give attention to **the cries of our citizens in Oregon, 
surrounded by hostile Indians ' 

I Full intelligence of the beginnings of Indian hostilities in 
Oregon was confirmed in May, 1848, by the arrival in Wash- 
ington of two messengers to the President.^^^ They came 
from the provisional government of the settlers. One had 

f sailed by the way of San Francisco and the Isthmus of Pan- 
ama ; the other had followed the Oregon Trail to St. Louis, 

j and thence to Washington. When their definite informa- 
tion of outbreaks on the Columbia Eiver was received. Polk 

j immediately communicated it to Congress and urged expe- 

I dition. Territorial government should immediately be es- 

! tablished and authority granted to raise a volunteer force 
for the protection of the inhabitants. Besides, according 

j to the program Polk outlined for Congress, a regiment of 
mounted men should be enlisted. If aid was to be carried 
to Oregon before winter blocked access to the country from 
the land side immediate action was necessary. And a delay 
of another year ^^may prove destructive to the white settle- 
ments in Oregon", urged Polk.^^^ With all the force that 
he could exert, Polk recommended personally to members 
of Congress the immediate needs of Oregon and proposed 
that the Missouri Compromise line be revived and extended 
to the Pacific.^^^ Such an agreement would make possible a 

362 Congressional Glohe, 1st Session, 30th Congress, p. 804. 

Diary of James K. Polk, Vol. Ill, p. 463. 

Congressional Glohe, 1st Session, 30th Congress, p. 788. 
365 Biary of James K. Polk, Vol. Ill, pp. 501, 504; Vol. IV, p. 12. 


logical retreat by both parties upon a precedent already es- 

Pricked by the exasperating condition in Oregon, the Sen- 
ate resumed discussion of the Territorial bill, and after a 
prolonged debate resorted to a select committee headed by 
Senator Clayton.^ This compromise committee respond- 
ed with a bill to organize the Territories of California and 
New Mexico as well as Oregon. The laws of the provisional 
government of Oregon prohibiting slavery were to remain 
until altered by the new Territorial legislature; while the 
legislatures of California and New Mexico were forbidden 
to make laws interdicting slavery.^ ^'^ This compromise was 
finally accepted by the Senate, but the House contemp- 
tuously rejected it.^^^ After the failure of the compromise 
of the Committee of Eight, Douglas proposed Polk's com- 
promise.^^^ The Senate accepted it, but the House again 
refused to compromise.^^^ Finally at the end of a tiresome 
session the Senate gave up, and the Douglas bill with the 
restrictions of the Northwest Ordinance was accepted by 
both houses and presented to the President upon the last 
day of adjournment.^^ ^ Polk immediately gave his sanc- 
tion — which indeed he had been prepared to give for some 
time, although Calhoun had personally exerted his utmost 
influence upon him to obtain a veto.^'^^ The President's 
prompt signature was a rebuke to the long wrangle in Con- 
gress, which for two years had delayed justice to Oregon. 

866 Congressional Globe, 1st Session, 30th Congress, p. 932. 

367 Congressional Globe, 1st Session, 30th Congress, p. 950. The bill is 
printed on p. 1002. 

368 Congressional Globe, 1st Session, 30th Congress, p. 1007. 

369 Congressional Globe, 1st Session, 30th Congress, p. 1048. 

370 Congressional Globe, 1st Session, 30th Congress, pp. 1061, 1062. 

371 Congressional Globe, Ist Session, 30th Congress, p. 1078. 

372 Diary of James K. Polk, Vol. IV, pp. 22, 72-74. 



The first session of the Thirtieth Congress passed a Ter- 
ritorial bill for Oregon, but the entire program of legisla- 
tion for that Territory as laid down by the President in his 
message of May, 1848, was not carried out.^^^ The struggle 
over the slavery clause had been too engrossing and all- 
absorbing for careful consideration of other details; and 
perhaps there was also some truth in the President's bitter 
reflection that Congress had been ^^more occupied at the 
last session in President making than in attending to the 
public business. "^^^ On the tenth of October Polk wrote: 

I read to the Cabinet a commuiiication which I received this 
morning from George Abernethy, the Governor of the Temporary 
Government in Oregon, dated April 3rd, 1848, in which he states 
that an Indian war is raging in Oregon, presents their destitution 
of arms and the means of defense, and earnestly calls upon the 
Government of the U. States for assistance and protection. We 
have no means of affording timely aid other than that which has 
been already ordered. It is most unfortunate that Congress had 
not granted the force for which I called to protect the people of 
Oregon in my message of May last. . . . Congress not only re- 
fused to do this, but after the orders had been issued, upon the con- 
clusion of the Mexican War, to have the Mounted Rifle Regt. march 
to Oregon the last summer for their protection, that body, without 
the recommendation of the Executive & against our wishes, author- 
ized every man of that Regiment who would ask it to be discharged. 
The effect [of] this was .... to disband the Regiment & 
to recruit it again, and in the mean-time the season was too far ad- 
vanced to enable the Regiment to be marched across the Rocky 
mountains before the impassable snows of winter would set in. The 
present defenseless condition of the people of Oregon is wholly to be 
attributed to the neglect and inattention of Congress to their con- 
dition, and .... refusal to legislate in accordance with the 
Executive recommendation at the last Session.^^^ 

373 Congressional Globe, 1st Session, 30th Congress, p. 788. 

374 Diary of James E. Folic, Vol. IV, p. 155. 

375 Biary of James K. Folic, Vol. IV, pp. 154, 155. 


In lieu of a military force during the autumn of 1848, 
Polk used the navy to succor the Oregon people. Orders 
were transmitted to the commander of the American squad- 
ron in the Pacific to dispatch to the assistance of the Oregon 
settlers a part of the naval forces under his command, and 
to furnish them with arms and ammunition and protection 
until the army could arrive.^^^ When Congress convened in 
December a large part of the President's message was de- 
voted to the state of affairs in the Oregon country .^^^ In 
plain words Polk exhibited the culpable neglect of Congress 
for *^the continuance of the Indian disturbances'' and for 
^*the destitution and defenseless condition of the inhabit- 
ants. ' ' If Indian agencies had been established in Oregon, 
Polk declared, the aboriginal tribes would have been re- 
strained from making war. 

The immediate and only cause of the existing hostility of the In- 
dians of Oregon is ... . the long delay of the United States 
in making to them some trifling compensation .... for the 
country now occupied by our emigrants, which the Indians claimed, 
and over which they formerly roamed. This compensation had 
been promised to them by the temporary government established in 
Oregon, but its fulfillment had been postponed from time to time, 
for nearly two years, whilst those who made it had been anxiously 
waiting for Congress to establish a territorial government over the 
country. The Indians became at length distrustful of their good 
faith, and sought redress by plunder and massacre, which finally 
led to the present difiiculties. A few thousand dollars in suitable 
presents, as a compensation for the country which had been taken 
possession of by our citizens, would have satisfied the Indians, and 
have prevented the war. 

Again the President called upon Congress to provide In- 
dian agents to reside among the Indian tribes and for ap- 
propriations to enable these agents to cultivate friendly 

370 Congressional Globe, 2nd Session, 30th Congress, p. 7. i 
377 Congressional Globe, 2nd Session, 30th Congress, pp. 6, 7. 


relations with them. Especially did the President recom- 
mend an appropriation to cover the militia service of * * our 
fellow-citizens of Oregon [who] have been compelled to 
take the field in their own defense ' 

Howbeit, the session passed by with little effort to formu- 
late into law any of these Presidential recommendations. 
The militia claims were not, of course, even broached, for 
the reason that there was no one to present them for allow- 
ance. By the Organic Act of August 14, 1848, the Territory 
was entitled to be represented by a Delegate to Congress.^"^^ 
None appeared, however, in this session, for the Territorial 
act had been passed so late in the summer of 1848 and the 
journey to Oregon was so long that time did not permit 
a Delegate to arrive or even to be elected before the ses- 
sion of 1848-1849 adjourned. The Organic Act had been 
carried to the new Territory by the first Governor and Mar- 
shal whom the President had hastily dispatched to the West 
immediately following the passage of the act of August 14, 
1848. Taking the Santa Fe and Gila trails to California, 
because the approaching winter forbade access by way of 
the Oregon Trail, these officers crossed the continent to San 
Pedro harbor ; thence they sailed to their destination, arriv- 
ing on the second day of March, 1849. The proclamation 
of Oregon's Organic Act was made the next morning. 

The days of legislative neglect were now numbered. Af- 
ter the establishment of the Territorial government, a Dele- 
gate to Congress was elected.^"^^ This Delegate — Thurs- 
ton by name — arrived at Washington in November before 
the first session of the Thirty-first Congress convened. The 
character of this first Delegate from the Northwest is 
worthy of note. Born in Maine and educated at Bowdoin 
College, Thurston emigrated to Oregon in 1847 while yet a 

378 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. IX, p. 329. 

379 The Whig Alma/nac, 1850, p. 51. 

VOL. IX — 21 


young man. Despite his short sojourn in the new Territory 
of the Northwest, he is said to have rivaled the crudest of 
western politicians with his harsh and impulsive manners 
and his over-bearing confidence.^^^ Be that as it may, 
Thurston knew what legislation the Territory needed and 
how to obtain it from Congress. He addressed himself 
most carefully to the committees of both houses before tak- 
ing the floor of the lower house in person. The results of 
his activities may be judged from the statute book of the 
United States at the end of the session.^^^ 

One of the first bills which the Delegate had a share in 
bringing to a successful issue was a bill reported to the 
Senate by its Committee on Indian Affairs.^^^ Early in the 
session the committee had under advisement a resolution 
offered by Douglas concerning the expediency of extin- 
guishing the Indian title to certain portions of the western 
Territories, including Oregon and California.^^^ Senator 
John Bell of Tennessee was chairman; and seems to have 
depended entirely upon Delegate Thurston for his informa- 
tion in regard to conditions in Oregon.^^* It was high time 
that some measure be taken in regard to Indian cessions. 
All American settlers save those who appropriated to them- 
selves the property of former British subjects were nothing 
more nor less than trespassers upon unceded Indian terri- 
tory. There was not an inhabitant, Bell truly declared, who 
could improve his land or build a home with confidence, be- 
cause there was no land to which some Indian tribe did not 
set up a claim.^^^ The necessity of the immediate extin- 

380 Bancroft 's History of Oregon, Vol. II, pp. 114, et seq. 

381 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. IX, pp. 437, 438, 440, 496. 

382 Congressional Globe, 1st Session, 31st Congress, p. 262. 

383 Journal of Senate, 1st Session, 31st Congress, pp. 42, 62, 122. 
SS4 Congressional Globe, 1st Session, 31st Congress, p. 262. 

885 Congressional Globe, Ist Session, 31st Congress, pp. 262, 411. 



guishment of these Indian titles in order to preserve peace 
was beyond the need of elaborate proof. Under the man- 
agement of the chairman and Douglas the bill passed the 
Senate in April and the lower house on May 29th.^^^ 

Well it was for the good fame of the American Indian 
policy that the Indian treaty bill preceded in point of time a 
certain bill already reported to the House by its Committee 
on Public Lands. This was a bill to survey the public lands 
of Oregon and to make donations to the white settlers. Al- 
though following so closely upon the act to treat with the 
Indians for the purchase of their Oregon lands the objec- 
tion does not seem to have been made that the act of May 
29th might not be successful in extinguishing the Indian 
titles. The right of the Oregon settlers to the Indian lands 
upon which they had squatted without so much as asking 
leave was unquestioned in Congress, and no one burdened 
the Delegate to frame a defense of their technical trespass- 

jj^g 387 

In regard to military matters, the Senate was equally 
compliant to western demands. Jefferson Davis, Chairman 
of the Committee on Military Affairs, introduced a bill to 
increase the army with the avowed purpose of protecting 
the Indian frontier.^^^ **You cannot stop the travel to Cal- 
ifornia'', said Eush of Texas, thinking more of his own lo- 
cality than of the Northwest, ^^or the settlement on the 
frontiers of Texas and in New Mexico, and it becomes there- 
fore the imperative duty of Congress to protect them."^^^ 
The bill passed both houses.^^^ Moreover, in the following 
session Thurston with the aid of Douglas^^^ and Armistead 

Congressional Glohe, 1st Session, 31st Congress, pp. 798, 1090. 

387 Congressional Glohe, 1st Session, 31st Congress, pp. 791, 1030. 

388 Congressional Glohe, 1st Session, 31st Congress, pp. 395, 1139. 

389 Congressional Glohe, 1st Session, 31st Congress, p. 1180. 

390 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. IX, p. 438. 

391 Congressional Glohe, 2nd Session, 31st Congress, p. 332. 


Burt,^^2 Chairman of the House Committee on Military Af- 
fairs, procured a settlement of the Cayuse War claims — 
the same militia claims mentioned by Polk in his last annual 

At the close of the Thirty-first Congress, Thurston might 
truly write his constituents that the last of the measures to 
meet Oregon's present needs had been consummated.^^* 
All this was done in spite of the exhaustive debates on the 
compromise bills which excluded the much needed legisla- 
tion in the first session. The attention of Congress had 
been definitely fixed upon the Pacific coast and the period of 
its neglect was past. 


As to the frontier in the three decades from 1820 to 1850 
the story is briefly told by the census maps for the begin- 
ning and the end of the period. In 1820 this frontier had 
hardly crossed the Mississippi above the Missouri settle- 
ments ; and vast stretches of wilderness existed even within 
the boundaries of some eastern States. By 1850 the west- 
ernmost frontier was far beyond the Mississippi, while the 
interior frontiers had been reduced to almost nothing, espe- 
cially in the South. The land titles of the Indians had been 
extinguished in exchange for lands beyond the Arkansas 
and the Missouri rivers, and the aborigines who had been 
the annoyance of every Middle State were now far re- 

But even in their new homes the advance of civilization 
was following the Indians. From Texas they were being 
pushed northward; from the Iowa country pressure west- 

392 Congressional Glohe, 2nd Session, 31st Congress, p. 446. 
303 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. IX, p. 566. 

394 Bancroft 's History of Oregon, Vol. II, p. 134. 

395 Eleventh Census, Population, Vol. I, Part 1. Map facing p. xxiv. 



ward and southward was about to begin ; while their retreat 
across the Eocky Mountains, as if it were not already pro- 
hibited by Nature, was cut off by the new settlements in 
Oregon and California. Economic forces were the cause 
of this contraction of the Indian country. Every period of 
financial distress in the older States increased the influx of 
settlers into the bounty lands of the West, while large 
German and Irish migrations from Europe had swelled the 
tide of pioneers. 

Now in all this matter the sympathy of the majority in 
Congress was with the advance of civilization, as the pre- 
ceding pages have shown time and again. How pertinently 
had the case been stated by Adams in 1802 ! The rights of 
the lordly savage were light in the balance with the rights 
of civilization. This even the philanthropists could not dis- 
prove; nor did many care to deny it. But withal the ma- 
jority in Congress was ever aware of Indian rights. Sel- 
dom do we find even individuals who had the heartlessness 
to condemn the Indians as hopeless or to assert that the 
only ^*good Indian'' was a *^dead Indian''. Their rights 
were to be observed and their customs respected as much 
as was possible in the nature of the case. Their lands were 
to be purchased by annuities and by the grants of new lands 
in the far West. Treaties negotiated with minorities of 
tribes were rejected. Trade and intercourse laws, revised 
and perfected as needs arose, were to guard them from the 
lawless encroachments of the whites. Against lawless in- 
vaders the army of the United States was to strike. 

But on the other hand any Indian denial of the inevitable 
retreat before civilization was suppressed. There could 
not exist an imperium in imperio in Georgia nor in any oth- 
er State. Civilization must not be thus thwarted. The pio- 
neer settlers on the frontier, also, deserved on their part 
protection from savage resentment, and unprovoked hos- 


tilities must be suppressed and punished, and prevented in 
the future by separation. 

Thus Congress was between two fires. While westerners 
complained that the Indian title was not being extinguished 
rapidly enough, many easterners denounced in bitter terms 
the policy of removing the Indians. Each side had its 
spokesmen in the long debates on the removal question. 
When it came to vote, however, the policy of continuing the 
western expansion was not impeded. 

Even before all of the Indians had retreated across the 
Mississippi, the frontier line had also passed beyond its 
western bank; and much of the Indian history of the Mid- 
dle West was beginning to be repeated in the far West. 
The annexation of Texas, and the acquisition of the South- 
west and of Oregon enlarged the Indian problem without 
adding many new features. The problem in Oregon had j 
been under congressional consideration since 1840. When ' 
action was finally taken in 1849 and in 1851, that action was 
simply a repetition of the former Federal policy as to In- 
dian lands and supervision. The questions relating to the , 
Calif ornian and Texan Indians belong properly to the next | 

Kenneth W. Colgrove 

Harvard University 



The Library of Congress has recently published an elaborate 
catalogue of American and English Genealogies in the Library of 

The work of taking the United States Census of 1910 is described 
with considerable detail in the Report of the Director which has 
recently been published. 

The fourth number of the Maryland Quarterly, published by the 
Maryland Peace Society, contains a paper entitled The Peace Move- 
ment Practical, by Theodore Marburg. 

An Education Department Bulletin published in February by 
the New York State Library is devoted to a digest of American 
Ballot Laws, 1888-1910, compiled by Arthur C. Ludington. 

The Story of the Short Ballot Cities is the title of a pamphlet 
published by the Short Ballot Organization, which contains infor- 
mation concerning the workings of the short ballot under the com- 
mission plan of municipal government. 

A paper on The Doctrine of Continuous Voyage, read by Charles 
Noble Gregory at the Guildhall in London on August 2, 1910, at a 
conference of the International Law Association, has been reprint- 
ed from the Harvard Law Review. 

The Importance of Judicial Settlement is the subject discussed 
by Elihu Root in a pamphlet published in February by the Amer- 
ican Society for Judicial Settlement of International Disputes, the 
headquarters of which are at Baltimore. 

A Bulletin of the Virginia State Library published in October 
contains a very comprehensive Bibliography of the Conventions 



and Constitutions of Virginia including References to Essays, Let- 
ters and Speeches in the Virginia Newspapers, prepared by Earl 
0. Swem. 

Samuel 0. Dunn is the writer of a pamphlet devoted to Current 
Railway Problems. The valuation of railways, the limitation of 
railway profits, railway rates and efficiency, and the new long and 
short haul law are the problems discussed. 

General Wesley Merritt is the subject of a biographical sketch, 
by Eben Swift, in the March number of the Journal of the United 
States Cavalry Association. Among the Reprints and Translations 
is a lengthy article on The Campaign of 1777, by Charles Francis 

David Ricardo: A Centenary Estimate is the title of a mono- 
graph by Jacob H. Hollander, which appears as number four, series 
twenty-eight of the Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical 
and Political Science. It is divided into three chapters devoted 
respectively to the life, work, and influence of the great economist. 

Pamphlets published during January, February, and March by 
the American Association for International Conciliation are re- 
spectively: School Books and International Prejudices, by Albert 
Bushnell Hart; Peace and the Professor, by Grant Showerman; 
and Woman and the Cause of Peace, by Baron d'Estournelles de 

E. P. Ripley contends for the value-of-the-service principle in the 
regulation of railway rates in an article on The Railroads and the 
People, which is reprinted from The Atlantic Monthly for January. 
The writer has discussed the subject in a sane and conservative 
manner, devoting himself to its ethical phases rather than its ju- 
dicial aspects. 

The Heroic Story of the United States Sanitary Commission, 
1861-1865, by William Howell Reed, which has been reprinted from 
the Christian Register, is a contribution in a field in which com- 
paratively little has been written. The work of the various agen- 
cies engaged in the alleviation of suffering, in the armies during the 
war deserves much study. 



One of the most pretentious works of genealogy which has ap- 
peared recently is that devoted to the Descendants of Edward Small 
of New England and the Allied Families with Tracings of English 
Ancestry, prepared by Lora Altine Woodbury Underhill. The 
work covers three large volumes, and is amply illustrated by nu- 
merous excellent cuts. 

An account of the visit of Governor John "Winthrop, of Con- 
necticut, to New Amsterdam in July, 1661, is to be found under the 
title, A Notable Visit to New Amsterdam, in the January number 
of The New Netherland Register. The most extended article is one 
dealing with Pioneers and Founders of New Netherland, which is 
•contained in the February number. 

Hiram Bingham, in the January number of the Bulletin of the 
American Geographical Society, writes a description of Potosi, the 
;ancient and interesting South American city which was so long 
famous for its fabulous wealth. F. V. Emerson is the writer of a 
pertinent article on Geographical Influences in the Distribution of 
Slavery, which is continued in the February number. 

The Twenty-fourth Annual Report of the Commissioner of Labor, 
recently issued from the Government Printing Office, consists of the 
first volume of a treatise on Workmen's Insurance and Compensa- 
tion Systems in Europe. The systems employed in Austria, Bel- 
gium, Denmark, France, and Germany are treated in this volume 
by different writers. The work will be in two volumes. 

Albert Anthony Giesecke is the author of a volume entitled 
American Commercial Legislation Before 1789, published by the 
University of Pennsylvania. The book deals with England's com- 
mercial policy toward the American colonies; import, export, and 
tonnage duties; bounties, inspection laws, and embargoes; port 
regulations; and commercial policy from the Revolution to 1789. 
There is a bibliography which, as the author indicates, is only 

The Legislative Power of Congress Tinder the Judicial Article of 
the Constitution is the subject discussed by Frank J. Goodnow in 
an article which opens the December number of the Political Science 


Quarterly. Clement F. Robinson writes on The Mortgage Record- 
ing Tax; Joseph B. Ross tells of Agrarian Changes in the Middle 
West; and Charles Franklin Emeriek presents an article on A Neg- 
lected Factor in Race Suicide. 

The four hundred page Bulletin of the University of Mississippi 
published in June, 1910, is entitled Historical Catalogue of the 
University of Mississippi, 1849-1909. It contains a history of the 
University and of all the various departments and schools, together 
with sketches of the Presidents and Chancellors and lists of trus- 
tees, officers, professors, instructors and students, from the begin- 
ning down to the present time. The volume is worthy of hearty 

Edinburgh in 1544 and Hertford's Invasion is the title of a con- 
tribution by J. Balfour Paul which appears in the January num- 
ber of The Scottish Historical Review. A number of Jacobite 
Songs are contributed by Andrew Lang. Henry W. Meikle is the 
writer of a brief article on Two Glasgow Merchants in the French 
Revolution. Other articles are : Charter of the Abbot and Convent 
of Cupar, 1220, by James Wilson; and an illustrated account of 
A Roman Outpost on Tweedside: The Fort of Newstead, by Joseph 

The January number of The Annals of the American Academy 
of Political and Social Science is devoted to the general subject of 
Electric Railway Transportation. Traffic and financial problems 
and public regulation of electric railways are the main subdivisions 
under which the numerous articles are grouped. The supplement 
to this number contains a number of addresses on the subject of 
The Need for Currency Reform. In the March number The Public 
Health Movement is the topic of discussion. 

Among the articles in The Survey during the past three months 
are: The Findings of the Immigration Commission, by H. Parker 
Willis; Immigrant Rural Communities, by Alexander E. Cance; 
and Immigrants in Cities, by E. A. Goldenweiser (January 7) ; 
The St. Louis Meetings, by Henry Raymond Mussey (January 14) ; 
The Correction and Prevention of Crime, by Edward T. Devine 



(January 21) ; The Pittsburgh City Flan, by Frederick Law Olm- 
sted (February 4) ; The Social Basis of Beligion, by Simon N. Pat- 
ten (March 4). 

Arthur Wentworth Hamilton Eaton is the author of a nine hun- 
dred page volume devoted to The History of Kings County, 
Nova Scotia: Heart of the Acadian Land. The volume, as is further 
indicated on the title page, contains a sketch of the French and 
their expulsion, and a history of the New England settlers who 
came in their place, together with a large number of brief bio- 
graphical and genealogical sketches. The work is apparently done 
with care, but it is to be regretted that are no citations of sources 
and that the index is so brief. 

Among the articles in the January number of the Journal of the 
American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology are the fol- 
lowing : Needed Reforms in the Law of Expert Testimony, by Ed- 
ward J. McDermott ; Crime and Punishment, by George W. Kirch- 
wey ; and Public Defense in Criminal Trials, by Maurice Parmalee. 
In the March number may be found : Needed Reforms in Criminal 
Law and Procedure, by William P. Lawler ; The Unequal Applica- 
tion of the Criminal Law, by Gerard C. Brandon; and the State's 
Guardianship Over Criminals, by Stephen H. Allen. 

Volume four, number one of The University Studies published 
by the University of Illinois is devoted to a monograph on The 
Origin of the Land Grant Act of 1862 and Some Account of its 
Author, Jonathan B. Turner, written by Edmund J. James. The 
author's thesis is that Jonathan B. Turner, who was at one 
time a professor in Illinois College at Jacksonville, deserves the 
credit for having brought about the movement which resulted in the 
Morrill Act of 1862, making land grants to the States to encourage 
education along the lines of agriculture and mechanic arts. 

The Lure of Buried Wealth is the title of an interesting article 
by Louis Baury, which appears in the December number of Amer- 
icana. J. B. Ofner is the writer of a discussion of Military Grants 
in the United States, which is begun in this number and concluded 
in the January number. In the latter number may also be found 


an account of The Presidents New Year Receptions j Then and Now, 
by Helen Harcourt; and an unsigned article on The Settlement of 
the Maine Boundary Dispute. The series of articles on Little TFars 
of the Bepuhlic, by John R. Header, runs through these numbers 
and an installment may also be found in the February number. 

A. L. Smith is the writer of, an article entitled A Nation in the 
Making, which appears in The Yale Review for February. The 
Union of South Africa is the subject discussed. Another article 
deals with the Taxation of Corporate Franchises in Massachusetts 
and is written by Charles A. Andrews. A second chapter on The 
Statistical Work of the Federal Government is contributed by 
Julius H. Parmalee. In a discussion of Rhine and Mississippi River 
Terminals, E. J. Clapp points out some important facts concerning 
the possibilities of river transportation in America. The concluding 
article is an analytical description of The British Election Address, 
by George L. Fox. 

The January number of The Quarterly Journal of the Univer- 
sity of North Dakota opens with an excellent article by 0. G. Libby 
on The Correlation of Literature and History, in which he points 
out how the spirit of various periods of the world 's history has been 
reflected in the great literature of those periods, and how, on the 
other hand, literature has had a great influence over the people and 
has thus helped in shaping their ideals. There is a second chapter 
of John Morris Gillette's discussion of the City Trend of Popula- 
tion and Leadership; Andrew Alexander Bruce contributes An Un- 
written Chapter in the History of South Africa; and Frank L. 
McVey discusses A Rational System of Taxing Natural Resources. 

Among the articles in the Columbia Law Review for January 
are : The Constitutionality of Race Distinctions and the Baltimore 
Segregation Ordinance, by Warren B. Hunting; and Nature and 
Scope of the Power of Congress to Regulate Commerce, by Freder- 
ick H. Cooke. In the February number Alfred Hayes, Jr. is the 
writer of a discussion of Partial Unconstitutionality with Special 
Reference to the Corporation Tax. Two contributions of special 
interest among the contents of the March number are: American 


Citizenship, by Dudley 0. MeGovney ; and The Exclusive Power of 
Congress over Interstate Commerce, by Charles W. Needham. A 
cumulative index of over one hundred pages, covering the first ten. 
volumes of the Review, has recently been published. 

In an article in the January number of The American Journal of 
Sociology Sophonisba P. Breckinridge and Edith Abbott point out 
the need of improvement and regulation in the Housing Conditions 
in Chicago Back of the Yards, George E. Vincent presents some 
observations concerning The Rivalry of Social Groups, in which he 
shows the importance of studying the conduct of the individual 
from the standpoint of the social group to which he belongs. 
Municipal Review 1909-1910, by Clinton Rogers "Woodruff; and 
The Transition to an Objective Standard of Social Control, by 
Luther Lee Bernard, are other articles in this number. 

An article of interest to the average citizen is one by William Z. 
j Ripley on Railway Speculation which opens the February number 
of The Quarterly Journal of Economics. The writer outlines the 
course of speculative activity since 1890 and illustrates his points; 
by discussions of various railroad pools and syndicates, closing with 
! suggested remedies and an estimate of future developments. Rob- 
I ert H. Smith is the author of an article on Distribution of Income 
I in Great Britain and Incidence of Income Tax. Other articles are : 
I Economic History and Philology, by Leo "Wiener ; a second install- 
! ment of Railway Rate Theories of the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission, by M. B. Hammond ; and Some Aspects of the Wool Trade 
I of the United States, by P. T. Cherington. 

The presidential address on the subject of The Law and the Facts, 
j delivered by "Woodrow "Wilson at the seventh annual meeting of the 
ji American Political Science Association occupies first place in the 
I February number of The American Political Science Review. The 
j address is a plea for a more earnest effort to fathom the spirit and 
the motives behind political phenomena, rather than the mere study 
of the facts as they appear on the surface. Paul S. Reinsch pre- 
I sents a careful survey of Diplomatic Affairs and International Law, 
1910. Oswald Ryan discusses The Commission Plan of City Gov- 
ernment in the light of its workings thus far, and his conclusions^ 



on the whole are distinctly favorable to the plan. Tendencies To- 
ward Ministerial Responsihility in Germany is the subject of an 
article by Walter J. Shepard. 

The State of New York has added another handsome volume to 
its already large list of publications of documentary material. This 
time it is volume one of the Minutes of the Executive Council of the 
Province of New York which is printed, and the editor is the State 
Historian, Victor Hugo Paltsits. The material included in this vol- 
ume covers the administration of Francis Lovelace, the second 
English Governor of New York, from 1668-1673. No minutes for 
the administration of Richard NicoUs, the first Governor, have 
been found and in fact it is not known that any such records were 
kept. Besides the minutes themselves, which occupy less than half 
of the volume, there are a number of Collateral and Illustrative 
Documents which throw much additional light on the transactions 
of the Council. The editorial work has evidently been done with 
great care. The documents have been transcribed with commend- 
able accuracy, and the notes and annotations are unusually full 
and explanatory. 

Defense of American Commerce and the Spirit of American Unity 
is the subject of an article by Henry Moore Baker which appears 
in The Journal of American History for the first quarter of the 
current year. The article centers about the siege of Louisburg in 
1745 and the events immediately preceding. Under the heading, 
Original Manuscript of a Witness of the American Revolution, 
Varnum Lansing Collins contributes a description of the battle of 
Princeton and of the ravages of the British and Hessians, written 
by an eye-witness. The results of an Investigation into American 
Tradition of Woman Known as Molly Pitcher' ' are presented by 
John B. Landis. Among the other contributions are: a third in- 
stallment of transcripts from Original Orderly Books Written on 
the Battlefields of the American Revolution, by Charles Tallmadge 
Conover; Discovery of the Great Anthracite Regions of the Middle 
West, by Louise Hillard Patterson ; and a discussion of a Journey 
to the Northern Regions before the American Republic, by Eliza- 
beth W. Chandler. 




An address by J. B. Oakleaf on Abraham Lincoln: His Friend- 
ship for Humanity and Sacrifice for Others has been printed in an 
extremely neat and attractive pamphlet. 

A History of Macalester College, by Henry Daniel Funk, is a 
three hundred page volume of western interest. The volume has 
been written in a scholarly manner, with frequent references to 
sources of material, and is worthy of emulation on the part of other 
colleges and universities. 

Among the articles in The Graduate Magazine of the University 
of Kansas for January is a brief sketch entitled Thirty Tears Ago 
at K. TJ.f by Edwin C. Meservy. The February number opens with 
an article on The Alien, by R. D. 'Leary. There are also a num- 
ber of articles paying, tributes to the memory of the late Professor 
Frank Egbert Bryant. 

A bulletin published in December by the University of Oregon 
contains the proceedings of the Second Annual Commonwealth 
Conference held at the University on February 11 and 12, 1910. 
The University is performing a worthy service in maintaining this 
conference at which questions relative to the welfare and progress 
of the State of Oregon are discussed. 

Cherohees ^'West" 1794 to 1839 is the title of a volume compiled 
and published at Claremore, Oklahoma, by Emmet Starr. It con- 
tains, in the first place, a number of reminiscent letters written by 
Cephas "Washburn, an early missionary among the Cherokees. Then 
follow a number of laws of the Cherokee Nation, together with some 
historical notes relative to the tribe. The lack of an index is to be 
deplored. Mr. Starr announces his praiseworthy intention to pub- 
lish a number of other volumes on the Cherokees. 

The Fox Farm in Mason County, Kentucky, near Maysville and 
not far from the historic town of Washington, is the locality the 
aboriginal history of which is related by Harlan I. Smith in a mono- 
graph on The Prehistoric Ethnology of a Kentucky Site, which 
constitutes volume six, part two of the Anthropological Papers of 


the American Museum of Natural History. The writer has suc- 
ceeded in an admirable manner in reconstructing the life of the pre- 
historic inhabitants of the locality, and the monograph contains a 
large number of excellent illustrations. 

The Stone Age in North America is the title of a two- volume 
work by Warren K. Moorehead, which has come from the press of 
the Houghton Mifflin Company. It is, as stated on the title page, 
an archaeological encyclopedia of the implements, ornaments, 
weapons, and utensils of the prehistoric races of this continent. 
The many hundred illustrations, some of them in color, form a most 
praiseworthy part of the work, which throughout gives evidence of 
a vast amount of diligent labor in preparation. 


A Biographic Sketch of S. B. McCall, written by C. L. Lucas, 
is printed in the Madrid Register-News of March 23, 1911. 

A supplement to the Morningside College Bulletin issued in De- 
cember contains the proceedings and addresses at the inauguration 
of President Freeman on October 6, 1910. 

The Swastika, Its History and Significance is an article by 
Thomas Carr in the January number of The American Freemason, 
and there is a second installment in the February number. 

College Purpose and College Failures is the topic of a sketch in 
the February number of The Grinnell Review, where may also be 
found a brief article on Grinnell College and Public Affairs. 

A neat pamphlet containing an account of the Dedication of the 
First English Evangelical Lutheran Church of Cedar Rapids opens 
with a brief historical sketch of the church, which was organized in 

The Sage of Monticello is the topic of a sketch by William Cyrus 
Hanawalt in the January number of Midland Schools. Here may 
also be found a Proposed Pension Bill for the benefit of public 
school teachers. 

The Efficiency and Limitations of Bank Examinations is the title 
of an article by M. A. Kendall which appears in The Northwestern 



Banker for January. The Banker and the Farmer, by Henry Wal- 
lace ; and Banking and Finance, by E. R. Gurney, are other articles 
in this number. 

Some interesting local history of Jefferson County is to be found 
in an article on The Oldest Burying Ground in the County, by 
Hiram Heaton, in the issue of the Fairfield Tribune for January 
25, 1911. 

Emma Robinson Kleckner is the writer of a little pamphlet en- 
titled Sioux City. The author traces the history of the city from 
the time when Lewis and Clark and their party camped on Iowa 
soil at that point, and buried Sergeant Charles Floyd on a high 
bluff overlooking, the river. 

A handsome volume of over two hundred pages contains the Re- 
port of the Iowa State Drainage Waterways and Conservation Com- 
mission for the biennial period ending in January, 1911. The 
Commission was created by an act of the legislature in 1909 and 
consequently this is the first report. A large number of excellent 
illustrations and maps accompany the report. 

0. A. Byington is the writer of a brief article on University 
Alumni and the Legislature which is printed in the January num- 
ber of The Iowa Alumnus. In the February number there is a state- 
ment concerning the Resignation of President MacLean, and an 
article by Mira Troth on General Thomas J. Henderson, who was a 
student in the institution known as Iowa City University in 1845- 

The proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Conference of the Iowa 
Daughters of the American Revolution have been printed in a neat 
pamphlet. This organization is performing valuable historical ser- 
vices in the way of marking and preserving historic sites, collecting 
historical relics, and educating the people on historical subjects. It 
is also aiding in the movement for child labor legislation and other 
similar reforms. 

A paper on Education for the Iowa Farm Boy, read by H. C. 
Wallace before the Prairie Club of Des Moines, has been printed in 
pamphlet form. The author discusses the systems of agricultural 

VOL. IX — 22 


education and rural public schools employed in various European 
countries, and compares them with the conditions, past and present, 
along the same lines in this country in general and in Iowa in par- 
ticular. The great need for improvement is pointed out. 

Vida E. Smith is the writer of a Biography of Patriarch Alex- 
ander Hale Smith which occupies first place in the January number 
of the Journal of History published at Lamoni by the Reorganized 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. An Open Letter of 
Charles W. Wandell to the President of the United States is an- 
other contribution, and the remainder of the Journal is largely 
taken up with continuations of biographical sketches, as is also the 
April number. 

In the February number of Midland Municipalities there may be 
found An Open Letter to County Attorneys of Iowa, by Frank G. 
Pierce. Municipal Law of Iowa, by A. W. Osborne ; Uniform Ac- 
counting, by Henry Shuff; and Need of Comparative Reports and 
Uniform Accounting, by Thomas H. Pratt, are among the articles 
in this number. In the March number there are some extracts from 
a paper on Railroad Taxation in Iowa, by Frank T. True; and 
Extracts from a Paper on Tax Reform in Iowa, by John E. Brind- 


Bailey, Bert Heald, 

Two Hundred Wild Birds of Iowa (New edition). Cedar 
Rapids : Superior Press. 1911. 
Betts, George Herbert, 

The Recitation. Mount Vernon, Iowa: Hawk-Eye Publishing 
Co. 1911. 

Breckenridge, Mrs. John, , 
Mahanomah. New York: Cochrane Publishing Co. 1911. ! 
Brewer, Luther A., and Wick, Barthinius L., ' 
History of Linn County, Iowa. Cedar Rapids: The Torch 
Press. 1911. 
Brindley, John E., 

History of Taxation in Iowa (2 volumes). Iowa City: The | 
State Historical Society of Iowa. 1911. 



Brown, John Franklin, 

The Training of Teachers for Secondary Schools in Germany 
and the United States. New York : The Macmillan Co. 1911. 
Cook, George Cram, 

The Chasm. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Co. 1911. 
Fairbanks, Arthur, 

A Handbook of Greek Religion. New York: American Book 
Co. 1911. 
Garland, Hamlin, 

Hesper. New York: Grosset and Dunlap. 1911. 
Herr, Horace Dumont, 

Country and Riverside Poems. Humboldt: Published by the 
author. 1910. 
James, Edmund Janes, 

The Origin of the Land Grant Act of 1862. Urbana : Univer- 
sity of Illinois. 1911. 
Jones, Marcus Eugene, 

Montana Botany Notes. Missoula: University of Montana. 

Kleckner, Emma Robinson, 

Sioux City. Sioux City : Published by the author. 1910. 
Mangold, George B., 

Child Problems. New York: The Macmillan Co. 1911. 
Marshall, Carl Coran, and Goodyear, Samuel Horatio, 

Inductive Commercial Arithmetic. Cedar Rapids: Goodyear- 
Marshall Publishing Co. 1911. 
Rich, Joseph W., 

The Battle of Shiloh. Iowa City: The State Historical So- 
ciety of Iowa. 1911. 
Rockwood, Elbert W., 

Laboratory Manual of Physiological Chemistry (Revised and 
enlarged edition). Philadelphia: F. A. Davis Co. 1910. 
Starch, Daniel, 

Principles of Advertising. Madison: University Cooperative 
Co. 1910. 
Tilton, John Littlefield, 

Pleistocene Deposits in Warren County, Iowa. Chicago : Uni- 
versity of Chicago. 1911. 


Yeblen, Oswald (Joint author), 

Projective Geometry. Boston : Ginn & Co. 1911. 
Wallace, H. C, 

Education for the Iowa Farm Boy. Des Moines: The Prairie 
Club. 1911. 
White, Hervey, 

A Ship of Souls: A Group of Poems. Woodstock, New York: 

Maverick Press. 1911. 
New Songs for Old. Woodstock, New York: Maverick Press. 


In An Old Man's Garden: Poems of Humor. Woodstock, New 
York : Maverick Press. 1911. 


The Register and Leader 

T. E. Booth — One of the Honored Veterans of Newspapering in 

Iowa, January 8, 1911. 
Dr. A. A. Noyes — Oldest Practicing Physician in the United 

States, January 8, 1911. 
Earliest Street Cars of the Des Moines System, January 15, 1911. 
James Hayes — One of Iowa's Noted Pioneers, January 22, 1911. 
Mrs. Mary McFall — One of the Pioneer Women of Iowa, January 

22, 1911. 

Story of the Early Iowa Banditti and the Fight at Bellevue, Jan- 
uary 29, 1911. 

Calvin Brockett, a Polk County Pioneer, by L. F. Andrews, Jan- 
uary 29, 1911. 

''Uncle" Asa Turner, January 29, 1911. 

Circus Men Who Were Born in Iowa, February 5, 1911. 

Crimes of Pioneer Days, by L. F. Andrews, February 5, 1911. 

Founder of the Henderson Family, a Pioneer of Four States, Feb- 
ruary 5, 1911. 

Lincoln as his Neighbors Knew Him, by Wayne Whipple, February 
12, 1911. 

A Get-Rich-Quick Scheme of the Olden Days, by L. F. Andrews, 
February 12, 1911. 



Memories of the Prohibitory Amendment Campaign of 1882, by 
Mrs. Addie B. Billington, February 12, 1911. 

Cousins of Abraham Lincoln Living in Iowa, February 12, 1911. 

Some Men Who Helped Make Iowa at an Early Date, by L. F. 
Andrews, February 19, 1911. 

How Edward P. Heizer Made Good in the Newspaper Game, Feb- 
ruary 19, 1911. 

Judge David Ryan's Career, by L. F. Andrews, March 5, 1911. 
General William L. Alexander — One of Iowa's Famous Fighting 

Men, March 5, 1911. 
Jones County Calf Case which Began in 1874, March 5, 1911. 
Iowa Soldiers at Columbia, South Carolina, by A. W. Hepler, 

March 19, 1911. 

John Howard Stibbs — An Iowa Soldier on Commission that Tried 
Wirz, March 19, 1911. 

Indian Stone Implement Collection at the State Museum of His- 
tory, by T. Van Hyning, March 19, 1911. 

Injustice to the Tama Indians, by 0. H. Mills, March 19, 1911. 

The Burlington Hawk-Eye 

Twenty Years Ago. (In each Sunday issue.) 

The Last White Man Scalped by Musqualde Indians in Iowa, by 0. 

H. Mills, January 15, 1911. 
Sketch of Life of Lafayette Young, January 22, 1911. 
The Tax Ferret Must Go, January 29, 1911. 

Failure of the Third Party Prohibitionists in Iowa Politics, Janu- 
ary 29, 1911. 

Abraham Lincoln's ''Must", by George L. Ferris, February 5, 1911. 

Tribute to T. G. Foster, February 5, 1911. 

Recollections by W. P. Elliott, February 19, 1911. 

Hugh L. Cooper, Father of the Keokuk Water Power, by G. Walter 

Barr, February 26, 1911. 
The Law of the Taxation of Moneys and Credits, by W. M. Kelly, 

February 26, 1911. 
The Test of a Year of the Commission City Government, March 12, 



Sketch of Lives of Mr. and Mrs. August Feldman, March 19, 1911. 
The Pioneer Ross Family in Burlington and Southern Iowa, March 
26, 1911. 

The Dubuque Telegraph-Herald 

Review of News and Events in Dubuque and Vicinity During 1910, 

January 1, 1911. 
Booster Club in Olden Days, January 15, 1911. 
Old Murder Case Recalled at Tama, January 22, 1911. 
Dr. A. A. Noyes — Oldest Physician in the United States, January 

22, 1911. 

Robert T. Lincoln, son of Abraham Lincoln, February 12, 1911. 

The Sioux City Journal 

Twenty Years Ago. (In each Sunday issue.) 

Recollections of Dakota in Territorial Days, January 1, 29, and 

February 19, 1911. 
Personal Recollections of Lincoln, January 29, 1911. 
The Wreck of the Kate Sweeney, February 19, 1911. 



An address on The History of the West and the Pioneers, by- 
Benjamin F. Shambaugh, has been reprinted from the Proceedings 
of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin for 1910. 

Number five of the Memorial Papers of the Society of Colonial 
Wars in the District of Columbia contains a biographical sketch of 
Gilbert Thompson, by Marcus Benjamin. 

The Sauks and Foxes in Franklin and Osage Counties, Kansas, 
is the title of an article by Ida M. Ferris, which has been reprinted 
from the eleventh volume of the Kansas Historical Collections. 

A brief article on Medford Milkmen, by Francis A. Wait, may 
be found in the January number of The Medford Historical Reg- 
ister. An unsigned article bears the title. How Medford Began to 

The December number of the Records of the American Catholic 
Historical Society is largely taken up with Propaganda Documents 
relative to the appointment of the first Bishop of Baltimore, con- 
tributed and edited by E. P. Devitt. 

In the January-February number of the Records of the Past may 
be found the Preliminary Report to the Minnesota Historical So- 
ciety on the Kensington Rune Stone. The report on the whole is 
favorable to the authenticity of the stone. 

The Third Biennial Report of the North Carolina Historical 
Commission contains an account of the work of the Commission 
during the years from 1908 to 1910, together with a report of other 
historical activities in the State during that period. 

The Proceedings of the Bunker Hill Monument Association at the 
annual meeting on June 17, 1910, contains three addresses: the 
presidential address by John Collins Warren; Fighters and Spec- 



tators at Bunker Hill, by Curtis Guild, Jr. ; and A Hero of Dor- 
chester Heights, by Archer Butler Hulbert. 

A Memorial Tahlet at Ticonderoga is the title of a pamphlet is- 
sued by the Ticonderoga Historical Society. It contains an account 
of the exercises on October 4, 1910, at the unveiling, of a tablet pre- 
sented by the Ticonderoga Pulp and Paper Company. 

The New England Historical and Genealogical Register for Jan- 
uary opens with two biographical sketches : Charles Edwin Hurd, by 
Edward Henry Clement; and James Brown of Middletown, Conn., 
by Edwin A. Hill. Among the other contributions is a continuation 
of Albion Morris Dyer^s discussion of the First Ownership of Ohio 

The Journal of the Presbyterian Historical Society for December 
opens with The Earliest Account of Protestant Missions, A. D. 1557, 
by J. I. Good. The Early History of the Ninth Presbyterian Church 
and the Chambers Independent Church is contributed by John Ed- 
mands; and under the head of Ancient Documents and Records 
there are a number of petitions To the General Assembly of the 
Delaware State. 

A new series to be known as the Kentucky Historical Series, ed- 
ited by Jennie C. Morton, has been initiated. The first volume to 
appear is one by John Wilson Townsend, entitled Kentucky: Mother 
of Governors. Mr. Townsend has presented in a very readable way 
some biographical data concerning a large number of the chief ex- 
ecutives of Commonwealths and Territories who were sons of Ken- 
tucky either by birth or by adoption. 

Two brief discussions of the much mooted question of whether 
the American Indians or an earlier race built the mounds, written 
by E. Ralston Goldsborough and John Sexton Abercrombie, are 
printed in The Archaeological Bulletin for December. Newly Dis- 
covered Ruins of the Ancient Pueblos, by J. A. Jeancon ; Notes from 
Pulaski County, Kentucky, by W. L. Griffin ; and The Indian Trails 
in Clark County, Ohio, by W. H. Ryner, are other contributions. 

Among the articles in the January number of the Deutsch-Amer- 
ikanische Geschichtsbldtter are: The Americanizing Influence of 



the Foreign Press in America, by Emil Baensch ; Zustdnde in einer 
kleinen Stadt von Missouri vor 50 Jahren, by Julius Kaufmann; 
General W. T. Sherman as a College President, by David French. 
Boyd; Die Deutschen in der Politik im Staate Indiana, by W. U. 
Fritsch ; and Die Dexitsch-Amerihaner and die deutsche Revolution, 
by C. F. Huch. 

Jobn F. Philips is the writer of an article on Governor Willard 
PreUe Hall appearing in the January number of the Missouri His- 
torical Review in the series of articles on the Administrations of 
Missouri Governors. Joseph H. Schmidt presents some Recollec- 
tions of the First Catholic Mission Work in Central Missouri. E. 
M. Yiolette discusses The Battle of Kirksville, August 6, 1862; and 
there is a second installment of Monumental Inscriptions in Mis- 
souri Cemeteries. 

Henry FoUansbee Long is the author of an historical sketch of 
The Salt Marshes of the Massachusetts Coast which may be found 
in the Historical Collections of the Essex Institute for January. 
There are continuations of The Houses and Buildings of Groveland, 
Mass., by Alfred Poore ; and of the Revolutionary Orderly Book of 
Capt. Jeremiah Putnam of Danvers, Mass., in the Rhode Island 
Campaign; and a fifth chapter in Sidney Perley's study of Marhle- 
head in the Year 1700. 

Nathaniel Pope is the subject of a biographical sketch by William 
A. Meese which appears in the January number of the Journal of 
the Illinois State Historical Society. Isabel Jamison contributes 
an interesting sketch of the Independent Military Companies of 
Sangamon County in the 30' s. The story of Judge Theophilus L. 
Dickey and the First Murder Trial in Kendall County is told by 
Avery N. Beebe. Some Extracts from the Memoir of Alvan Stone 
are presented under the head of reprints. 

The principal contributions in the nineteenth number of the 
Publications of the American Jewish Historical Society are: The 
Jews and Masonry in the United States hefore 1810, by Samuel 
Oppenheim ; A List of Jews Who were Grand Masters of Masons in 
Various States of this Country, by Albert M. Friedenberg; Jews in 


Connection with the Colleges of the Thirteen Original States prior 
to 1800, by Leon Hiihner ; and The Beginnings of Busso- Jewish Im- 
migration to Philadelphia, by David Sulzberger. 

A contribution to the literature on the subject of the Mound 
Builders is to be found in Bennett H. Young's monograph on The 
Prehistoric Men of Kentucky, which constitutes number twenty-five 
of the Filson Club Publications. The writer gives a brief discussion 
of the theories concerning the origin and identity of the Mound 
Builders and then proceeds with a history of the life and habits of 
these ancient people in Kentucky, and with a description of the ma- 
terial remains left by them. 

The April, July, and October, 1910, numbers of The ^^Old North- 
west'' Genealegical Quarterly are combined into one number. The 
first contribution is the Journal of John Cotton, M. D., who was a 
lineal descendant of the famous John Cotton of colonial times. An- 
other article is on the subject of the Fugitive Slave Law of Ohio. 
Other articles are: Prince's Annals and Its Notable List of Sub- 
scribers, by David E. Phillips; and The Notable Pedigree of Wen- 
dell Phillips and Phillips Brooks, by the same writer. 

The belated September number of The Quarterly of the Oregon 
Historical Society opens with an extended biographical sketch of 
Peter Skene Ogden, Fur Trader, by T. C. Elliott. T. W. Davenport 
writes a brief appreciation of The Late George H. Williams. Pub- 
lic expenditures is the subject treated in the installment of the 
Financial History of the State of Oregon, by F. G. Young, here 
printed. Under the heading of Documents there is a letter and cir- 
cular of information for prospective emigrants to Oregon. 

The Heroic Career of a Kentucky Naval Officer: Rear Admiral 
Lucien Young is described by George Baber in the January number 
of The Register of the Kentucky State Historical Society. John 
Wilson Townsend contributes a brief sketch of Rosa Vertner Jef- 
frey: Noted Kentucky Singer. Martha Stephenson's discussion of 
Education in Harrodsburg and Neighborhood Since 1775 is con- 
cluded in this number. There is another installment of the Cor- 
respondence of Gov. Isaac Shelby, copied from the State Archives 
by W. W. Longmoor. 



In volumes fifteen and sixteen of the Documentary History of the 
State of Maine the Maine Historical Society continues the publica- 
tion of The Baxter Manuscripts, edited by James Phinney Baxter. 
The letters and documents presented in volume fifteen cover the 
period from January, 1777, to April, 1778, and illustrate the part 
played by the people of Maine during the early years of the Revo- 
lution. Volume sixteen covers the months from April, 1778, to 
August, 1779, and contains an especially good collection of ma- 
terial dealing with the Penobscot Expedition. 

The life and services of the late George Pierce Garrison, whose 
death has been greatly felt in historical circles, is discussed by H. 
Y. Benedict in an article in The Quarterly of the Texas State His- 
torical Association for January. Stephen F. Austin: A Memorial 
Address was delivered by Alex. W. Terrell on the occasion of the 
removal of the remains of Stephen F. Austin from Peach Point to 
the State Cemetery at Austin in October, 1910. The remainder of 
the Quarterly is taken up with a scholarly monograph on Apache 
Relations in Texas, 1718-1750, by William Edward Dunn. 

Some Extracts from a Journal Kept During the Earlier Cam- 
paigns of the Army of the Potomac, by Charles C. Bombaugh, which 
are printed in the December number of the Maryland Historical 
Magazine, relate the experiences of a surgeon with the brigade of 
General E. D. Baker. Under the heading, George Peahody and his 
Services to the State, are published a number of letters from the 
Executive Archives. The Last Bloodshed of the Revolution is the 
subject of an article by Francis B. Culver. A number of letters re- 
lating to the Battle of Bladenshurg, and an article on The Quit Rent 
in Maryland, by Beverly W. Bond, Jr., may also be found among 
the contents of this number. 

Two contributions, with an introductory note, make up the con- 
tents of the July-September, 1910, number of The Quarterly Publi- 
cation of the Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio. The 
first is the Trenton circular To the RespectaMe Public, written by 
John Cleves Symmes on November 26, 1787, in which he set forth 
the advantages and prices of the lands which he owned on the Miami 


River and which he hoped to sell to emigrants from New England. 
The second is a letter from John Cleves Symmes to Elias Boudinot 
discussing St. Clair's disastrous campaign against the Indians in 
1791. The October-December number is devoted to the annual re- 
port of the Society for the year ending December 5, 1910. 

A thirty page, illustrated article by A. B. Stout on Prehistoric 
Earthworks in Wisconsin opens the January number of the Ohio 
Archaeological and Historical Quarterly. Then follows an address 
by Frederick Jackson Turner on The Place of the Ohio Valley in 
American History. Mrs. Jennie C. Morton is the writer of a brief 
paper on the history and character of the American Indian which 
appears under the title A Vanishing Race, adopted from Edward S. 
Curtis 's picture of the same name. Some notes concerning the Wy- 
andot chieftan, Tarhe — the Crane, are contributed by Basil Meek, 
who is also the writer of an article on General Harmar's Expe- 
dition. Among the editorials is one on Jefferson's Ordinance of 

The portion of The Randolph Manuscript published in the Jan- 
uary number of The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 
covers the years from 1684 to 1686. Perhaps the most notable doc- 
ument in this group is a letter from Charles II relative to a grant 
which had recently been surrendered by Lord Culpeper. Among 
the Miscellaneous Colonial Documents are a number which throw 
light on the regulation of trade and commerce in the colonies early 
in the eighteenth century. An Extract from the Sir William John- 
son Papers, contributed by G. A. Taylor, contains material relative 
to the dealings with the Indians. Franklin R. Carpentier contrib- 
utes Henry Bartlett's Diary to Ohio and Kentucky, 1805, which 
tells of a journey taken during the months of April, May, and June 
of the year indicated. 

Volume fourteen of the Buffalo Historical Society Publications is 
devoted to documentary material relative to The Holland Land Co. 
and Canal Construction in Western New York, edited by Frank H. 
Severance. The scope of the volume can best be stated in the words 
of the editor's introduction: ''The present volume consists chiefly 
of documents bearing on the original construction of the Erie canal 



in Western New York, and on the early harbor work at Buffalo and 
Black Rock. There are also here printed two journals of travel in 
New York State in the early years of the canal ; a valuable study of 
the influences of the Erie canal on the settlement of the West ; and 
sundry other papers which, although perhaps of minor importance, 
find an appropriate place in this collection. ' ' The editing has been 
done in the careful and painstaking manner characteristic of the 
work of Mr. Severance, and the volume is printed neatly and on 
igood paper. 

Volumes six to nine, inclusive, of The Chicago Historical Society 
Collection are devoted to The Diary of James K. PolJc During his 
Presidency, 1845-1849, edited by Milo Milton Quaife, with an intro- 
duction by Andrew Cunningham McLaughlin. The original manu- 
script of this valuable diary has for about ten years been in the pos- 
session of the Chicago Historical Society and has been occasionally 
■consulted by historians, but it is now printed for the first time and 
made generally accessible. Viewed as a source for the history of a 
period over which there has been no end of controversy the diary is 
'of great importance. Furthermore, it reveals with minute clear- 
ness the daily life of a President sixty years ago, recording with 
*equal frankness the whole gamut of executive cares from the peti- 
tion of the lowliest office-seeker to the great questions of diplomatic 
affairs. The editing has been done in a careful, scholarly manner, 
and the volumes are printed and bound in an attractive and perma- 
nent manner appropriate to their contents. 

The nineteenth volume of the Collections of the State Historical 
Society of Wisconsin, edited by Reuben Gold Thwaites, is devoted 
almost entirely to documentary material relating to the early fur 
trade in the Great Lake region and the upper Mississippi Valley. 
'The first collection, however, occupying, one hundred and sixty 
pages, is entitled The Mackinac Register and contains a record of 
baptisms, marriages, and interments covering the period from 1695 
to 1821. Then follows A Wisconsin Fur-Trader's Journal, 1804-05, 
written by Francois Victor Malhiot for the North West Fur Com- 
pany. The journal furnishes a good picture of the life of a fur 
trader and the goods used in transacting business with the Indians. 



The Fur-Trade on the Upper Lakes, 1778-1815, is illustrated by a 
large number of documents and letters by various traders, includ- 
ing John Askin. The concluding group of documents relates to 
The Fur-Trade in Wisconsin, 1815-1817. The volume will be of 
great value to students of early western history, and the compre- 
hensive index will be appreciated by all who have occasion to use it. 

The Governors of New York is the title of an extensive article by 
Charles Z. Lincoln which appears as the opening contribution in 
volume nine of the Proceedings of the New York State Historical 
Association, Under the title, A Native of Jefferson County, New 
York, First Organized and Named the Republican Party, Irvin W. 
Near presents a brief biographical sketch of Alvin Earl Bovay. An 
illustrated account of A Recently Found Portrait Medallion of ! 
Jacques Cartier, by John M. Clark, is of general interest. John H. ' 
Brandow discusses Washington's Retreat Through Westchester 
County. Everyone engaged in local historical work will be inter- 
ested in the Report of the Committee upon the Establishment of j 
Closer Relations Between the Historical Societies of the State, ! 
Among the other contents are: The Study of History as Corrective 
of Economic Eccentricity, by Thomas R. Slicer ; The Executive Re- \ 
lation of New York State to Historical Scholarship, by Victor Hugo ; 
Paltsits ; and a number of papers by various authors relative to The 
Ticonderoga Expedition of 1775. It is somewhat surprising that a 
volume containing so much valuable material has no index that is; 
worthy of mention. 

A new series in the Collections of the Illinois State Historical Li- 
brary to be known as the Bibliographical Series has been begun in a 
volume containing a list ot Newspapers and Periodicals of Illinois 
1814-1879, compiled and edited by Franklin William Scott. In an ^ 
introduction the editor presents an historical sketch of the news- I 
papers of Illinois which, he states, is to be considered only prelim- 
inary to a more detailed treatment of the subject to appear later. 
The greater part of the volume is taken up with a descriptive list 
of newspapers and periodicals, arranged alphabetically by towns, 
and cities. In each case where information could be secured, the \ 
character and politics of the respective papers, their editors, and 



various other facts are given, and the place is indicated where files 
may be found when any are extant. Following this general list 
there is a list of libraries containing Illinois newspapers, with the 
files which each contains. A chronological list, an index to news- 
papers, an index to names, and an index to counties complete the 
volume. The arrangement is admirable and offers every possible 
convenience to the investigator, to whom the volume will be of great 


The Missouri Historical Society has come into possession of some 
letters from members of the Doniphan expedition, and from Cali- 
fornia gold seekers in 1849. 

The Department of Archives and History of the State of Ala- 
bama has begun the publication of a quarterly periodical known as 
the Alabama History Journal, edited by Dr. Thomas M. Owen. 

Professor Julius Goebel of the University of Illinois will edit the 
German version of the American adventures of Christoph von Graf- 
fenried, which will be published by the Historical Commission of the 
State of North Carolina. 

The Illinois State Historical Society held a special meeting on 
April 14th in commemoration of the beginning of the Civil War. 
Two sessions were held, one in the afternoon and one in the evening,, 
and there were speakers representing the various sections of the 

I The fourth annual meeting of the Mississippi Valley Historical 
I Association will be held at Chicago and Evanston May 18-20, 1911. 
I The Illinois State Historical Society and the North Central Teach- 
I ers' Association will hold their annual meetings at the same time 
I and places. 

A movement is on foot in Indiana for the erection of a State Li- 
} brary and Museum Building as a permanent memorial for the cen- 
! tennial of Indiana's statehood in 1916. The Indiana Historical 
Society and other historical agencies have been particularly active 
i in this movement. 


The annual meeting of the Virginia Historical Society was held 
on December 29, 1910. The officers chosen at that time were : Presi- 
dent, W. Gordon McCabe ; Vice Presidents, Archer Anderson, Ed- 
ward Y. Valentine, and Lyon G. Tyler; Corresponding Secretary 
and Librarian, William G. Stanard ; Recording Secretary, David C. 
Richardson; Treasurer, Robert A. Lancaster, Jr. 

At the January meeting of the Louisiana Historical Society the 
Battle of New Orleans was the principal topic of discussion. The 
following officers were elected at this time ; Alcee Fortier, President ; 
Charles T. Soniat, First Vice President; Gaspar Cusachs, Second 
Vice President ; Arthur T. Prescott, Third Vice President ; Charles 
G. Gill, Recording Secretary; Pierce Butler, Corresponding Secre- 
tary ; W. 0. Hart, Treasurer. 

The Madison County Historical Society held its eighth annual 
meeting at Winterset. There was an interesting program, with sev- 
eral papers on local historical topics and an address by Benj. P. 
Shambaugh, Superintendent of The State Historical Society of 
Iowa. The following officers were elected for the ensuing year: 
President, H. A. Mueller; Vice President, E. R. Zeller; Secretary, 
Walter F. Craig ; Treasurer, W. H. Lewis ; Directors, J. J. Gaston, 
W. S. Wilkinson, William Brinson, and Fred Beeler. 


Dr. Louis Pelzer 's biography of Henry Dodge is now in press and 
will probably be distributed during the summer. 

It is expected that Mr. Johnson Brigham's biography of James 
Harlan will be ready to go to press during the summer. 

Professor John E. Brindley's two- volume History of Taxation in 
Iowa has been distributed. In response to a resolution of the Gen- 
eral Assembly each member of that body was furnished with a set 
of this work. 

The following, persons have been appointed by Governor Carroll 
to the Board of Curators of The State Historical Society of Iowa: 
Mr. Marsh W. Bailey, Washington, Iowa; Mr. F. M. Edwards, 
Parkersburg, Iowa; Mr. J. J. McConnell, Cedar Rapids, Iowa; Mr. 



John T. Moffit, Tipton, Iowa ; Mr. Byron W. Newberry, Strawberry 
Point, Iowa; Mr. A. C. Savage, Adair, Iowa; Mr. E. W. Stanton,, 
Ames, Iowa ; Mr. W. H. Tedford, Corydon, Iowa ; Mr. J. B. Weaver, 
Jr., Des Moines, Iowa. 

The following persons have recently been elected to membership 
in the Society : Mr. Henry L. Adams, West Union, Iowa ; Mr. A. L. 
Ames, Traer, Iowa ; Mr. James A. Hall, Denison, Iowa ; Mr. Robert 
Healy, Fort Dodge, Iowa; Mr. Thos. Hickenlooper, Albia, Iowa;. 
Mr. F. M. Meyers, Denison, Iowa; Mr. Wm. E. G. Saunders, Em- 
metsburg, Iowa ; Mr. John H. Stibbs, Chicago, Illinois ; Mr. Howard 
Vaughn, Ames, Iowa; Mr. A. H. Wallace, Washington, Iowa; Mr. 
Charles Baldwin, Salt Lake City, Utah ; Mr. W. J. Brown, Emmets- 
burg, Iowa ; Mr. Will L. Clifton, Webster City, Iowa ; Mr. LaMonte 
Cowles, Burlington, Iowa; Mr. Ernest M. Engvall, Des Moines^ 
Iowa ; Miss Ellen Geyer, Iowa City, Iowa ; Mr. W. F. Hunter, Web- 
ster City, Iowa; Rev. John A. McKamy, Cedar Rapids, Iowa; Mr. 
W. C. Ralston, Pocahontas, Iowa; Mr. Alfred C. Torgeson, Beres- 
f ord. South Dakota ; Mr. G. A. Wrigjitman, Des Moines, Iowa ; Mr. 
Edgar Ashton, Iowa City, Iowa ; Mr. John A. L. Campbell, Sheldon,. 
Iowa ; Mr. Walter F. Craig, Winterset, Iowa ; Mr. Sherman W. De- 
Wolf, Reinbeck, Iowa; Mr. D. A. Emery, Des Moines, Iowa; Mr. 
Charles E. Hall, Des Moines, Iowa ; Mrs. Charity Lothrop Kellogg^ 
Charles City, Iowa; Mr. John E. Luckey, Vinton, Iowa; Mr. W. W. 
Mercer, Iowa City, Iowa; Mr. James M. Pierce, Des Moines, Iowa,- 
Mr. C. G. Sauerberg, Ames, Iowa; Mr. James Saum, Adair, Iowa; 
Mr. H. H. Stipp, Des Moines, Iowa ; Mr. H. C. Wallace, Des Moines,, 
Iowa ; and Mr. Arthur Springer, Wapello, Iowa. 


The National Civil Service Reform League held its thirteenth 
annual meeting in Baltimore on December 15 and 16, 1910. 

The third National Peace Congress will be held at Baltimore un- 
der the auspices of Johns Hopkins University, May 3-5, 1911. 

A Bureau of Economy and Efficiency has been established in the 
city of Milwaukee to perform a service similar to that performed by 
the Pittsburg Survey. 

Mr. Francis W. Dickey, formerly of the Iowa State College of 
Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, now occupies the position of in- 
structor in political science at Western Reserve University. 

The amount of work devolving upon the Legislative Reference 
Department of the Indiana State Library during the recent session 
of the legislature was so large that four additional assistants were 

An effort is being made at Grinnell College to raise a fund of 
$450,000 for the establishment of a Department of Public Affairs 
embracing chairs in political science, sociology, economics, and mod- 
ern history. 

Elihu Root, John W. Foster, Andrew Carnegie, Eugene Wam- 
baugh, Charles Noble Gregory, Simeon E. Baldwin, and Harry 
Pratt Judson were among the speakers at a conference on interna- 
tional arbitration held at Washington, D. C, December 15-17, 1910. 

Governor Deneen in his message to the legislature of Illinois in 
January urged that action be taken providing for the marking of 
the route traversed by Abraham Lincoln when removing from Ken- 
tucky to Illinois. He suggests that the route thus marked shall be 
known as **The Lincoln Way'\ 

The movement in favor of the so-called ** Short Ballot", limiting 
the number of elective offices in State and local governments, has 




become quite wide-spread. During the year 1910 the movement re- 
ceived decided encouragement in New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, 
New Jersey, Iowa, South Dakota, Washington, and California. 

The commission form of municipal government is rapidly gaining 
ground in Illinois where a number of the smaller cities, including 
Springfield, Joliet, Quincy, Kewanee, Oalesburg, Peoria, Jackson- 
ville, Moline, and Rock Island, have either decided to vote on the 
question or are actively agitating the subject. 

Professor Herbert E. Bolton expects to return to Mexico during 
the coming summer to continue his work in the archives of that 
country. He spent the greater part of the mid-winter holidays in 
tracing the route of Father Kino, an early missionary and explorer 
who is thought to have been the first white man within the limits of 
Arizona after Coronado. It is understood that Professor Bolton is 
planning to publish Father Kino's chronicle of early Spanish ex- 
plorations which has recently been discovered. It is largely as the 
result of Professor Bolton's work that provision has been made for 
indexing the Mexican archives. 


KIenneth W. Colgeove, Perkins Scholar at Harvard Uni- 
versity. Born at Waukon, Iowa, in 1886. Graduated from the 
Iowa State Normal School in 1905. Graduated from The State 
University of Iowa in 1909. Received the degree of M. A. at 
The State University of Iowa in 1910. Won the Colonial 
Dames Prize for the best essay on Iowa history in 1908. "Won 
the Jesup Prize for the best essay on present-day citizenship in 
1909. Author of The Delegates to Congress from the Territory 
of Iowa. 

Claeencb Eay Auenee, Member of The State Historical So- 
ciety of Iowa. Born in Illinois. Graduated from the Iowa 
State Normal School in 1891. Superintendent of Schools at 
Waverly, Adel, Avoca, and Tipton, Iowa. Graduated from 
The State University of Iowa in 1903. Received the degree of 
M. A. at The State University of Iowa in 1909. Author of a 
Topical History of Cedar County, Iowa. 



VOL. IX — 23 


With the purchase of Louisiana in 1803 the United States 
assumed the responsibility of the control of a territory 
whose expanse was twice the nation's area and whose bor- 
ders were little known. When the news of the conclusion 
of the negotiations reached President Jefferson he was sur- 
prised and not a little embarrassed, for it was his plan to 
purchase simply the port of New Orleans and such tract of 
land thereabouts as would gain the command of the mouth 
of the Mississippi, which was so vital to American com- 
merce. But now he found the whole of the vaguely detined 
Province of Louisiana thrust upon him, and with it the 
burden of a fifteen million dollar debt.^ 

Jefferson showed his good statesmanship when at this 
critical period he planned for an immediate and thorough 
exploration of the new territory.^ At the south a command 

1 Hosmer 's The History of the Louisiana Purchase, p. 148 ; Hosmer 's A 
Short History of the Mississippi Valley, pp. 118-127; Salter's Iowa: The First 
Free State in the Louisiana Purchase, p. 51; Whiting's Life of Zebulon Mont- 
gomery PiJce, published in Jared Sparks 's Library of American Biography, 
Vol. XV, pp. 221, 222. 

For a full account of the history of this period, see Adams's History of 
the United States, Vol. II, pp. 1-134; McMaster's A History of the People of 
the United States, Vol. II, pp. 621-635; Vol. Ill, pp. 1-36. 

2 Even before the purchase of the Louisiana territory President Jefferson 
transmitted to Congress a confidential message under date of January 18, 1803, 
in which he advocated the exploration of the newly acquired territory and out- 
lined an expedition which should explore the whole line, even to the Western 
ocean, have conferences with the natives on the subject of commercial inter- 
course, get admission among them for our traders, as others are admitted, agree 
on convenient deposits for an interchange of articles, and return with the in- 
formation acquired, in the course of two summers. ' ' — Annals of Congress, 7th 
Congress, Second Session, 1802-1803, pp. 25, 26. See also Eichardsan's Mes- 
sages and Papers of the Presidents, Vol. I, pp. 353, 354. 



of the lower Mississippi liad opened the "West to the control 
of the government by way of numerous tributaries. But 
to the north, west, and southeast there was much uncer- 
tainty as to the boundaries. On the north the territory ex- 
tended to the as yet undiscovered sources of the Mississippi. 
It was assumed that the mountains, which at that time were 
almost unknown to the white man, formed the western 
boundary line, but the amount of territory which lay be- 
tween them and the Mississippi was a matter of mere con- 
jecture. And still more uncertainty prevailed with respect 
to the boundary on the southeast.^ 

In his choice of explorers President Jefferson exercised 
remarkable judgment, of which the results of the explora- 
tions are ample evidence. In the army he found the most 
efficient men for the work, although few scientific men were 
available even from that source. Moreover, funds for car- 
rying on the work were not to be had without much effort. 
Jefferson seems to have been reluctant in asking for extra 
means for the work — probably because he felt that there 
would be opposition to an appropriation, since the adminis- 
tration was strongly in favor of economical reform 

Early in 1804 Captain Meriwether Lewis and Lieutenant 
William Clark were chosen for the purpose of exploring the 
Missouri to its source and of discovering the most advan- 
tageous water route to the Pacific Ocean. This expedition 
covered a period of about three years and is without doubt 
the most remarkable and creditable of the early explora- 
tions of the Louisiana country.^ 

3 Whiting 's Life of Zehulon Montgomery Pike, published in Jared Sparks 's 
Library of American Biography, Vol. XV, pp. 221, 222. 

4 Whiting 's Life of Zehulon Montgomery Pike, published in Jared Sparks 's 
Library of American Biography, Vol. XV, pp. 222, 223. See also Salter's Iowa: 
The First Free State in the Louisiana Purchase, pp. 52, 53, 61; and McMaster's 
A History of the People of the United States, Vol. II, pp. 628, 629. 

^ For a complete account of this expedition, see Thwaites's Original Journals 
of the Lewis and Clarlc Expedition, Vols. I-VII. 


Contemporaneous with and probably not less worthy 
than the work of Lewis and Clark were the explorations of 
Zebulon Montgomery Pike, who, however, had the misfor- 
tune to receive his commission from the commander of the 
western army, General James Wilkinson, instead of from 
the government.^ 

Born in what is now a part of Trenton, New Jersey, on 
January 5, 1779,^ Zebulon M. Pike moved during his child- 
hood to Easton, Pennsylvania. There he received such edu- 
cation as the rural schools of the time afforded. He is 
described by some of his school-mates as * ^ a boy of slender 
form, very fair complexion, gentle and retiring disposi- 
tion, but of resolute spirif and always capable of defend- 
ing himself when put to the test.^ The time spent in ob- 
taining an education was necessarily short, since he entered 
his father's company as a cadet when he was about fifteen 

6 The idea that Pike 's Mississippi expedition was conducted by the govern- 
ment seems quite general. The expedition was entirely in the control of General 
Wilkinson. Later government officials approved of the undertaking. — See 
Salter's The Eastern Border of Iowa in 1805-6 in the Iowa historical Eecord, 
Vol. X, p. 107. 

General James Wilkinson lost his reputation in connection with the Burr con- 
spiracy. Although he was tried and acquitted, evidence later appeared which 
proved without doubt that he was a traitor. And, indeed, it has been thought 
by some that Pike's explorations were a scheme on the part of Wilkinson to 
obtain more definite information concerning the western country, which might 
be used in carrying out the traitorous plot. However this may have been, Pike 
was beyond doubt unconscious of any such purpose. 

7 The data concerning Zebulon M. Pike 's early life used in this paper are for 
the most part taken from Whiting's Life of Zebulon Montgomery PiTce, pub- 
lished in Jared Sparks 's Library of American Biography, Vol. XV, pp. 220, 221. 

The father of Zebulon Montgomery Pike was Major Zebulon Pike, a soldier 
in the Eevolutionary War and captain of infantry in the army of the United 
States in 1792. He received a promotion to the rank of Major in 1800, and 
served in the first regiment of infantry under Colonel Hamtramk in 1802. 

Among the ancestors of Zebulon Montgomery Pike was one Captain John 
Pike, who was noted in the traditions of the family for his gallant service in 
the Indian Wars. 

8 Whiting's Life of Zebulon Montgomery Pilce, published in Jared Sparks 's 
Library of American Biography, Vol. XV, p. 220. 



years old, and received the commission of ensign at the age 
of twenty.^ 

It was on April 1, 1802, that Pike was promoted to the 
rank of First Lieutenant of the First Eegiment of United 
States Infantry. And under date of July 30, 1805, he re- 
ceived orders from General Wilkinson to undertake the 
exploration of the Mississippi Eiver to its sources, noting 
the rivers, prairies, islands, mines, quarries, and timber, as 
well as Indian villages and settlements. He was instructed 
to keep a journal in which distances, calculated by time, 
were to be noted together with comments on the winds 
and weather". Furthermore, suitable locations for mili- 
tary posts were to be selected and reasonable means for 
conciliating the Indians were to be employed.^^ 

The journal of the expedition is an interesting and most 
valuable source of information. The original edition,^ ^ was 
published in 1810 by Lieutenant Pike, and is divided into 
three parts, each dealing with a single expedition. To 
these parts are added numerous appendices, charts, and 
tables. On the whole, the work is exceedingly complicated 
in its arrangement, and little or no effort seems to have 
been made to put the material in good English. It is inter- 

sCoues's The Expeditions of Zedulon Montgomery Pihe, Vol. I, p. xxii. 

10 The letter containing the orders was transmitted by General Wilkinson 
from St. Louis. It appears in full in Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the 
Sources of the Mississippi and through the Western Parts of Louisiana, etc. 
(original edition, 1810), Appendix to Part III, pp. 65, 66. 

11 All of the purposes noted are mentioned in General Wilkinson's communi- 
cation of July 30, 1805. 

12 There is a publication relative to the Mississippi expedition which ap- 
peared in 1807. This, however, was not written by Lieutenant Pike but by 
some person who had access to his notes. There seems to be no evidence con- 
cerning the identity of the writer. 

From Lieutenant Pike's original edition of 1810, an English edition was 
prepared under the editorial supervision of Dr. Thomas Eees. There is also 
an edition in French and one in Dutch. — Coues's The Expeditions of Zehulon 
Montgomery Pike, Vol. I, pp. xxxiii-xliv. 



esting to note that at tlie close of the author's preface a 
note by the publisher is inserted to the effect that he 
^ * owes it to truth, and to colonel Pike, to state that he very 
much doubts whether any book ever went to press under so 
many disadvantages ' \ 

Lieutenant Pike himself realized many of its defects. 
The following extracts from one of his letters will serve to 
explain many of its faults : 

The journal in itself will have little to strike the imagination, 
but a dull detail of our daily march. . . . The daily occur- 
rences were written at night, frequently by firelight, when extreme- 
ly fatigued, and the cold so severe as to freeze the ink in my pen, 
of course have little claim to elegance of expression or style ; . . . 
I do not possess the qualifications of the naturalist, and even had 
they been mine, it would have been impossible to have gratified them 
to any great extent, as we passed with rapidity over the country 
we surveyed. . . . And indeed, my thoughts were too much 
engrossed in making provisions for the exigencies of the morrow, 
to attempt a science which requires time and a placidity of mind 
which seldom fell to my lot.^^ 

Of the three divisions of the work the first, with its ap- 
pendices, is devoted entirely to an account of the expedi- 
tion to the sources of the Mississippi. The material con- 
tained therein forms the basis of the account given in the 
following pages of this essay. 

Late in the afternoon of August 9, 1805, Lieutenant Pike 
sailed from his encampment near St. Louis in a keel boat 
with a party of twenty men,^* carrying with him provisions 

13 Pike 's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi and 
through the Western Parts of Louisiana, etc, (original edition, 1810), Ap- 
pendis to Part I, p. 32. 

14 In the Appendix to Part III, pp. 67, 68, of the edition of 1810, Lieutenant 
Pike gives a list of the persons employed in the expedition. Of the twenty- 
men in the company, there were two corporals, one sergeant, and seventeen 
privates. The name of an interpreter is also included in the list but he was 
not of the original party which started from the encampment near St. Louis, 


for only four months. For more than eight months he and 
his party were to push their way northward amid dangers 
and hardships which all but cost them their lives. But with 
the consciousness that he was the first citizen of the United 
States to undertake the ascent of the river, and with the 
assurance that whatever he should discover would be eager- 
ly received by the public, his enthusiasm rose above any 
misgivings with regard to the trials of the undertaking. 

With considerable difficulty, due to rainy weather and 
the numerous islands in the channel. Lieutenant Pike and 
his company made their way to the Des Moines Eiver, 
which marks the jxmction of the present Commonwealths 
of Iowa, Illinois, and Missouri. Here the rapids presented 
a formidable obstacle — more especially because there was 
no one on board who had ever passed them. The rapids 
were eleven miles in length ^*with successive ridges and 
shoals extending from shore to shore. . . . The shoals 
continue the whole distance. ''^^ In the midst of the diffi- 
culty the party was met by an agent to the Sac Indians in 
this vicinity, who piloted them safely to his establishment 
above the rapids. Here Lieutenant Pike found himself on 
the east bank of the river at a point where the city of Nau- 
voo, Illinois, is now located. Directly opposite was the vil- 
lage of the Sac Indians on the present site of Montrose, 

Impressed with the suitability of the location for a trad- 
ing establishment for the Sac, Fox, Iowa, and Sioux In- 
dians of the region. Lieutenant Pike tarried for the greater 
part of a day. In council with **the chief men of the vil- 
lage'* he expressed the desire of the President of the 
United States **to be more intimately acquainted with the 

15 This description appears in the entry of August 20th in Pike's An Account 
of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi and through the Western Parts 
of Louisiana, etc. (original edition, 1810), Part I, pp. 4, 5. 



situation, wants, &c. of the different nations of the red peo- 
ple, in our newly acquired territory of Louisiana ' '.^^ In 
addition there was some discussion of the location of a 
trading establishment, but no definite conclusions were 

After presenting the Indians with some tobacco, 
Knives, and whiskey Lieutenant Pike proceeded up the 
river about six miles, landing on the spot where Fort Madi- 
son was erected three years later and where the city by the 
same name now stands. Lieutenant Pike made no par- 
ticular mention of the place, nor did he recommend it as a 
suitable location for a fort or trading post.^^ 

Two days later the party reached the present site of 
Burlington, Iowa, which Lieutenant Pike mentions as **a 
very handsome situation for a garrison' and describes 
in some detail. 

The channel of the river passes under the hill, which is about 60 
feet perpendicular, and level on the top. Pour hundred yards in 
the rear, there is a small prairie of 8 or 10 acres, which would be a 
convenient spot for gardens ; and on the east side of the river, there 
is a beautiful prospect over a large prairie, as far as the eye can ex- 
tend, now and then interrupted by groves of trees. Directly under 
the rock is a limestone spring, which, after an hour's work, would 
afford water amply sufficient for the consumption of a regiment. 
The landing is bold and safe, and at the lower part of the hill, a road 

16 Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi and 
through the Western Parts of Louisiana, etc. (original edition, 1810), Part I, 
p. 5. 

17 Some few writers have erroneously credited Pike with the founding of Fort 
Madison. For instance, in the Portrait and Biographical Album of Lee County, 
Iowa, p. 627, the writer claims that the first settlers at Fort Madison were 
troops sent out by our government under command of Captain Z. M. Pike to 
protect the country both from the British and the Indians. A similar error 
is made by Stevens in his BlacJc HawTc War, p. 37. 

The selection of Fort Madison was made in September, 1808, by Lieutenant 
Alpha Kingsley. — Annals of Iowa, Third Series, Vol. VI, p. 314. 

18 This site is the one now occupied by Crapo Park at Burlington, Iowa. 


may be made for a team in half an hour. Black and white oak tim- 
ber in abundance. The mountain continues about two miles, and 
has five springs bursting from it in that distance.^^ 

In this vicinity the Indians seemed to be quite numerous. 
Horses and other signs of inhabitants were seen along the 
river bank. A few miles above the bluffs Lieutenant Pike 
met a company of Indian traders, with three boats from 
Mackinac, who informed him that out on the prairie only 
two and a half miles was located one of the largest Sac vil- 

After continuing a short distance up the river. Pike and 
one of his men went on shore for a hunt.^^ The journal 
does not state which bank of the river they were on, but 
from the description of the country it is not difficult to infer 
that they were hunting on Iowa soil. Owing to the marshi- 
ness of the ground, two of their favorite dogs became ex- 
hausted and were lost in the return to shore. Two men im- 
mediately volunteered for the search. But at evening nei- 
ther men nor dogs had returned. Lieutenant Pike, how- 
ever, was not in the habit of waiting for anyone on shore. 
Accordingly, the party continued up stream but always 
camped on the Iowa side and made every effort to attract 
the attention of the lost men by firing guns at various inter- 
vals. But the men were bewildered by the marshy ground 
and the thick undergrowth of the lowlands, and for eight 
days they wandered northward half -exhausted from lack of 
food. They finally chanced to fall upon a village of Fox 
Indians, whose chief gave them corn and moccasins and 
sent them with a guide to the mines of Dubuque where they 

i» Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi and 
through the Western Parts of Louisiana, etc. (original edition, 1810), Part I, 
p. 7. 

20 Lieutenant Pike was now at a point which was considered half way be- 
tween St. Louis and Prairie du Chien. * 

2J This was on Saturday, August 24, 1805. 



found their commander and the remainder of his company. 

Meanwhile Lieutenant Pike had passed the mouth of the 
Iowa Eiver, which he merely mentions in his journal. He 
had passed the present site of Muscatine — at one time 
known as Bloomington — which he describes as the point 

where the river Hills join the Mississippi". He had 
crossed the rapids of Eock River with even more difficulty 
than those of the Des Moines. It was here that he met 
Black Hawk, who recalled the occasion in detail many years 
later. Although Lieutenant Pike makes no mention of the 
meeting' with Black Hawk, the Indian chief's account of the 
visit is so accurate in many points, which may be verified, 
that it is hardly to be doubted. 

Black Hawk stated that when the boat arrived at Rock 
River ^'the young chief came on shore with his interpre- 
ter made a speech, and gave some presents to the Indians. 
Continuing, the chief said : 

We were all well pleased with the speech of the young chief. He 
^ave us good advice ; said our American father would treat us well. 
He presented us an American flag, which was hoisted. He then re- 
quested us to pull down our British flags — and give him our Brit- 
ish medals — promising to send us others on his return to St. Louis. 
This we declined, as we wished to have tivo Fathers! . . . He 
went to the head of the Mississippi, and then returned to St. Louis. 
. . . He was a good man, and a great brave and died in his 
country's service.^^ 

It was at noon on Sunday, September 1st, that Lieutenant 
Pike arrived at Dubuque's lead mines, where he was ^'sa- 
luted with a field piece, and received with every mark of at- 
tention, by Monsieur Dubuque, the proprietor".-^ Pike 

22 Autobiograpliy of Blaclc IlawTc, p. 26. 

23 Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi and 
through the Western Parts of Louisiana, etc. (original edition, 1810), Part I, 
p. 10. 

Julien Dubuque, a French Canadian, came to this vicinity for the purpose of 
trading with the Indians. Taking a squaw as his wife, he soon made friends 


was charged by General Wilkinson with orders to make cer- 
tain investigations relative to the lead mines. But owing 
to the fact that there were no horses at the house and the 
mines were six miles away, the Lieutenant found it ^impos- 
sible to make a report by actual inspection His report 
was therefore nothing more than a series of evasive and in- 
definite answers to questions put by Pike.^^ In transmit- 
ting the report to Wilkinson, Lieutenant Pike himself says 
that ^Hhe answers seem to carry with them the semblance 
of equivocation^'. 

While at Dubuque's quarters. Lieutenant Pike took on 
board a Frenchman by the name of Blondeau, who proved a 
useful addition to the party since he could speak the lan- 
guage of the Indians. Up to this point Lieutenant Pike had 
been without an interpreter, and for this reason had found 
himself at a great disadvantage among the Indians. But 
with means for making known the purpose of his explora- 
tion, ^^he found himself at once the object of friendly atten- 
tion ",2^ although the first question put by the Indians was 
always whether they were ^'for war, or if going to war". 

Through his interpreter Lieutenant Pike learned that the 
Indians of this vicinity were much in dread of white men, 
that ^Hhe women and children were frightened at the very 
name of an American boat ' \ and that the men believed the 

with the Foxes. The discovery of the lead mines induced him to secure ' ' a per- 
mit to work the mines, with a monopoly of the right" under date of November 
22, 1788. Thus was founded the first white settlement in Iowa. 

Dubuque died on March 24, 1810. His claim was sold at St. Louis for the 
payment of his debts. — See Salter's Iowa: The First Free State in the Louisi- 
ana Purchase, pp. 41-45, 79, 86. 

24 The report to General Wilkinson appears in the Appendix to Part I, p. 5, 
of the original edition of 1810. Perhaps the only definite statement made by 
Dubuque was that the mines were about twenty-seven leagues long and from 
one to three leagues wide, yielding from twenty to forty thousand pounds of 
lead per annum. 

25 Whiting 's Life of Zehulon Montgomery Pike, published in Jared Sparks 'a 
Lil>rary of American Biography, Vol. XV, p. 238. 


whites to be *Very quarrelsome, and much for war, and 
also very brave Such information was *^used as pru- 
dence suggested ^'.^^ 

On September 4th Lieutenant Pike reached Prairie du 
Chien at the junction of the Wisconsin and Mississippi, and 
opposite McGregor, Iowa. Prairie du Chien, an early 
French settlement, had been distinguished as a center for 
the fur trade of the lake region, but at the time of Pike's 
visit it was little more than a village of Indian traders.*^ 
Among these traders Lieutenant Pike spent several days, 
engaged in making choice of a suitable location for a post, 
holding councils with neighboring tribes of Indians, and in 
preparing for the remainder of the journey. 

As the most suitable location for a military post in this 
region, Lieutenant Pike recommended a bluff just north of 
the present town of McGregor, Iowa, which commanded 
both the Wisconsin and the Mississippi.^^ Plenty of timber 
and a spring near-by added to the desirability of the situa- 
tion. On the whole, however, the Lieutenant considered the 
Burlington site far superior. 

Finding that it would be impossible to continue the ascent 
of the river with so large a craft. Lieutenant Pike hired two 
light barges and began the work of transferring provisions 
and baggage to the new boats. 

With the addition of two interpreters, Pierre Eosseau 
and Joseph Eeinulle,^^ the party left Prairie du Chien on 
September 8th *^with some expectation and hope of seeing 

26 Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi and 
through the Western Parts of Louisiana, etc. (original edition, 1810), Part I, 
pp. 11, 12. 

27 For an account of Prairie du Chien and other trading posts of the upper 
Mississippi, see Folwell's Minnesota, pp. 39, 40. 

28Coues's The Expeditions of Ze'bulon Montgomery PiJce, Vol. I, p. 37. 

29 This name is probably that of Joseph Reinville or Eenville. He was an 
interpreter of some note. 


the head of the Mississippi and the town of Saint Louis'* 
before the end of the winter. This statement, in a letter to 
General Wilkinson,^^ shows how little the Lieutenant real- 
ized that many weeks of suffering and discouragement lay 
between him and the source of the Mississippi, and that 
months of bitter hardship must separate him from his 
encampment at St. Louis. Nevertheless, such hopes as 
this alone kept up his courage and made possible the long 

A few miles above Prairie du Chien the party met Waba- 
sha, the chief of the four lower bands of the Sioux. The 
Sioux had been enjoying a feast the night before. In conse- 
quence, the salute which they gave to Lieutenant Pike and 
his party as they arrived in front of the lodges was attend- 
ed by '^some hazard'', since ^'some of them, even tried their 
dexterity, to see how near the boat they could strike. They 
may, indeed, be said, to have struck on every side of us. 
When landed, I had my pistols in my belt, and sword in 
hand."^^ Hereupon the chief invited Lieutenant Pike and 
some of his men to accompany him to his lodge for a coun- 
cil. In a speech of considerable length Wabasha ex- 
pressed his pleasure at having the young Lieutenant in his 
own village and a desire always to remain at peace with 
the white and red people. To this Lieutenant Pike replied 
in a statement of the objects and purposes of his expedi- 
tion. He gratefully accepted a pipe which Wabasha pre- 
sented to him to be shown to the upper bands as a token of 
peace, which later was of much service.^- 

30 Pike 's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi and 
through the Western Parts of Louisiana, etc. (original edition, 1810), Ap- 
pendix to Part I, p, 3. 

31 Pike 's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi and 
through the Western Parts of Louisiana, etc. (original edition, 1810), Part I, 
p. 15. 

32 This pipe was used in the council at Leech Lake on February 16, 1806. 



While in the village Lieutenant Pike witnessed a medi- 
cine dance'' which was attended by ^^many curious ma- 
noeuvres. Men and women danced indiscriminately. They 
were all dressed in the gayest manner; each had in their 
hand, a small skin of some description, and would frequent- 
ly run up, point their skin, and give a puff with their breath ; 
when the person blown at, whether man or woman, would 
fall, and appear to be almost lifeless, or in great agony; 
but would recover slowly, rise and join in the dance''. This 
they called their great medicine dance or dance of re- 

Before his departure Pike presented the chief with to- 
bacco, knives and eight gallons of made whiskey (three- 
fourths water). Leaving the Sioux village on the afternoon 
of September 10th, and proceeding but a few miles further. 
Lieutenant Pike crossed what is now the northern boundary 
of the State of lowa.^* Seven months passed before he 
again camped on Iowa soil. 

On September 23rd the party reached a Sioux village lo- 
cated near the site of old Fort Snelling. Here a council 
with the chiefs of the village was held by which Lieutenant 
Pike secured for the government a grant of a tract of land 
containing about 100,000 acres, for which he gave in return 
presents to the amount of only about two hundred dollars. 

33 Pike 's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi and 
through the Western Parts of Louisiana, etc. (original edition, 1810), Part I, 
p. 17. 

34 Cones 's The Expeditions of Zebulon Montgomery Pike, Vol. I, p. 48 ; Sal- 
ter 's The Eastern Border of Iowa in 1805-6 in Iowa Historical Becord, Vol. 
X, p. 115. 

35 This tract of land was near the mouth of the Minnesota Eiver and later 
included the site of Fort Snelling and the city of Minneapolis. — Pike's Ex- 
plorations in Annals of Iowa, Third Series, Vol. I, p. 532. 

A copy of the speech delivered by Lieutenant Pike, a copy of the treaty, and 
a copy of a letter addressed to General Wilkinson on the subject appear as 
Documents No. 3 and 4 in the Appendix to Part I of Pike's An Account of 


So far as negotiations with Indian tribes are concerned, 
this was doubtless Lieutenant Pike 's most important enter- 
prise. Eeferring to the transaction in a letter to Greneral 
Wilkinson, he remarks that the grant was obtained *^for a 
song'\ At the same time he values the land at only two 
hundred thousand dollars, 

Lieutenant Pike's speech in the council forms a part of 
the journal and is a most interesting document. It shows a 
keen understanding of the character of the Indians as well 
as remarkable tact. There is, however, one peculiar and 
altogether amusing portion of the document, which is sig- 
nificant of Lieutenant Pike 's usual attitude toward the sub- 
ject referred to. After a rather strong exhortation against 
the purchase of intoxicating liquors, with much emphasis on 
their injurious effects. Lieutenant Pike concludes his speech 
as follows: **I now present you with some of your father's 
tobacco, and some other trifling things, as a memorandum 
of my good will, and before my departure I will give you 
some liquor to clear your throats". This clearing process 
seems to have required sixty gallons of liquor.^^ 

When Lieutenant Pike had reached the Falls of St. 
Anthony he began to realize that he had made a serious 
blunder in starting on his expedition so late in the season ; 
for many of his men, unused to the climate and necessary 
hardships, were daily succumbing to illness and fatigue. 
Pike writes of the situation as follows: These unhappy 
circumstances .... convinced me, that if I had no 
regard for my own health and constitution, I should have 

Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi and through the Western Parts 
of Louisiana, etc. (original edition, 1810), pp. 6-13. 

For a detailed criticism of the treaty and accompanying communications, see 
Coues's The Expeditions of Zebulon Montgomery Pike, Vol. I, pp. 232-239. 

88 Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi and 
through the Western Parts of Louisiana, etc. (original edition, 1810), Part I, 
p. 25; see also Appendix to Part I, p. 8. 



some for those poor fellows, who were killing themselves 
to obey my orders. ''^^ Accordingly, several days were 
spent in the erection of block-houses which should serve as 
a shelter for the sick and those who were otherwise unable 
to continue the journey. An abundance of game in the 
vicinity insured not only comfort for the men who were left 
behind but also * Aplenty of provision" for the return voy- 

In order to hasten progress, which was daily becoming 
more and more difficult on account of the rapid freezing of 
the river, the heavy boats were exchanged for canoes. 
These were constructed with no little trouble owing to the 
scarcity of tools, there being in the whole party ^ * only two 
falling-axes and three hatchets In spite of many hin- 
drances three canoes were completed, but one sank when 
loaded with a large quantity of ammunition. In the process 
of drying this powder it exploded and nearly blew up **a 
tent and two or three men with it''.^^ 

Such misfortunes, combined with the * isolation and in- 
activity'' of the region, cooled somewhat the ardor of the 
young commander. He confessed that he found himself 

powerfully attacked with the fantastics of the brain, 
called ennui", and elsewhere adds the following: 

It appears to me, that the wealth of nations would not induce me 
to remain secluded from the society of civilized mankind, surroiind- 
ed by a savage and unproductive wilderness, without books or other 
sources of intellectual enjoyment, or being, blessed with the culti- 
vated and feeling mind, of a civilized fair.^^ 

37 Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi and 
through the Western Parts of Louisiana, etc. (original edition, 1810), Part I, 
p. 34. 

38 Whiting's Life of Zehulon Montgomery PiTce, publis/hed in Jared Sparks 
Library of American Biography, Vol. XV, p. 246; Pike's An Account of Ex- 
peditions to the Sources of the Mississippi and through the Western Parts of 
Louisiana, etc. (original edition, 1810), Part I, pp. 36, 37. 

39 Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi and 

VOL. IX — 24 


The freezing and thawing of the river made it impossible 
for the party to proceed with any degree of safety or rapid- 
ity. Accordingly, all but one canoe were abandoned early 
in December. Provisions and baggage were loaded on 
sleds, each drawn by two men abreast. The difficulties 
which beset this method of transportation are well illus- 
trated in the following entry of December 26th: Broke 
four sleds; broke into the river four times, and had four 
carrying places ^'.^^ On many days the distance covered did 
not exceed three or four miles. Writing of his misfortunes, 
Lieutenant Pike said: Never did I undergo more fatigue, 
in performing the duties of hunter, spy, guide, commanding 
officer, &c. Sometimes in front ; sometimes in the rear ; fre- 
quently in advance of my party 10 or 15 miles ; that at night 
I was scarcely able to make my notes intelligible.''^^ 

Under such circumstances together with considerable dis- 
couragement among his men. Lieutenant Pike found it diffi- 
cult to keep up his spirits. But as the weather became cold- 
er and the ice stronger, progress was much easier. As 
much as twenty miles a day were covered. 

Early in January signs of Chippeway Indians were seen, 
from whom Lieutenant Pike had every reason to expect a 
demonstration of hostility. His fears, however, were soon 
relieved when four of these Indians presented themselves 
at his camp in company with an English trader who was lo- 
cated at a post on Sandy Lake. Mr. Grant, the English 
trader, accompanied Lieutenant Pike and his party to the 

through the Western Parts of Louisiana, etc. (original edition, 1810), Part I, 
pp. 37, 64. 

40 Pike 's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi and 
through the Western Parts of Louisiana, etc. (original edition, 1810), Part I, 
p. 55; Whiting's Life of Zehulon Montgomery Pike, published in Jared 
Hparks's Library of American Biography, Vol. XV, pp. 250, 251, 

41 Entry of December 23, 1805. — Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the 
Sources of the Mississippi and through the Western Parts of Louisiana, etc. 
(original edition, 1810), Part I, p. 55. 


British trading post, where they made their headquarters 
for several days.*^ Such a sojourn among the trading es- 
tablishments of this region was altogether agreeable to 
Lieutenant Pike since one of the objects of his expedition 
was to investigate and report upon the trading posts of the 
upper Mississippi. On several occasions he was received 
in a most cordial and hospitable manner by the officials in 
charge of the various posts of the Northwest Company. 
His accounts of existing conditions are detailed and quite 
authentic. Aside from general observations on the trade, 
Lieutenant Pike's journal contains some interesting cor- 
respondence between himself and one of the traders, Hugh 

Under date of February, 1806, Lieutenant Pike sent a 
communication to Mr. M'Gillis,^^ which contained a frank 
discussion of the conditions existing among the trading 
posts and some pointed remarks on the relations between 
the Northwest Company and the government of the United 
States. He affirmed the right of the British to carry on 
trade with the Indians within the territory of the United 
States, but protested strongly against their exemption from 
"paying the duties, obtaining licenses, and subscribing unto 
all the rules and restrictions of our laws". It was esti- 
mated that the United States was annually defrauded of 
duties to the amount of $26,000.*^ For the correction of this 
evil the establishment of a government custom house at the 
mouth of the St. Louis River was suggested. 

42 Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi and 
through the Western Parts of Louisiana, etc. (original edition, 1810), Part I, 
pp. 56-58. 

43 Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi and 
through the Western Parts of Louisiana, etc. (original edition, 1810), Ap- 
pendix to Part I, pp. 14-16. 

44 Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi and 
through the Western Parts of Louisiana, etc. (original edition, 1810), Ap- 
pendix to Part I, p. 37. 


In addition, Lieutenant Pike mentioned the fact that the 
savages were being alienated from our government by re- 
ceiving at the hands of the traders British medals and flags. 
Li conclusion, Lieutenant Pike expressed the opinion that, 
in case war should be declared between the United States 
and Great Britain, these establishments would serve as so 
many posts for the deposit of arms and ammunition. In 
spite of a certain bluntness, with no attempt to evade any 
real convictions on the subject under discussion, there is a 
tone of genuine courtesy. 

In an equally courteous reply,^^ Mr. M'Gillis expressed 
his desire to pay the duty on goods imported by the North- 
west Company if it could be done without conveying goods 
already received to the custom house at Mackinac. Owing 
to the fact that most of the year's supply of goods had al- 
ready been received, such transportation would be a ^Vast 
expense and trouble ' i 

With regard to the use of the posts as garrisons in time 
of war, Mr. M 'Gillis was astonished to learn that the Amer- j 
ican government should have apprehended any such pur- 
pose. He explained that the establishments were for the 
security of property and life in a country exposed to the 
cruelty of many savages. ^^We never formed the smallest \ 
idea'', he added, ^Hhat the said inclosures might ever be 
useful in the juncture of a rupture between the two powers, 
nor do we now conceive that such poor shifts will ever be J 
employed by the British government, in a country over- 
shadowed with wood, so adequate to every purpose. Forts 
might in a short period of time be built far superior to any 
stockades we may have occasion to erect." 

45 This letter bears the date of February 15, 1806, and appears in Pike's An 
Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi and through the 
Western Parts of Louisiana, etc. (original edition, 1810), Appendix to Part I, 
pp. 17-19. 



Although apparently unconscious of the error committed 
by exhibiting the flag of Great Britain in American terri- 
tory, Mr. M'Gillis pledged himself to use his utmost en- 
deavors, as soon as possible, to prevent the future display 
of the British flag, or the presenting of medals, or the ex- 
hibiting to public view, any other mark of European power, 
throughout the extent of territory known to belong to the 
dominion of the United States''. The communication is 
concluded with a high tribute to Lieutenant Pike 's personal 
integrity and to the government which he represented. 

On January 20th Lieutenant Pike resumed his journey 
toward the source of the Mississippi, reaching the junction 
of the waters of Leech Lake with the main channel of the 
river on the last day of the month. Instead of continuing 
in the direction of Lake Winnibigoshish, up what is now 
considered the main course of the river, Lieutenant Pike 
turned westward and made his way to Leech Lake, believ- 
ing that he had accomplished the chief object of his expedi- 
tion, and firmly convinced that this was the ultimate source 
of the great Father of Waters.^^ 

The conclusion with respect to the Leech Lake system is 
not surprising since the idea was quite prevalent among the 
traders and Indian tribes of the region, from whom Lieu- 
tenant Pike obtained most of his information. 

Other *'true sources'' have been found by subsequent travellers, 
and the last has gone a little beyond his precursors, and thus fan- 
cied himself entitled to the merit of being called the Bruce of the 
Mississippi. This may be; but it is probable that all have been 
right. It would be difficult to determine which branch of a large 
tree extends furthest from the parent root. It may be equally, or 
more so, to determine which of the many head branches of the 
Mississippi, that have been discovered, is the most remote from the 

^6 Coues TTie Expeditions of Zebulon Montgomery PiTce, Vol. I, note, pp. 
152, 153; PiJce's Explorations in Annals of Iowa, Third Series, Vol. I, pp. 532, 


Gulf of Mexico; and the initial gush of its waters undoubtedly 
varies. A wet season may open many small tributaries to a small 
lake, which had no existence in a dry season. Hence the spring 
traveller, and the traveller of the summer solstice, may have dif- 
ferent descriptions to give, and yet both be correct.*^ 

It was on February 14th that Lieutenant Pike began 
preparations for the homeward journey. Two days later 
he held a council with some of the Chippeway Indians of the 
lake region. In a speech of considerable length Lieutenant 
Pike persuaded the Indians to give up most of their British 
medals and flags.^^ Furthermore, he urged the Chippeways 
to cease their hostilities with the Sioux, who had also 
promised to bury the hatchet. As a token of their promise 
the young American produced the pipe of Wabasha.*^ As 
a result of this council two of '^the most celebrated war- 
riors'' accompanied the party to St. Louis, where Lieuten- 
ant Pike planned to have a council of peace with represent- , 
atives of the various tribes in the Upper Mississippi Val- 
ley- j 

Amid ^'acclamations and shouts" on the part of the In- 
dians, the party took their departure from Leech Lake on 
February 18th. Marching by land across wooded and 
marshy ground, they did not reach the Mississippi Eiver 
until six days later. Lieutenant Pike had long since i 

47 Whiting 's Life of Zebulon Montgomery FiTce, published in Jared Sparks 
Library of American Biography, Vol. XV, pp. 255, 256. 

48 In return for their British medals and flags, Lieutenant Pike pledged him- I 
self to send those of the United States to the savage chiefs, ' ' but owing to the ! 
change of agents, and a variety of circumstances, it was never fulfilled". Rec- | 
ommendations were made, however, to General Wilkinson that such pledge be I 
kept for the good of the governmenit. — See Pike's A71 Account of Expeditions ■ 
to the Sources of the Mississippi and through the Western Parts of Louisiana, 
etc. (original edition, 1810), Appendix to Part I, p. 31. 

49 See above note 32. 

GO Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi and 
through the Western Parts of Louisiana, etc. (original edition, 1810), Part I, 
pp. 71, 73. 



learned that the only expeditious method of travel was by 
means of snow shoes. "With the aid of these he was able to 
make the descent of the river in much less than half the time 
consumed in the ascent. But in spite of many advantages 
the task proved arduous enough, as the following entry in 
the journal will show : 

The pressure of my racket strings brought the blood through my 
socks and mockinsons [moccasins] , from which the pain I marched 
in may be imagined.^^ 

On March 5th Lieutenant Pike found himself at the post 
where he had left the sergeant in charge of the sick. Much 
to his chagrin he found that, while he himself had been ex- 
tremely frugal in the use of provisions in order that a 
goodly supply might be on hand for the downward journey, 
the sergeant in charge of the post had squandered nearly 
all of the provisions in his custody and had given away 
practically all of the whiskey, including a keg which the 
Lieutenant had for his own use.^^ 

The party remained at the post until April 7th. Mean- 
while several councils were held with some Menominee In- 
dians in the immediate vicinity. Without any new or im- 
portant experiences Lieutenant Pike continued the descent, 
arriving at the northern boundary of the present State of 
Iowa on April 16th. At noon on the following day he 
reached the camp of Wabasha where he remained all day 
and night in the hope of seeing the chief, who unfortunately 
remained out all night on a hunting trip.^^ 

51 Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi and 
through the Western Parts of Louisiana, etc. (original edition, 1810), Part I, 
p. 73. 

52 Whiting's Life of Zehulon Montgomery TiTce, published in Jared Sparks 's 
Liirary of American Biography, Vol. XV, pp. 256, 257. 

53 Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi and 
through the Western Parts of Louisiana, etc. (original edition, 1810), Part I, 
p. 99. 


Leaving some powder and tobacco for Mm, Lieutenant 
Pike left in the morning for Prairie du Chien, which he 
reached at two o 'clock in the afternoon. Here he received 
a hearty welcome, being presented with some much-needed 
supplies and treated in a most hospitable manner by the 
traders and Indians of the place. Moreover, he received 
a great deal of news from the States and Europe, both civil 
and military — a welcome bit of the civilization from 
which he had been isolated for so many months. 

On the afternoon of April 20th Lieutenant Pike witnessed 
a most interesting game of ^^the cross'' on the prairie be- 
tween the Sioux on the one side, and the Puants and Eey- 
nards on the other". He describes the game as follows : 

The ball is made of some hard substance and covered with leather, 
the cross sticks are round and net work, with handles of three feet 
long. The parties being ready, and bets agreed upon, (sometimes 
to the amount of some thousand dollars) the goals are set up on the 
prairie at the distance of half a mile. The ball is thrown up in the 
middle, and each party strives to drive it to the opposite goal ; and 
when either party gains the first rubber, which is driving it quick 
round the post, the ball is again taken to the center, the ground 
changed, and the contest renewed; and this is continued until one 
side gains four times, which decides the bet. It is an interesting 
sight to see two or three hundred naked savages contending on the 
plain who shall bear off the palm of victory ; as he who drives the 
ball round the goal is much shouted at by his companions. It some- 
times happens that one catches the ball in his racket, and depending 
on his speed endeavors to carry it to the goal, and when he finds 
himself too closely pursued, he hurls it with great force and dex- 
terity to an amazing distance, where there are always flankers of 
both parties ready to receive it; it seldom touches the ground, but 
is sometimes kept in the air for hours before either party can gain 
the victory. In the game which I witnessed, the Sioux were vic- 
torious, more I believe, from the superiority of their skill in throw- 
ing the ball, than by their swiftness, for I thought the Puants and 
Reynards the swiftest runners.^* 

5* Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi and 



The remainder of the journey was uneventful. Numer- 
ous unimportant councils and meetings with various In- 
dians took place, and in many cases British medals were 
given up. The account of the descent, however, is extreme- 
ly meagre, there being almost no mention of the country 
through which the party passed. This is probably due to 
the increase in the distance covered on the return — only 
about two months being spent in the descent, while the as- 
cent had occupied more than six months. 

It was on April 30, 1806, that the party arrived at the 
town of St. Louis.^^ It would seem that there had not been 
a loss of a single man on the expedition, since a report of 
the number of persons returned to St. Louis corresponds 
exactly to the number of the original party. 

When his reports and observations were completed, 
Lieutenant Pike had accomplished far more than his or- 
ders. He had given to the public, as well as to the govern- 
ment officials, information which was not only new but espe- 
cially accurate in details. This information covered every 
phase of the voyage, and included extended observations 
with regard to the climate, soil, drainage, timber, etc., of 
the country. The results of careful and painstaking inves- 
tigation of the British trade brought many corrupt prac- 
tices to light which resulted in preventatives on the part of 
the general government. Knowledge of the Indians — 
their tribes, numbers, and characteristics — was afforded 
by tables and charts carefully compiled and included in 
Lieutenant Pike's journal. Without doubt the efforts of 
Lieutenant Pike did much to create a friendly attitude to- 

tiirough the Western Parts of Louisiana, etc. (original edition, 1810), Part I, 
p. 100. 

65 The time consumed in the exploration was, therefore, eight months and 
twenty-two days. 

5^ Annals of Congress, 10th Congress, Second Session, 1808-1809, p. 1794. 


ward the United States on the part of the Indians of the 
Iowa and upper Mississippi regions. British medals and 
flags were replaced by the stars and stripes; hostilities 
among various tribes ceased; and there was a marked in- 
crease in the respect of the Indians for the American peo- 

Although Lieutenant Pike so far as possible carried out 
the orders of General Wilkinson as well as those of the gov- 
ernment, there seems to be no record of any compensation^ 
either to Lieutenant Pike or to any of his companions for 
their untiring efforts. At various times attempts were 
made in Congress to secure such compensation, but all such 
efforts were in vain. Committees were appointed, reports 
were heard, and the matter was even presented in the form 
of bills.^^ The measure, however, was successively de- 
feated, even though it was always by a small majority. 

Ethyl Edna Maetin 

The State Historical Society of Iowa 
lowA City 

57 Annals of Congress, 10th Congress, First Session, 1807-1808, Vol. II, pp. 
1659, 1767; Annals of Congress, 10th Congress, Second Session, 1808-1809, pp. 
486, 487, 862, 902, 1788, 1794; Annals of Congress, 11th Congress, 1809-1810, 
Part I, pp. 218, 263; Annals of Congress, 12th Congress, First Session, 1811- 
1812, Part II, p. 1576. 

Annals of Congress, 10th Congress, First SessioD, 1807-1808, Vol. II, p. 
1767; Annals of Congress, 10th Congress, Second Session, 1808-1809, pp. 862, 
902; Annals of Congress, 11th Congress, Part I, pp. 218, 263. 

On July 3, 1812, a petition from Lieutenant Pike asking compensation for 
services rendered in exploring the interior parts of North America was pre- 
sented. But this was ordered to be laid on the table and it seems never to 
have been considered. — Annals of Congress, 12th Congress, First Session, 1811- 
1812, Part II, p. 1576. 


[The following paper is the result of a limited though critical investiga- 
tion undertaken by Professor Garver with a view (1) to ascertaining from 
whence the early settlers of Woodbury County came, and (2) to suggesting 
the variety of viewpoints from which data upon such a subject may be 
studied. — Editor.] 

Woodbury County is situated on the western border of 
the State of Iowa, and is bounded on the west by the Mis- 
souri and Big Sioux rivers. It is a little north of the cen- 
ter of the State, there being three counties to the north of 
it and five to the south. It is one of the largest counties of 
the State both in area and in population. Sioux City, the 
largest town, contains about 50,000 inhabitants : the rest of 
the population dwell in villages or upon farms. Thus it is 
seen that Woodbury County is in no sense peculiar; its 
characteristics are similar to those of hundreds of other 
counties of the great north central States. Moreover, the 
one magnet which served to attract the first settlers was an 
abundance of rich, fertile land to be had at a remarkably 
low price. 

The permanent settlement of eastern Iowa was begun in 
the early thirties ; the occupation of western Iowa occurred 
about twenty years later. The period of the settlement of 
Woodbury County may be set down, roughly, as from 1850 
to 1870. The town of Sioux City was laid out in 1854 and 
1855. While the ranks of the old settlers are being rapidly 
thinned by death, there remain in the county a considerable 
number of residents who came prior to 1870, and some, even, 
who were here before 1860. The comparative newness of 
the county has made possible the collection of the data upon 
which this study is based. 

J ohn Fiske, the historian, has called attention to the fact 



that the migrations of Americans westward from the old 
States to new have been, to a remarkable degree, along par- 
allels of latitude.^ In connection with this statement, at- 
tention is called to the fact that Iowa covers about three 
degrees of latitude extending, practically, from forty de- 
grees and thirty minutes to forty-three degrees and thirty 
minutes, north. If the northern and the southern boun- 
daries of Iowa are projected eastward across the United 
States to the Atlantic Ocean, they enclose a zone which 
would include in the north central States, the northern 
part of Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio, as well as the south- 
ern part of Wisconsin and Michigan ; in the north Atlantic 
group, the northern two-thirds of Pennsylvania, the north- 
ern third of New Jersey, and all of that part of New York 
(about two-thirds) which lies south of Lake Ontario; and 
in New England, all of Rhode Island, Connecticut, and 
Massachusetts, together with the southern part of Vermont 
and New Hampshire. These, then, are the States from 
which we may expect the early settlers of Woodbury 
County to have come if Fiske's statement is correct. 

For the purpose of securing the data required for this 
brief study a blank was prepared, which, together with a 
letter explaining the same, was sent to about one hundred 
and forty old settlers of Woodbury County. The blanks 
were in the following form : 

1 — Name. 

2 — Present address. 

3 — Place of birth (Give both State and County). 

4 — Date of birth. 

5 — Nationality. 

6 — When did you move to Iowa ? 

7 — From what State ? 

8 — When did you move to Woodbury County ! 

9 — From what County, if from another County in Iowa ? 

1 Fiske 's Civil Government in the United States, p. 81. 


10 — Please give the names and addresses of other old settlers in 
your neighborhood. 

To these inquiries replies were received from ninety- two 
individuals. Two of the replies were incomplete and could 
not be used. Appeal was then made to other sources, with 
the result that the desired information was gathered con- 
cerning ten additional old settlers. Thus, facts were at 
hand relative to one hundred different individuals — a con- 
venient number with which to deal. By a comparison and 
analysis of the different items, some interesting results are 

Taking up, in the first place, the matter of the nativity of 
the one hundred old settlers whose migrations are here in- 
vestigated, we find that twenty-six of them were born in 
foreign countries and seventy-four in the United States. 
A somewhat different statement of results may be made by 
adding those born in Canada and in the United States, in 
which case it may be said that twenty-two were born in 
Europe (including the British Isles) and seventy-eight in 
America. Twenty-six per cent of foreign-born settlers 
seems to the writer to be a rather large proportion in view 
of the fact that Woodbury County is in the very heart of 
the United States and that it was settled so late in the his- 
tory of our country — at a time when so many Americans 
were moving westward. And yet that same ^^lure of the 
land" which drew the Americans out of Vermont and New 
York proved, no doubt, equally attractive to the foreign im- 

Of the twenty-six old settlers born outside of the United 
States, Germany gave birth to eight, England and Ireland 
to five each, Canada to four, Switzerland to two, and 
France and Denmark to one each. These facts give Ger- 
many the lead, unless those born in England, Ireland, and 
Canada are added together and the total of fourteen is 


credited to the British Empire. In this group of foreign 
settlers those of Teutonic stock predominate over those of 
Celtic stock in about the proportion of two to one. 

The years 1850 and 1870 have been mentioned above as 
bounding, in a rough way, the period of the settlement of 
Woodbury County. In the former year the number of 
States in the American Union numbered thirty-one, in the 
latter year thirty-seven. A comparison of the facts rela- 
tive to the seventy-four old settlers who were natives of 
the United States shows them to represent thirteen States 
as follows : twenty-four were born in New York; eight each 
in Vermont and Pennsylvania; seven in Ohio; six in Illi- 
nois ; four each in Indiana, New Hampshire, and Connecti- 
cut; three in Massachusetts; two each in Virginia and 
Iowa ; and one each in Maine and Missouri. 

If the States here mentioned are grouped into sections, 
the result shows that, of the seventy-four individuals under 
discussion, there were born twenty in New England, thirty- 
four in the middle Atlantic States (including Virginia and 
West Virginia), none in the southern States, eastern di- 
vision, seventeen in the east central States (including Ken- 
tucky), three in the west central States (including Mis- 
souri), and none in the southern States, western division. 
Thus it is seen that the middle Atlantic section leads with 
thirty-four to its credit, and that New England comes sec- 
ond with twenty. In the two divisions of the north central 
States, taken together, twenty also were born. None seems 
to have been born in either division of the southern States, 
])ut this is because the grouping adopted above, following 
the plan of present day geograpliies,^ includes Virginia 
among the middle Atlantic States and Missouri in the west- 
ern division of the north central States. 

There are twenty-eight States eitlier wholly or largely 

2 Frye 's Complete Geof/raphy, etc. 


east of the Mississippi River. As far as the facts under 
analysis are concerned only eleven of these gave birth to pi- 
oneers of Woodbury County. The only southern State to 
contribute was Virginia. A more remarkable fact, perhaps, 
is that in those sections in which the largest numbers were 
born there were States (located side by side with those most 
largely represented) which in themselves gave birth to 
none of the old settlers. Thus, in New England every State 
is represented except Rhode Island. In the middle Atlantic 
section three States are represented (New York, Pennsyl- 
vania, and Virginia), while four are not (New Jersey, Del- 
aware, Maryland, and West Virginia). It is rather inter- 
esting to speculate as to why New York and Pennsylvania 
should give birth to so many Woodbury County pioneers, 
relatively speaking, and neighboring States to none. It is 
true, however, that West Virginia, Maryland, and most of 
New Jersey are south of the latitude of Iowa. In the east- 
ern division of the central States three are represented 
(Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois), and three are not (Michigan, 
Wisconsin, and Kentucky). Michigan and Wisconsin were 
not old enough to be the birth-place of pioneers who should 
settle new lands as early as 1850. While Kentucky was old 
enough, it was probably far enough to the south of the lati- 
tude of Iowa and especially of Woodbury County, to make 
the latter fact sufficient reason for her failure to send us 
any old settlers. 

Glancing for a moment at the individual States and the 
number of Woodbury County pioneers to whom each gave 
birth, it is seen that New York leads with Vermont, Penn- 
sylvania, Ohio, and Illinois following in order. New York's 
lead is large — in fact more of our number were born with- 
in her boundaries than within those of her three closest 
competitors taken together. New York gave birth to more 
of our old settlers than all of the rest of the middle Atlantic 


section together ; more than all of New England ; and more 
than all of the central States. Indeed New York was the 
mother of twenty-four per cent of the one hundred pioneers 
whose careers form the basis of this study; of thirty-two 
per cent of the seventy-four who were born in the United 
States. New York, Vermont, and Pennsylvania — three 
contiguous States — taken together, gave birth to forty out 
of seventy-four or fifty-four per cent of those born in the 
United States. 

If Virginia and Missouri are counted as southern States, 
as has been the rule in American history, then three of our 
number were born in the South as against seventy-one in 
the North. Three, also, were bom west of the Mississippi 
as against seventy-one east of it. Iowa was a free State 
and would not admit slaves. This fact coupled with that 
other fact that Iowa was far to the north, and out of the 
latitude of the southern States, probably accounts for the 
smallness of the number born south of the Mason and 
Dixon line. 

Another item on the blanks sent out called for the nation- 
ality of each old settler ; but owing, perhaps, to the fact that 
sufficient explanation was not given, it would not be safe to 
draw many conclusions from the data returned. For ex- 
ample, some counted themselves as ^ ^ Americans ' ^ whose 
parents were evidently born abroad; while others an- 
swered ^*of German descent^' whose ancestors had un- 
doubtedly been in the United States for several genera- 
tions. To be brief, forty-four out of one hundred indicated 
a foreign ancestry, although we learned above that only 
twenty-six had been born outside of the United States. 
The numbers returned for each nationality were: Amer- 
icans, forty-seven; Yankees nine; English, nine; Ger- 
mans, nine; Irish, eight; French Canadians, three; French, 
two ; Welsh, two ; Swiss, two ; Dutch, one ; and Danish, one ; 



together with six who gave a double nationality. It is in- 
teresting to note that nine called themselves '^Yankees", 
of whom five were born in New England. Adding these 
nine Yankees to the group of Americans, we have fifty-six 
of the latter. About all that it seems safe to say on the sub- 
ject of nationality is that twenty-six were born abroad and 
that the number of bona fide Americans is fifty-six. This 
leaves eighteen to be accounted for. Undoubtedly all of 
them could classify as Americans of some degree. As 
between Teutons and Celts, the proportion seems to be 
about four of the former to one of the latter. One element 
(namely, the French Canadian) did not figure as largely in 
the returns as the writer had reason to expect from the 
large number of that class who trapped and traded in this 
section in its early days. Indeed, only three designated 
themselves as French Canadians. The reasons for such a 
small number need to be noticed, and so this matter will be 
recurred to again in another connection.^ 

Of the twenty-six pioneers born abroad (out of the one 
hundred studied) twenty-four made at least two moves, 
coming first to some other one of the United States and mi- 
grating later to Iowa. Still another made two moves, com- 
ing from Ireland to Canada and thence to Iowa. Only one 
came directly from his foreign home to Woodbury County. 
Of the twenty-four who stopped in other States before com- 
ing hither, seven came first to Illinois, four to New York, 
four to Ohio, two to Nebraska, two to Wisconsin, and one 
each to New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, Indiana, Tennessee, 
and Missouri. 

It has already been explained that one foreign-born pio- 
neer moved from Ireland to Canada and thence to Iowa, 
and that a second one moved directly from Canada to this 
State. Somewhat earlier in the paper it was noted that two 

3 See below, p. 381. 

VOL. IX — 25 


were born in Iowa. One of these never left his native State, 
while the other one moved to Kansas and back again. In 
the following analysis the latter case is ignored, that is to 
say, the move to Kansas and back is ignored and the indi- 
vidual is treated as a native lowan who never left his State. 
Eliminating these four cases, we have the result that ninety- 
six pioneers, out of one hundred, came to Iowa from some 
other State of the American union. Of the ninety-six, 
seventy-two were native-born and twenty-four foreign- 
born, as has already been shown. 

These ninety-six settlers came into Iowa from eighteen 
different States. The States from which they came, to- 
gether with the number in each case, are as follows : from 
Illinois, twenty-six; New York, fifteen; Ohio, eleven; Wis- 
consin, eight; Pennsylvania and Indiana, five each; Massa- 
chusetts, Virginia, Vermont, Missouri, and Minnesota, 
three each; Connecticut, New Hampshire, Michigan, and 
Nebraska, two each; and from Tennessee, Montana, and 
California, one each. The number that moved to Iowa from 
each State is radically different from the number that was 
born in each. A glance at the first and last columns of the 
accompanying table will show how true is this statement. 
(See Table 1.) 

The migrations of ninety-six persons to Iowa may seem 
to be a simple matter, but in reality it is one of great com- 
plexity. The case of New York may be taken as an illus- 
tration. In that State twenty-four of our pioneers were 
born. Nine of them moved directly from the Empire State 
to Iowa. The other fifteen came to this State indirectly, 
that is to say, they moved first to other States and came 
thence to Iowa. Of this number seven came by way of Illi- 
nois, four by way of Wisconsin, and one each by way of 
Massachusetts, Ohio, Vermont, and Montana. Altogether 
fifteen came directly from New York to Iowa. This num- 



ber was made up of the nine natives of the former State, 
already mentioned, and six who came into New York from 
the outside. Two of the six entered New York from other 
States — one each from Connecticut and Pennsylvania. 
The other four came from foreign countries — two from 
Germany, one from England and one from Ireland. Thus 
thirty old settlers were born in New York or came through 
that State to Iowa. Fifteen came direct to this State and 
fifteen through other Commonwealths. The cases of sev- 
eral other States are as complicated as that of New York 
— just as many elements entering in, although not so many 
pioneers may have been concerned. 

Because of this complexity it is out of question to re- 
view all of the facts relative to each State. They are pre- 
sented in detail, however, in the accompanying table. (See 
Table I). Column one shows how many pioneers (out of 
ninety-six) were born in each State. Column two shows 
how many of these came directly to Iowa, and column three 
how many came indirectly. Columns four and five indicate 
the number that came from other States and from foreign 
countries, respectively, through each State to Iowa. The 
last column shows the number that came directly from each 
State to this one. The numbers given in the first column 
should equal the sum of those given in the second and third 
columns. The numbers found in the last column should 
equal the sum of those in the second, fourth, and fifth col- 
umns. It will also be noticed that columns three and four 
total the same, as they should. 

With the facts before us as vividly as the table presents 
them, it is possible to make several valuable comparisons. 
Let us take first the figures of the first two columns, those 
showing the number of births in each State and the number 
of the same that came directly to Iowa. The facts show that 
all that were born in the three States of Virginia, Illinois, 


and Missouri came directly to this State. Maine is the only 
State representing the other extreme. From other States 
the native-born pioneers came directly to Iowa in such ra- 




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New Hampshire 
























Total lor section 







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Total for section 


































Total for section 



















Total for section 















Total scattered 




Grand Totals 







tios as one out of four, four out of eight, or nine out of 
twenty-four. The general average of all these different ra- 
tios is found in the totals which show that out of seven t}^- 
two native-born pioneers, thirty-three, or nearly forty-six 
per cent, came direct from the State of their birth to this 


The results of this comparison for each section follow : 

New England, 5 out of 20 or 25 per cent came direct to Iowa. 
Mid. Atlantic, 15 out of 34 or 44 per cent came direct to Iowa. 
North Central, 12 out of 17 or 70 per cent came direct to Iowa. 

As might have been expected the percentage increases as 
the section is located closer and closer to Iowa. 

Another fruitful comparison may be made of the number 
of pioneers born in each State and the total number that 
came directly from each State to Iowa. (See columns one 
and six of Table I). One might expect these numbers to be 
practically the same, but this supposition is far from the 
truth. Not all that were born in each State came directly 
to Iowa as we have already seen, and certainly not all that 
came from each State were born in the Commonwealth from 
which they happened to come. 

The total number of pioneers that came directly from the 
various States to Iowa was made up of three groups : first, 
those born in the States from which they came; second, 
those received from other States ; and third, those received 
from foreign nations. The first of these three groups has 
just been discussed. The facts relative to the second may 
be found by reference to column four of Table I. A com- 
parison of columns four and six shows what proportion of 
the numbers sent to Iowa by each State was received from 
other States. Four States, indeed, (New Hampshire, Penn- 
sylvania, Nebraska, and Tennessee) received none; while 
four others (California, Montana, Minnesota, and Michi- 
gan) received all they sent from this source. In most cases 
such accessions were small, only four States (Ohio, Minne- 
sota, Wisconsin, and Illinois) receiving as many as three 
each. Wisconsin with six and Illinois with thirteen are 
easily in the lead. This is logical since these States border 
Iowa on the east and were natural gateways into the latter 
in the early days. 


The results of this comparison by sections are instructive. 
In the following table the figures in the first column indicate 
the persons received from other States; the figures of the 
second column indicate the persons sent to Iowa. 

New England received 4 out of 10 sent, or 40 per cent. 

Middle Atlantic received 3 out of 23 sent, or 13 per cent. 

East Central received 26 out of 52 sent, or 50 per cent. 

West Central received 4 out of 7 sent, or 57 per cent. 

From this showing it is seen that the middle Atlantic sec- 
tion received the smallest percentage of pioneers sent to 
Iowa from other States. It is logical, again, that the north 
central sections should receive the largest percentage from 
the same sources because they are on the road to Iowa, so 
to speak. In the case of New England the percentage is 
large ; but this may be abnormal since the total number of 
individuals was so small that the movements of one or two 
had an undue effect upon the results. Finally, it may be 
said that the total number of pioneers received from other 
States was thirty-nine out of ninety-six sent to Iowa, or six 
more than the number of native-born sent directly from 
their native States. 

The third group which goes to make up the ninety-six sent 
directly to this State comprises the foreign-born. The fig- 
ures for this group are to be found in column five of Table 
I. A comparison with column six shows the proportion of 
the foreign-born to the total number sent. Eight States re- 
ceived none from this source, while five received one each, 
and two received two each. New York, Ohio, and Illinois 
received the largest numbers; the two first named States 
four each, and the last named seven. Nebraska and Tenn- 
essee received all the pioneers whom they sent to Iowa from 
this source — which, of course is only a coincidence. 

If we tabulate the results for the sections we get the fol- 


lowing percentages — the first figures stand for the number 
of foreign-born received: 

New England received 1 out of 10 sent to Iowa, or 10 per cent. 
Middle Atlantic received 5 out of 23 sent to Iowa, or 22 per cent. 
East Central received 14 out of 52 sent to Iowa, or 27 per cent. 
West Central received 3 out of 8 sent to Iowa, or 43 per cent. 

The percentages favor the western sections. While all of 
the foreign-born pioneers under consideration came ulti- 
mately to Iowa, it is a fact that their original attraction was 
for the western States in preference to the eastern sections. 
The total number of foreign-born received was twenty-four 
or exactly twenty-five per cent of the whole number sent di- 
rectly to Iowa. 

It is not to be understood that the contingents sent to 
Iowa by the various States were made up in every case of 
all three of the elements mentioned above. Indeed, this was 
true of only five States, namely. New York, Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, and Missouri. Wisconsin sent no native-born pio- 
neers to Woodbury County; New Hampshire and Pennsyl- 
vania contributed none received from other States; while 
Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Virginia sent 
none who were born abroad. Four States, namely, Michi- 
gan, Minnesota, Montana (Territory), and California sent 
neither native-born nor foreign-born settlers — their whole 
contingents being received from other States. Nebraska 
and Tennessee sent only foreign-born. The number of pio- 
neers of each class sent by the sections are as follows : 

States Native-horn Born in other States Foreign-horn 
New England 5 4 1 
Middle Atlantic 15 3 5 
East Central 12 26 14 
"West Central 14 3 

From this tabulation it will be seen that the native-born 
element was the most important one in the contingents sent 


by New England and the middle section ; while the two di- 
visions of the north central section received from other 
States the largest single element in their contributions — 
in each case exactly one-half of the total number sent. 

Having treated in this detailed way of the various ele- 
ments that went to make up the total number of pioneers 
who came from the different States directly to Iowa, a brief 
comparison should be made between the latter and the total 
number that was born in each State. The figures may be 
found in columns one and six of Table I. There it will be 
seen that a total of seventy- two pioneers* of Iowa were born 
in twelve different States, and that a total of ninety-six 
came to this State from eighteen different States. It may 
also be noticed that pioneers were born in only one State 
(Maine) which sent none directly to Iowa; while seven 
States which gave birth to none, sent settlers to our State. 
Six States gave birth to more than they sent, one to the 
same number, while twelve sent more than were born with- 
in their borders. It has already been mentioned that New 
York gave birth to the largest number with V ermont, Penn- 
sylvania, and Ohio following in order, while Illinois sent 
the largest number directly to Iowa, with New York, Ohio, 
and Wisconsin coming next in order. As a rule the States 
farther east gave birth to more of our numbers, but those 
farther west sent us the larger contingents. The compari- 
son by sections is instructive. 

New England gave birth to 20 pioneers, sent Iowa 10. 

Middle Atlantic gave birth to 34 pioneers, sent Iowa 23. 

East Central gave birth to 17 pioneers, sent Iowa 52. 

West Central gave birth to 1 pioneer, sent Iowa 8. 

From this showing it may be seen that there is a relative 
falling off in the first set of figures and a relative gain in 
the second, without exception, as we come westward. The 

-t Kxf'lu'ling from consideration tlic two liorn in To^v^. 


middle Atlantic States were the birth-place of the largest 
number of pioneers (thirty-four or nearly one-half of the 
seventy-two born in the United States) and yet its percent- 
age relative to the number actually sent was not as great 
as that of New England. By far the largest number of 
settlers came directly from the north central section, even 
that division west of the Mississippi making a respectable 

It appears, then, that the early settlers of Woodbury 
County were largely born in the middle Atlantic and New 
England States and that they came to their future home 
chiefly from the east central and middle Atlantic States. 
This brings up the question of the route, or routes, by which 
they came westward — a question already touched upon in 
an indirect way, but one of such importance that it needs 
further treatment. Table I contains two columns of figures 
(the third and the fourth) which tell in a general way the 
story of the routes taken by the westward moving pioneers. 
By comparing the figures of column three with those of col- 
umn two for a moment it will be seen that New England 
sent fifteen out of twenty born in that section to Iowa indi- 
rectly; that is to say, they moved first to other States and 
came thence to this State. The middle Atlantic States sent 
nineteen out of thirty-four by the same indirect route; but 
column three does not show by what States these pioneers 
came to Iowa. Column four contains the same total of fig- 
ures as three, referring indeed to the same thirty-nine in- 
dividuals ; but while it shows the numbers received by cer- 
tain States which sent them on to Iowa, it does not indicate 
the States from which they were received. These two sets 
of facts, needed to throw light upon the subject of the routes 
taken, are shown in Table II. 

Table II is designed to illuminate the facts given in col- 
umns three and four of Table I. Down the left-hand side of 


the table appear the names of the States and countries in 
which the one hundred pioneers who comprise this study 
were born. In column one is given, merely for convenient 


Total Born in Each 


New Hampshire | 

Vermont | 



New York 












[Montana | 



Sent Indirectly 


New Hampshire 








1 1 








I 1 








jSTew York 

JL y 1 V CblXXCh 





1 ^ 












1 1 











1 1 
1 1 

















1 1 
1 1 
1 1 



























Sent Directly 








11| 5 








1 ll 1 


reference, the total number born in each. Eeading across 
the page from left to right one may see, by reference at the 
same time to the names at tlie top of the table, by what 



States — that is by what routes — the native-born of each 
State and country came to Iowa. The total number sent in- 
directly by each State and country is given in the last col- 
umn, at the right-hand side of the table. The number of 
native-born pioneers sent directly to Iowa by the States of 
their birth are given in the squares which run diagonally 
across the table from the upper left-hand corner toward 
the lower right-hand corner — the numbers being indicated 
by heavier type in order to differentiate them from the oth- 
ers of the table. The figures in heavy type are omitted in 
making up the totals given at the right-hand side of the 

At the top of the table are found the names of the States 
and the one country which sent pioneers directly to Iowa. 
Glancing down the columns one may see, by reference at 
the same time to the names at the left-hand side of the table, 
from what States and countries — that is, by what routes — 
the pioneers sent to Iowa were received. The figures at the 
bottom of the table indicate the total number sent to Iowa 
directly by each State. In this case the numbers standing 
for the native-born pioneers sent directly (indicated by the 
heavy type) have been added. Table I was limited to those 
States of the American union which gave birth to or sent 
pioneers on to Iowa. Table II includes those foreign coun- 
tries, as well, which performed similar services. The name 
of Canada occurs at the top of the table because it sent one 
native-born pioneer direct to Iowa. The name of Iowa ap- 
pears on the table, but it affects only the figures of the first 

The table under consideration shows very plainly two 
things : first, by what States, or routes, the native-born of 
each State and country were sent to Iowa when they did 
not come direct from their places of birth ; and second, from 
what States and countries — that is by what routes — the 


pioneers, exclusive of native-born, sent to Iowa by the dif- 
ferent States, were received. Taking np the first group, 
who may be referred to as native-born pioneers sent to 
Iowa indirectly, we see that Pennsylvania sent four indi- 
viduals by way of four different States, that Vermont sent 
six by way of five States, while New York sent fifteen by 
way of six States. The States through which these pio- 
neers were sent are scattered from Vermont to California. 
The only preferences shown by individual States were a 
slight one by the Vermont pioneers for the Illinois route 
and a more decided one by New Yorkers for the Illinois and 
Wisconsin routes. Among the foreign-born, the English 
show a slight preference for Ohio and the Germans for New 
York; the only marked preference being that of the Ger- 
mans for the Illinois route. 

A comparison, section by section, reveals the following 
marked preferences for the route of the east central States : 

By Central States By all other sections 
New England sent 8 7 
Middle Atlantic sent 15 4 
Central States sent 3 2 
Foreign nations sent 14 11 

The totals for the sections show that, out of sixty-four pio- 
neers sent to Iowa indirectly, forty came by way of the 
eastern division of the central States as against twenty- 
four by way of all other sections. If those coming by the 
western division of the central States are added to those 
sent by way of the eastern division, the results become 
forty-seven as against seventeen. 

The results just presented are complemented by those 
growing out of a review of the second group of facts which 
Table II was constructed to illustrate. In noticing the 
States and countries from which the pioneers, sent to Iowa 
by the various States, were received we are giving atten- 



tion to the same body of facts as those just analyzed but 
from a different point of view. Excluding native-born 
pioneers, a glance at the table shows that New York sent to 
Iowa six settlers received by her from five different 
sources, Wisconsin eight, received from five sources, Ohio 
seven received from six sources, and Illinois twenty re- 
ceived from nine different sources — that is, from nine 
States and foreign countries. In every case the sources 
were widely scattered. The chief sources for Illinois were 
New York, Germany, and Vermont; for Wisconsin, New 
York; for Ohio, England; and for New York, Germany. 

Out of sixty-four pioneers sent indirectly to Iowa, New 
England shows no one source of supply predominating 
over another. The middle Atlantic States and the western 
division of the central States received from foreign nations 
a few more than from other sources. The east central 
States attracted fifteen from the middle Atlantic section, 
fourteen from foreign nations, and eight from New 

From such analyses as these it is seen that the pioneers 
of Woodbury County came from many different places by 
way of many different routes. The tracing of the routes 
followed is complicated by the fact that a large number of 
the individuals concerned made two or more moves, instead 
of only one, in coming to Iowa. Three distinct elements 
enter into the proposition. In the first place, there are 
those native-born pioneers who came to Iowa from the 
places of their birth by indirect routes. Then there are 
those who came directly from certain localities. This num- 
ber was made up of two groups, namely, native-born pio- 
neers who came directly from the places of their birth and 
those received from other localities to be sent on to this 
State. The routes followed may, in a general way, be di- 
vided into two parts. First, many routes leading from the 


birth-places of the pioneers converged npon certain inter- 
mediate points. Chief among these were Illinois, Wis- 
consin, Ohio, and New York. The chief section upon which 
the routes of pioneers converged was, of course, the north 
central section. The second part of the route taken led 
directly from certain centers to Iowa. The most important 
centers, as far as the States of the Union are concerned, 
are exactly the same as the chief converging points just 
mentioned; but, since the pioneers coming over these 
routes included an element of native-born settlers as well 
as those received from other sources, the centers in ques- 
tion may not be ranked in the same order. While Illinois 
leads. New York comes second, Ohio third, and Wisconsin 
fourth. The second part of the general route followed led 
directly from these States to Iowa. As far as sections are 
concerned, the main-traveled route led from the north cen- 
tral section with that from the middle States second, and 
that from New England third. 

The reader can get a clear mental picture of the general 
routes followed by conceiving a map with a heavy line lead- 
ing from Europe to the north central States and a some- 
what lighter line from Europe to the middle Atlantic sec- 
tion ; a heavy line leading from the middle Atlantic section 
to the north central States, and a somewhat lighter one 
from New England to the same locality; and lastly a heavy 
line leading from the north central States to Iowa together 
with lighter lines from the middle Atlantic section and 
from New England to this State. A complete map show- 
ing all the by-paths followed by various groups or indi- 
viduals would contain many more lines than those just indi- 
cated, but the picture here drawn shows the main-traveled 
routes and avoids the confusion which would arise from 
the crossing and re-crossing of lesser by-paths. 

Before leaving this part of the subject it may be pointed 



out that seven pioneers (out of ninety-six) entered Iowa 
by way of the southern States. Three of them came from 
Virginia, three from Missouri, and one from Tennessee. 
Four (out of ninety-six) came hither from western States 
as follows: from Nebraska two, and from Montana (Ter- 
ritory) and California one each. None of these four were 
natives of the States from which they came. 

From the States which border upon Iowa there came a 
total of forty-two pioneers. It is interesting to note that 
thirty-four of these came from the two States on the east- 
ern border, leaving eight to enter from the four States 
on the three other sides of Iowa. The numbers entering by 
way of each border State were: from Illinois, twenty-six; 
Wisconsin, eight; Minnesota, three; Nebraska, two; South 
Dakota, none; and Missouri, three. The large numbers 
coming from Illinois and Wisconsin are accounted for by 
the fact that those States were situated directly in the path- 
way of the incoming pioneers. Bearing in mind the fact 
that so much early travel was by way of the Missouri River, 
the one surprising result in the comparisons just made is 
that so few settlers, relatively speaking, came to Wood- 
bury County from Missouri. Possibly the pioneers coming 
from Missouri desiring, like Daniel Boone, to be ever on 
the frontier, had moved on to newer regions before the data 
for this paper were gathered. The writer is sure that this 
occurred to a certain extent, especially in connection with 
the French Canadians to be mentioned below.^ 

Out of one hundred pioneers whose movements form the 
basis of this study, sixty-six came directly to Woodbury 
County upon reaching the State of Iowa; thirty-four 
stopped first in some other county before coming here. It 
may be of interest to note from what particular counties 
some of them came. A total of sixteen came from four 

s See below, p. 381. 


comities as follows : from Dubuque, where the first settle- 
ment in the State was made, came eight; from Potta- 
wattamie, four ; and from Linn and Monona, two each. The 
other eighteen came from as many different counties scat- 
tered all over the State. Ten came from counties bordering 
on the Mississippi ; nine from counties on the western bor- 
der of Iowa. Of the latter, seven came from counties on 
the Missouri. If these were added to the three who came 
from the State of Missouri, it may be said that at least ten 
came by the Missouri Eiver route. 

The most interesting fact brought out in the last para- 
graph is the large number of pioneers coming to Wood- 
bury County from Dubuque County located clear across the 
State on the Mississippi River. Of the eight who came 
from the latter county, one was native-born, two were from 
Pennsylvania, and five from foreign countries. Dubuque 
and Woodbury counties are in the same latitude. To-day 
they are connected by the Illinois Central Eailway, but 
this consideration was of no great importance since seven 
of the pioneers came to Woodbury County before the rail- 
way was built. 

From counties bordering on Woodbury there came five 
pioneers: one each from Plymouth and Cherokee on the 
north, one from Ida on the east, and two from Monona on 
the south. 

Stopping in other counties of Iowa before coming on to 
Woodbury had the effect of increasing the number of moves 
made by our pioneers on their way hither. From the char- 
acter of the questions asked on the blanks sent out it is not 
possible to determine the exact number of moves made by 
the one hundred pioneers on their way to Woodbury 
County. We are able, however, to figure out that twenty- 
two made at least one move ; sixty at least two ; and eight- 
een at least three moves before arriving at their destina- 


tion. It is not surprising to find that all of the eighteen 
who moved at least three times are included in the number 
of those who came to Woodbury from some other county 
of the State. 

In this very limited study of the pioneer settlers of 
Woodbury County, Iowa, the emphasis has been placed 
upon the source of supply, or the nativity of the pioneers, 
the routes by which they came to this county, and the num- 
ber of moves made on the way. Relative to the first point, 
it was found that twenty-six out of one hundred were born 
abroad, chiefly in Germany, England, Ireland, and Canada. 
The three who came from Canada were French Canadians. 
It was remarked above ^ that such a small number did not 
do justice to this particular people because it has been con- 
clusively shown by Mr. C. R. Marks that the first settlers 
of the county were French Canadians and that they came 
to this locality in considerable numbers."^ The explanation 
may be found in the character of the French Canadians 
themselves. When they first came into this vicinity, prob- 
ably as early as the thirties, it was in the capacity of 
traders, trappers, boatsmen, hunters, etc. They belonged 
largely to the river and the river trade, to the period of 
exploration rather than to that of settlement. It was their 
work to open up the new country, not to possess it per- 
manently: they paved the way for actual settlers. When 
the latter came it was time for the French Canadian to 
move on up the river to newer and wilder regions — regions 
better suited to his particular kind of life. This was actu- 
ally done by large numbers, and is a fact which, when taken 
in connection with the time that had passed before this 

« See above, p. 365. 

7 Marks 's Past and Present of Woodbury County, Iowa, p. 763 seq. See also 
kis article entitled French Pioneers of Sioux City and South Dalcota in the 
South DaTcota Historical Collections, Vol. IV, pp. 255-260. 

VOL. IX — 26 


investigation was attempted, sufficiently accounts for the 
small showing made by the French Canadians in the popu- 
lation elements of the county to-day. 

The figures showed seventy-four pioneers born in the 
United States — only three of them in the South. Among 
the sections, the middle Atlantic States led, with New 
England and the north central States following in order. 
Among the States, New York, Vermont, and Pennsylvania 
stood out especially prominent as the birth-place of Wood- 
bury County pioneers, giving birth to forty out of the 
seventy-four native Americans, or fifty-four per cent. New 
York alone had twenty-four to her credit, contributing 
thirty-two per cent of the native-born Americans and 
twenty-four per cent of all. It is not too much praise to 
call the Empire State the ^'Mother of Woodbury County 
Pioneers ' 

We have also seen that our hundred pioneers moved into 
Iowa from eighteen different States, together with one com- 
ing from Canada. More than half came from the north 
central States, with the middle Atlantic States and New 
England coming next in order. Among the States, Illinois 
led with the large total of twenty-six to her credit. New 
York came second with fifteen, while Ohio and Wisconsin 
sent eight each. 

The foregoing analysis has brought out the radical dif- 
ference between the pioneers born in a State and those sent 
to Iowa — a difference, not only in numbers but also in 
composition. The complexity of the matter of the routes 
taken has also been revealed. Out of seventy-two native 
born, thirty-three came to Iowa directly from the States of 
their birth, thirty-nine indirectly by way of other States. 
Those coming from the various States were found to be 
made up of three classes: namely, native born, those re- 
ceived from other States, and those received from foreign 


nations. The foreign born came chiefly by way of the north 
central States. Among the States they preferred Illinois, 
New York, and Ohio in order. 

As to the general route followed, an attempt was made to 
divide it into two parts : first, converging upon certain sec- 
tions and States ; and second, leading from those places to 
Iowa. Later it was seen that a third part of the general 
route was to be found within the State of Iowa. The main- 
traveled routes were pictured as running from Europe to 
the north central and middle Atlantic States ; from the lat- 
ter section and New England to the north central States; 
and from all three sections, but especially from the north 
central section, to Iowa. Within the State the chief routes 
were from Dubuque and Pottawattamie counties to Wood- 

Among other results it was found that four pioneers 
entered the State from States west of Iowa; seven from 
southern States; and forty-two from States bordering upon 
this one. The number coming from Missouri was surpris- 
ingly small. Thirty-four stopped in other counties of the 
State before moving to Woodbury. In general the pioneers 
studied may be said to have done much moving about be- 
fore they settled down — much more, indeed, than facts 
brought out in the paper indicate. 

Although this study has been based upon facts which con- 
cern only one hundred individuals, the writer has no reason 
to believe that the results would have been radically dif- 
ferent, as far as percentages are concerned, if figures had 
been at hand relative to a much larger number. The one 
important exception of the French Canadians has already 
been noted. We may say, therefore, that the findings of 
this paper relative to the nativity of the pioneers of Wood- 
bury County, Iowa, and to the routes traveled by them in 
coming to the county are reasonably accurate. What is 


true of Woodbury County would, probably, be true also of 
northwestern Iowa. The same claim could not be made for 
the eastern and southeastern parts of the State which are 
much older sections and — to mention only one point — 
received large numbers of settlers from Kentucky, Vir- 
ginia, and other southern States. 

It may be said in closing that John Fiske's dictum, re- 
ferred to at the beginning of this paper, namely, that * * The 
westward movement of population in the United States has 
for the most part followed the parallels of latitude'', has 
been found to be remarkably true when applied to the set- 
tlement of Woodbury County, Iowa. 

Feank Haemout Gakvee 

morningside college 
Sioux City Iowa 


The Territorial Convention wMch was held at Burlington 
on November 6, 7, 8, 1837, was perhaps the most important 
convention held in the Iowa country prior to the establish- 
ment of the Territory in July, 1838. Three subjects of 
vital concern were acted upon: (1) the Missouri boundary 
line; (2) preemption laws; and (3) the division of the 
Territory. Documentary materials relative to this conven- 
tion are given below. They include (1) Proceedings of a 
Public Meeting of the Citizens of Des Moines County held 
on September 16, 1837; (2) Proceedings of a Public Meet- 
ing of the Citizens of Dubuque County held on October 13, 
1837; (3) Proceedings of a Public Meeting of the Citizens 
of Louisa County held on October 21, 1837; (4) Proceed- 
ings of a Public Meeting of the Citizens of Henry County 
held on October 23, 1837; (5) Proceedings of the Terri- 
torial Convention held at Burlington on November 6, 7, 8, 
1837; (6) Memorial on the Subject of the Missouri Boun- 
dary Line; (7) Memorial on the subject of Preemptions; 
and (8) Memorial Praying for a Division of the Territory. 


[The people of Des Moines County took the initiative in calling the Terri- 
torial Convention of 1837. The following account of the meeting held at 
Burlington is reprinted literally from the Iowa News (Dubuque), Vol. I, No. 
18, September 30, 1837. — Editor.] 

At a large and respectable meeting of the people of Des 
Moines comity, held in this town on Saturday, the 16th inst., 
in pursuance of previous public notice, the Hon. Isaac Lef- 



FLEE, was called to the Chair, and C. S. Jacobs, Esq., ap- 
pointed Secretary. 

The chair having briefly and appropriately stated the ob- 
jects of the meeting, it was moved by David Rorer, Esq., 
and seconded by Col. W. W. Chapman, that a committee of 
five be appointed to draft resolutions expressive of the 
sense of the meeting. Whereupon, the Chair appointed 
David Rorer, Esq., Col. W. W. Chapman, Judge William 
Morgan, Col. Arthur Ingram and Dr. George W. Teas, said 
committee, who having retired for a short time, returned 
and presented the following resolutions, which, after due 
deliberation, were unanimously adopted. 

1st. Resolved, That while we have the utmost confidence 
in the ability, integrity and patriotism of those who control 
the destinies of our present Territorial Government, and of 
our delegate in the Congress of the U. States, we do, never- 
theless, look to a division of the Territory, and the organ- 
ization of a separate Territorial Government, by Congress, 
west of the Mississippi river, as the only means of imme- 
diately and fully securing to the citizens thereof, the bene- 
fits and immunities of a government of laws. 

2d, Resolved, That we view with extreme solicitude and 
regret, the efforts of a portion of the people of Missouri to 
obtain an extension of their northern boundary line, and 
deem it the duty of ourselves and all our fellow-citizens 
west of the river, to take prompt measures to prevent the 
same, as an infringement upon our Territorial rights. 

3d. Resolved, That as settlers on the public lands of the 
United States, we are entitled to the protection of the Gov- 
ernment in our homes, and the improvements made by, or 
paid for by us ; and that [it] is a duty we owe to ourselves 
and our fellow-citizens, to call the attention of Congress to 
that subject by a fair and full presentation of our claims. 

4th. Resolved, That we respectfully and earnestly rec- 


ommend to the people of the Territory west of the Missis- 
sippi river, immediately to hold county meetings in their 
respective counties, and appoint three delegates from each 
county, to meet in Convention at this place, on the first 
Monday in November next, to take into consideration the 
subjects embraced in the foregoing resolutions, and the best 
means of securing the speedy action of Congress thereupon. 

5th. Resolved, That as the county of Du Buque is large 
and ought and should, in the opinion of the citizens thereof, 
be divided, it be entitled to a double representation, or six 
members, in said Convention, if they deem it expedient or 
necessary to appoint so many. 

6th. Resolved, That we deem it our duty to call the at- 
tention of the Executive of the Territory to the encroach- 
ments of the State of Missouri upon our Territory, and that 
he be hereby requested to use all means within his control 
to maintain the sacredness of our boundary and laws. 

7th. Resolved, That the repeated and constant failures 
of the mails in the western portion of this Territory, and 
the habitual neglect and gross delinquencies of some of the 
contractors for the conveyance thereof, is such as in a great 
measure to deprive the people of the benefits of the public 
mail ; and that the Postmaster General is hereby and most 
earnestly requested to correct such abuses, if practicable, 
at the earliest possible period. 

8th. Resolved, That we have selected the town of Bur- 
lington as the place of meeting of the proposed Convention, 
by reason of its being the temporary seat of Government, 
and as the place of the meeting of the Legislature about 
that time. 

9th. Resolved, That the people of Des Moines county be, 
and are hereby requested to meet on the second Saturday, 


the 12t]i of October next, in this town, at 10 o^clock, A. M., 
for the purpose of selecting three delegates to the afore- 
said Convention. 

Charles Mason, Esq., hereupon made an appropriate ad- 
dress to the meeting upon the subject of the 7th resolution. 
— The total inadequacy of the present mail arrangement, 
and the shameful neglect and delinquencies of some of the 
mail contractors and post masters — and concluded by mov- 
ing that a committee of be appointed to draft a petition 

to the Post Master General, stating the facts in the case, and 
soliciting his immediate attention to a correction of the 
evils complained of, whereupon the chair appointed upon 
said committee, Charles Mason and C. S. Jacobs, Esquires, 
of Burlington, Mr. Mason Wilson, of Augusta, Mr. Jona- 
than Morgan, of Flint, Mr. William Stewart, of Marshall, 
Mr. John Lorton, of Casey Prairie, and Mr. James G. Guf- 
fey, of Taney Town. 

Judge Morgan then moved that this committee be di- 
rected to furnish each Post-Master in the county of Des 
Moines (old Des Moines) with a copy of the Petition when 
prepared for circulation and signature. 

C. S. Jacobs, Esq., addressed the meeting upon the sub- 
ject of the mails for some time, and observed that he appre- 
hended the resolution in regard thereto, just passed, though 
very good in itself, did not go far enough, and cover as 
much ground as the importance of the subject seemed to 
require, and he would, therefore, offer a short preamble 
and resolutions in addition, which were unanimously 
adopted. — 

Whereas, The present arrangement of the mails for 
this portion of the Territory of Wisconsin, is not such as 
the population, business character, enterprise and intelli- 
gence of the people require or deserve — Therefore, be it 


Resolved, That a committee be appointed, to consist of 
seven persons, whose dnty it shall be to draft a petition to 
the Post Master General, stating fully the facts of the case, 
and requesting him to take such steps as may be deemed 
necessary in the premises. 

(This committee was appointed under the resolution of 
Mr. Mason, for which this was substituted.) 

Resolved, That it is the decided opinion of this meeting, 
that there should be a tri-weekly eastern mail to this town. 

Resolved, That it be strongly recommended to the Post 
Master General to establish as early as may be practicable, 
a tri-weekly, or semi-weekly mail to this place, to intersect 
the eastern mail at Peoria, 111. 

Resolved, That it be recommended to the Post Master 
General, to take the earliest and most efficient steps to cor- 
rect the abuses now existing in the present mail arrange- 
ment — to investigate the conduct and official character of 
the mail contractors in this portion of the Territory — and 
also, the manner in which the Post-masters execute their 

Resolved, That our delegate in Congress be requested to 
use his utmost influence and exertion, to induce the Post 
Master General to have the several subjects of these reso- 
lutions carried into early and full effect. 

On motion of Jas. W. Woods, Esq., it was 

Resolved, That the foregoing proceedings be published in 
the Wisconsin Territorial Gazette, and such other papers in 
the Territory as feel an interest in the subject matter of 

On motion of Judge Morgan, the meeting adjourned. 

Isaac Leffler, Ch*n. 

C. S. Jacobs, Sec'y. 



[The following account is reprinted literally from the Iowa News (Du- 
buque), Vol. I, No. 20, October 14, 1837.— Editor.] 

At a general public meeting of the citizens of Du Buque 
and vicinity, convened at the Conrt House on Friday 13th 
inst., pursuant to previous notice, 

Waknek Lewis, Esq. was called to the Chair, and John 
Plumbe, Jr. appointed Secretary. 

Whereupon the following preamble and resolutions were 

Whereas, a number of our fellow-citizens assembled at 
Burlington on the 16th day of September last, recommend- 
ed, amongst other things, that a convention of delegates, 
representing the people of Wisconsin residing in that por- 
tion of the Territory lying west of the Mississippi river, 
should be held at Burlington on the first Monday of No- 
vember next for the purpose of consulting upon the pro- 
priety of petitioning Congress to organize us into a separate 
Territory. And whereas, the people of Du Buque county 
do approve of said recommendation, and do cordially unite 
with their fellow-citizens of Burlington in desiring a full 
and fair expression of public opinion and promoting con- 
cert of action upon this important subject, therefore 

Resolved, That there be twenty-one delegates to repre- 
sent the county of Du Buque in said convention, and in case 
of the death, resignation, refusal to serve, or absence of one 
or more of said delegates, that the vacancy so created shall 
be filled by such person or persons as a majority of the 
delegates attending may select and appoint. 

Resolved, That J. T. Fales, W. W. Coriell, S. Hempstead, 
John Plumbe, Jun., L. H. Langworthy, L. Jackson, F. Ge- 
hon, T. S. Wilson, W. Hutton, and J. M. Harrison, be dele- 
gates to said Convention, to represent the Town and 


vicinity of Dubuque, and that we recommend to the inhab- 
itants of the different settlements in this county to meet 
together for the purpose of choosing delegates of their own. 

Resolved, That in the opinion of this meeting, the im- 
portance of our Territory on the score of population, com- 
mercial enterprise, and of immense agricultural and min- 
eral resources, demand that we should be organized at once 
as a separate Territory. 

Resolved, That we have full and unabated confidence in 
our worthy and highly esteemed Executive, Henry Dodge, 
believing as we do, that his administration of our Terri- 
torial Government has been conducted with sagacity, pru- 
dence and great honesty of purpose. 

Resolved, That we have undiminished confidence in our 
Delegate to Congress, Geo. W. Jones, and that he deserves 
the thanks of the community for the zeal, ability and 
promptitude which he has evinced in the discharge of the 
trust which has been reposed in him. 

Resolved, That the proceedings of this meeting be pub- 
lished in the papers of the Territory. 

Waknee Lewis, Chairman. 

John Plumb, Jr. Sec'y. 


[The following account is reprinted literally from the Wisconsin Territorial 
Gazette and Burlington Advertiser (Burlington), Vol. I, No. 17, November 2, 
1837.— Editor.] 

At a large and respectable meeting of the people of 
Louisa county, held in the town of Wapello, on Saturday 
the 21st inst. in pursuance of previous notice, William Milli- 
gan, Esq. was called to the chair, and Z. C. Inghram ap- 
pointed Secretary. 

The object of the meeting was briefly and appropriately 


stated by James M. Clark, Esq. It was moved by Daniel 
Brewer, and seconded by J. M. Clark, that a committee of 
five be appointed to draft resolutions expressive of the 
sense of the meeting: whereupon the Chair appointed 
Daniel Brewer, John H, Benson, R. S. Searls, Isaac H. 
Rinearson, Esq. and William H. R. Thomas said committee, 
who, after having retired for a short time, returned and 
presented the following resolutions, which, after due delib- 
eration, were unanimously adopted. 

1. Resolved, That we highly approve of the objects and 
motives of the Territorial Convention, to be holden in 
Burlington; and that so far as lies in our power we will 
heartily co-operate with our brethren in the adjoining coun- 
ties, in carrying those motives into effect. 

2. Resolved y That we deem it highly essential to the 
interest and convenience of our Territory that a division 
of the same take place, and that, in our opinion, the Missis- 
sippi suggests a very natural and proper line of separation. 

3. Resolved, That the deficiency of post offices, the in- 
equality of mails, and the apparent gross delinquencies of 
mail contractors in this western part of our Territory, are 
evils, which call loudly for redress, and that we would sug- 
gest to the Territorial Convention the propriety of using 
their influence and exertions to have these abuses ferreted 
out and corrected. 

4. Resolved, That we look upon the attempts of a por- 
tion of Missouri to encroach upon our Territory, as highly 
unjust and aggressive, and that however much we may re- 
gret that any difficulties should arise between us, we are 
determined to resist her encroachments by every just and 
honorable means. 

5. Resolved, That, as settlers upon these frontiers, en- 
during the privations and hardships always incident to the 
settling of new countries, we are justly entitled to be se- 


cured in the possession of our homes and improvements by 
the passage of a pre-emption law in our behalf. 

6. Resolved, That we would suggest to our own dele- 
gates, and the convention at large, the propriety of calling 
the attention of Congress to this subject by memorial or 

7. Resolved, That we deem this a fitting occasion to ex- 
press our entire satisfaction with the present boundaries 
of our county, and look upon those who are endeavoring to 
effect a division of the same as acting contrary to the best 
interest of the county at large. 

The committee reported the following list of delegates, 
viz : William L. Toole, James M. Clark, Esq., and John J. 
Einearson, who were chosen by the meeting. 

8. Resolved, That the proceedings of this meeting be 
published in the Burlington Gazette. 

William Milligan, Ch'n. 

Z. C. Ingheam, Sec^y, 


[The following account is reprinted literally from the Wisconsin Territorial 
Gazette and Burlington Advertiser (Burlington), Vol. I, No. 17, November 2. 
1837.— Editor.] 

A meeting of the citizens of Henry county was held at 
Mount Pleasant on the 23rd inst. Mr. John H. Eandolph 
was called to the chair, and Dr. J. D. Payne appointed 

W. L. Jenkins, Esq. explained the object of the meeting, 
and the proceedings of the late Burlington meeting were 
read and approved of. A motion was then made, that the 
meeting ballot for three delegates to the proposed conven- 
tion, to represent Henry county; whereupon, tellers being 
appointed, it appeared that Messrs. W. H. Wallace, J. M. 
Myers, and M. L. B. Hughes were duly elected. 


Resolved, That the proceedings of this meeting be pub- 
lished in the Wisconsin Territorial Gazette. 

John H. Eandolph, Pres't. 

J. D. Payne, Sec'y. 


[The proceedings along with the memorials adopted by the Convention were 
printed in pamphlet form and thus transmitted to Congress. A copy of this 
pamphlet was discovered by the writer in the office of the Clerk of the House 
of Eepresentatives at Washington. The text of the printed pamphlet does not 
differ from what appeared in the Iowa News. The following account is re- 
printed literally from the Iowa News (Dubuque), Vol. I, No. 23, November 25, 
1837. — Editor.] 

The Convention of Delegates, from that portion of the 
Wisconsin Territory west of the Mississippi, met at the 
capitol, in the town of Burlington, on Monday, Nov. 6, 1837. 

The Convention was called to order by C. S. Jacobs, Esq. 
of Des Moines co., and on motion of Mr. Warren, of Du 
Buqne, Mr. Jacobs was elected Chairman, pro tern, of the 
Convention for the purposes of organization ; and on motion 
of Mr. Eussell, of Du Buque, J. W. Parker, Esq. of Du 
Buque was elected Secretary pro tem. 

On motion of Mr. Davis of Musquitine, the counties were 
called over to ascertain the names of the Delegates from 
each. The following gentlemen answered to their names, 
exhibited their credentials, and took their seats in Con- 

From the county of Du Buque.— P. H. Engle, J. T. Fales, 
G. W. Harris, W. A. Warren, W. B. Watts, A. F. Russell, 
W. H. Patton, J. W. Parker, J. D. Bell, J. PI. Rose. 

From Des Moines county. — David Rorer, Robert Rals- 
ton, Cyrus S. Jacobs. 

Van Buren county. — Van Caldwell, J. G. Kenner, James 


Henry county. — W. H. Wallace, J. D. Payne, J. L. Myers. 

Musquitine county. — J. E. Struthers, M. Couch, Eli Rey- 
nolds, S. C. Hastings, James Davis, S. Jenner, A. Smith, 
E. K. Fay. 

Louisa county. — J. M. Clark, W. L. Toole, S. J. Rinear- 

Lee county. — Henry Eno, John Claypool, Hawkins 

Ordered, That the Convention elect its officers by ballot. 

On motion of Mr. Davis, a majority of all the votes pres- 
ent was made necessary to the election of officers. 

Mr. C. S. Jacobs was elected President of the Convention 
upon the first ballot and Messrs. J. M. Clark and W. H. 
Wallace, Vice Presidents ; and Messrs. J. W. Parker and 
J. R. Struthers, Secretaries. 

The Convention then adjourned till to-morrow, at 3 
o'clock, P. M. 

Friday, Nov. 7 — The convention assembled at 3 o'clock 
pursuant to adjournment, and was called to order by the 

On motion of Mr. Warren, 

Resolved, That the Governor, members of the Legislative 
Council, Judges, and members of the bar of Burlington, be 
invited to take seats within the bar. 

On motion of Mr. Eno, 

Resolved, That a committee of seven be appointed by the 
President, to draft a memorial to Cong-ress on the subject 
of the attempt making by the state of Missouri to extend 
her northern boundary line. 

Messrs. Eno, Claypool, Kenner, Ralston, Davis, Watts, 
and Toole were appointed said committee. 

On motion of Mr. Kenner, 

Resolved, That a committee of six be appointed by the 


President to prepare a memorial to the Congress of the U. 
States, praying for the passage of an act, granting the right 
of pre-emption to actual settlers on government lands, and 
that said committee report the same to this convention at 
some period before its adjournment. 

Messrs. Engle, Kenner, Payne, Struthers, Patton, Eorer, 
and Smith were appointed said committee. 

On motion of Mr. Eorer, 

Eesolved, That a committee of seven be appointed by the 
President, to draft a memorial to the Congress of the 
United States in relation to the organization of a separate 
territorial Government in that part of the Territory of Wis- 
consin west of the Mississippi river, 

Messrs. Eorer, Hastings, Caldwell, Myers, Claypool, 
Einearson, and Harris were selected to compose said com- 

On motion, the Convention adjourned until to-morrow, 
at 2 o'clock P.M. 

Wednesday, Nov. 8. 

The Convention met [pursuant] to adjournment and was 
called to order by the President. 

The committees appointed yesterday to draft memorials, 
being prepared to report, Mr. Engle, chairman of the com- 
mittee appointed to draft a memorial in relation to pre- 
emptions, reported a memorial, which, on motion, was 
unanimously adopted. 

Mr. Eno, chairman of the committee to draft a memorial 
upon the subject of the northern boundary line of Missouri, 
reported a memorial, which, on motion, was unanimously 

Mr. Eorer, chairman of the committee appointed to pre- 
pare a memorial relative to the division of the Territory, 


reported a memorial, which, on motion, was unanimously 
On motion of Mr. Davis, 

Eesolved, unanimously, that the Hon. G. W. Jones, is en- 
titled to the thanks of the citizens of the Territory, for the 
able manner in which he has discharged the various and 
complicated duties imposed upon him, as our delegate in 

On motion of Mr. Davis, 

Resolved, unanimously. That we entertain the highest of 
respect for the able, patriotic, and distinguished manner in 
which his excellency. Governor Dodge, has at all times ad- 
ministered the affairs of the Territory. 

On motion of Mr. Hastings, the following was unanimous- 
ly adopted : 

In order that a full expression of the sentiment of this 
convention may be publicly made known, upon the subject 
of the extension of the northern line of the state of Mis- 
souri, therefore, 

Be it resolved, That we most cordially approve of that 
part of the message of the Executive of this Territory, 
which relates to the said northern boundary, communicated 
to the Legislative Assembly at their present session, and 
with him believe that Missouri has made an encroachment 
upon our Territorial rights in extending her northern 
boundary lines, north from where it was formerly located. 

On motion. 

Resolved, That the Legislative Council and House of 
Representatives be requested to co-operate with the Con- 
vention, in memorializing Congress on all the subjects acted 
upon by this Convention. 

On motion of Mr. Davis, 

Resolved, nem. con., That the members of the Convention 
tender their thanks to the members of the House of Repre- 

voL. IX — 27 


sentatives, for their liberality in tendering the use of this 
Hall for our deliberations. 
On motion of Mr. Warren, 

Resolved, unanimously. That the President of the Con- 
vention be requested to forward the proceedings of this 
Convention, with the memorials, to our delegate in Con- 
gress, Hon. G. W. Jones. 

On motion of Mr. Fales, 

Resolved, unanimously. That a vote of thanks be tendered 
to the officers of this Convention, for the able and impartial 
manner in which they have discharged the duties that de- 
volved upon them. 

On motion of Mr. Hastings, 

Resolved, That the memorials be signed by the officers 
and members of the Convention. 
On motion of Mr. Davis, 

Resolved, That all editors in the Territory be requested 
to publish the proceedings of this Convention. 
On motion, 

Resolved, That a committee of three be appointed to 
superintend the printing of the proceeding of this Conven- 

Messrs. Ralston, Davis, and Engle were appointed said 

The President, in a short, impressive manner, returned 
thanks to the Convention, in behalf of himself and associate 
officers, for the honor conferred upon them. 

The Convention adjourned, sine die. 

Cykus S. Jacobs, President. 
J. M. Claek, ) ^.^^ p^^^.^ 
W. H. Wallace, j 

J. W. Paekbb, I Secretaries. 
J. R. Struthees, I 



[The following memorial which was adopted by the Territorial Convention 
is reprinted literally from the Iowa News (Dubuque), Vol. I, No. 23, November 
25, 1837.— Editor.] 

To the Honorable the Senate and House of Representatives 
of the United States, in Congress assembled: 

The Memorial of a Convention of Delegates, from the sev- 
eral counties in the Territory of Wisconsin, west of the 
Mississippi river, convened at Burlington, in said Ter- 
ritory, Nov. 6, 1837, 


That your memorialists are desirous of asking the atten- 
tion of Congress to the adjustment of the boundary line 
between the State of Missouri and the territory of Western 
Wisconsin. Much excitement already prevails among the 
inhabitants situated in the border counties of the State and 
Territory, and it is much to be feared, that, unless the 
speedy action of Congress should be had upon the subject, 
difficulties of a serious nature will arise, militating against 
the peace and harmony which would otherwise exist among 
them. At the last session of the Legislature of Missouri, 
Commissioners were appointed to run the northern boun- 
dary line of the State. They have recently been engaged 
in the work, and according to the line run by them, there is 
included within the limits of the State of Missouri, a con- 
siderable tract of country, hitherto supposed to belong to 
the Territory of Wisconsin, and which is still believed of 
right to belong to it. The northern boundary line of Mis- 
souri was run several years ago by commissioners appoint- 
ed by the State of Missouri, and will cross the Des Moines 
river at a point about twenty-four miles from its mouth. — 
This line, if continued on due east, would strike the Missis- 
sippi river near the town of Fort Madison, about ten miles 
above the rapids in said river, long since known as the Des 


Moines rapids ; and this line, so run by the commissioners, 
has always been considered as the boundary line between 
the State and Territory. The present commissioners, ap- 
pointed by the State of Missouri, giving a different con- 
struction to the act defining the boundary line of the State, 
passed up the Des Moines river in search of rapids, and 
have seen proper to find them some twelve or fourteen 
miles further up the river than the other commissioners of 
Missouri formerly did, and, selecting a point which they 
call the rapids in the Des Moines river, have from thence 
marked out a line which is now claimed as the northern 
boundary line of the State. Were this line extended due 
east, it would strike the Mississippi river at the town of 
Burlington, some thirty miles above the rapids, as stated 
above, as the Des Moines rapids. 

Missouri was constituted an independent State, and her 
boundary lines defined, in June 1820. At that time, the 
country bordering on the Des Moines river was a wilder- 
ness, and little was known, except from the Indians who 
lived on its banks, of its geographical situation. There was 
at that time no point on the river known as the Des Moines 
rapids, and at the present time, between the mouth of the 
river and the Eaccoon forks, a distance of two hundred 
miles, fifty places can with as much propriety be designated 
as the one selected by the commissioners of the State of 

Your memorialists conceive that no action of the State of 
Missouri can, or ought to affect the integrity of the Terri- 
tory of Wisconsin; and standing in the attitude they do, 
they must look to the General Government to protect their 
rights and redress their wrongs. The difficulties, which, for 
so long a period of time, existed between the Territory of 
Michigan and State of Ohio relative to their boundaries, 
will, it is hoped, prompt the speedy action of Congress on 


this exciting subject. Confidently relying upon the wisdom 
of the General Government, and its willingness to take such 
measures as will settle this question, the people of Wiscon- 
sin will peaceably submit to an extension of the northern 
boundary line of the State of Missouri, if so be, that Con- 
gress shall ordain it; but until such action, they will resist 
to the utmost extremity any attempt made by the State of 
Missouri to extend her jurisdiction over any disputed Ter- 

We, therefore, pray that Congress will appoint Commis- 
sioners, whose duty it shall be to run the line between the 
State of Missouri and the Territory of Wisconsin accord- 
ing to the spirit and intention of the act defining the boun- 
dary lines of the State of Missouri, and to adopt such other 
measures as in their wisdom they may deem proper. 


[The following memorial which was adopted by the Territorial Convention 
is reprinted literally from the Iowa News (Dubuque), Vol. I, No. 23, November 
25, 1837.— Editor.] 

To the Honorable the Senate and House of Representatives, 
of the U. States. 
A Convention of citizens representing all the counties in 
that part of Wisconsin Territory lying west of the Missis- 
sippi river, have assembled at Burlington the present seat 
of Government of said Territory for the purpose of taking 
into consideration several measures immediately affecting 
their interests and prosperity. Among the most important 
of these is the passage by your honorable bodies at the ses- 
sion about to be commenced, of a pre-emption law by which 
the settlers on the public land shall have secured to them at 
the minimum price, the lands upon which they live, which 
they have improved and cultivated without fear of moles- 
tation, or over-bidding on the part of the rich capitalist and 


speculator. It is a fact well known to your honorable 
bodies, that none of the land in Wisconsin west of the Mis- 
sissippi River in what is called the '^lowa District/' has 
yet been offered for sale by the Government. It is equally 
true that that tract of country is now inhabited by twenty- 
five thousand souls composing a population as active, intel- 
ligent, and worthy as can be found in any other part of the 
United States. The enterprise of these pioneers has con- 
verted what was but yesterday a solitary and uncultivated 
waste into thriving towns and villages, alive with the en- 
gagement of trade and commerce, and rich and smiling 
farms, yielding their bountiful return to the labors of the 
husbandman. This district has been settled and improved 
with a rapidity unexampled in the history of the country, 
emigrants from all parts of the United States and from 
Europe are daily adding to our numbers and importance. 
An attempt to force these lands thus occupied and improved 
into market to be sold to the highest bidder, and to put the 
money thus extorted from the hard earnings of an honest 
and laborious people into the coffers of the public treasury, 
would be an act of injustice to the settlers which would 
scarcely receive the sanction of your honorable bodies. In 
most cases the labor of years and the accumulated capital 
of a whole life has been expended in making improvements 
on the public land, under the strong and firm belief that 
every safeguard would be thrown round them to prevent 
their property, thus dearly earned by years of suffering, 
privation and toil, from being unjustly wrested from their 
hands. Shall they be disappointed? Will Congress refuse 
to pass such laws as may be necessary to protect a large 
class of our citizens from systematized plunder and rapine ? 
The members composing this convention, representing a 
very large class of people, who delegated them to speak in 
their stead, do most confidently express an opinion that 


your honorable bodies will at its present session pass some 
law removing us from danger, and relieving ns from fear 
on this subject. The members of this convention for them- 
selves, and for the people whose interests they are sent here 
to represent, do most respectfully solicit that your honor- 
able bodies, will, as speedily as possible, pass a pre-emption 
law giving to every actual settler on the public domain 
who has made improvements sufficient to evince that it is 
bona fide his design to cultivate and occupy the land, a 
right to enter at the minimum government price, one half 
section for that purpose, before it shall be offered at public 


[The following memorial wMch was adopted by the Territorial Convention 
is reprinted literally from the Iowa News (Dubuque), Vol. I, No. 23, November 
25, 1837.— Editor.] 

To the Honorable the Senate and House of Representatives 
of the United States, in Congress assembled: 

The Memorial of a general Convention of Delegates, from 
the respective counties in the Territory of Wisconsin, 
west of the Mississippi river, convened at the capitol 
in Burlington, in said Territory, Nov. 5th, 1837, 


That the citizens of that part of the Territory west of the 
Mississippi river, taking into consideration their remote 
and isolated position, and the vast extent of country in- 
cluded within the limits of the present Territory, and the 
utter impracticability of the same being governed as an en- 
tire whole, by the wisest and best administration of our 
municipal affairs, in such manner as to fully secure indi- 
vidual right and the right of property, as well as to main- 
tain domestic tranquility, and the good order of society, 
have by their respective representatives, convened in gen- 


erai convention as aforesaid, for the purpose of availing 
themselves of their right of petition as free citizens, by 
representing their situation and wishes to your honorable 
body, and asking for the organization of a separate Terri- 
torial Government over that part of the Territory west of 
the Mississippi river. 

Without, in the least, designing to question the official 
conduct of those in whose hands the fate of our infant Ter- 
ritory has been confided, and in whose patriotism and wis- 
dom we have the utmost confidence, your memorialists can- 
not refrain from the frank expression of their belief that, 
taking into the consideration the geographical extent of her 
country, in connexion with the probable population of West- 
ern Wisconsin, perhaps no Territory of the United States 
has been so much neglected by the parent government, so 
illy protected in the political and individual rights of her 

Western Wisconsin came into the possession of our gov- 
ernment in June 1833. Settlements were made, and crops 
grown, during the same season ; and even then, at that early 
day, was the impulse given to the mighty throng of emigra- 
tion that has subsequently filled our lovely and desirable 
country with people, intelligence, wealth, and enterprize. 
From that period until the present, being a little over four 
years, what has been the Territory of Western Wisconsin? 
Literally and practically, a large portion of the time with- 
out a government. With a population of thousands, she 
has remained ungoverned, and has been quietly left by the 
parent government to take care of herself, without the 
privilege on the one hand to provide a government of her 
own, and without any existing authority on the other to 
govern her. 

From June 1833 until June 1834, a period of one year, 
there was not even the shadow of government or law, hi all 


Western Wisconsin. In June 1834, Congress attached her 
to the then existing Territory of Michigan, of which Terri- 
tory she nominally continued a part, until July 1836, a 
period of little more than two years. During the whole of 
this time, the whole country west, sufficient of itself for a 
respectable State, was included in two counties, Du Buque 
and Des Moines. In each of these two counties there were 
holden, during the term of two years, two terms of a county 
court, (a court of inferior jurisdiction,) as the only sources 
of judicial relief up to the passage of the act of Congress 
creating the Territory of Wisconsin. That act took effect 
on the 3d day of July, 1836, and the first judicial relief af- 
forded under that act, was at the April term following, 
1837, a period of nine months after its passage ; subsequent 
to which time there has been a court holden in but one 
county in Western Wisconsin only. This, your memorial- 
ists are aware, has recently been owing to the unfortunate 
indisposition of the esteemed and meritorious judge of our 
district; but they are equally aware of the fact, that had 
Western Wisconsin existed under a separate organization, 
we should have found relief in the services of other mem- 
bers of the Judiciary, who are at present, in consequence 
of the great extent of our Territory, and the small number 
of judges dispersed at too great a distance, and too con- 
stantly engaged in the discharge of the duties of their own 
districts, to be enabled to afford relief to other portions of 
the Territory. Thus, with a population of not less than 
twenty-five thousand now, and of near half that number at 
the organization of the Territory, it will appear that we 
have existed as a portion of an organized Territory, for 
sixteen months, with but one term of courts only. 

Your memorialists look upon those evils as growing ex- 
clusively out of the immense extent of country included 
within the present boundaries of the Territory, and express 


their conviction and belief, that nothing would so effec- 
tually remedy the evil as the organization of Western Wis- 
consin into a separate Territorial government. To this 
your memorialists conceive themselves entitled by prin- 
ciples of moral right — by the sacred obligation that rests 
upon their present government to protect them in the free 
enjoyment of their rights, until such time as they shall be 
permitted to provide protection for themselves ; as well as 
from the uniform practice and policy of the government in 
relation to other Territories. 

The Territory of Indiana, including the present states of 
Indiana, Illinois, and Michigan, and also much of the east- 
ern portion of the present territory of Wisconsin, was 
placed under one separate territorial government, in the 
year 1800, at a time when the population amounted to only 
five thousand six hundred and forty, or thereabouts. 

The Territory of Arkansas was erected into a distinct 
territory, in 1820, with a population of about fourteen thou- 
sand. The Territory of Illinois was established in 1809, 
being formed by dividing the Indiana Territory. The exact 
population of Illinois Territory, at the time of her separa- 
tion from Indiana, is not known to your memorialists, but 
the population in 1810, one year subsequent to that event, 
amounted to but eleven thousand five hundred and one 
whites, and a few blacks — in all, to less than twelve thou- 
sand inhabitants. 

The Territory of Michigan was formed in 1805, by again 
dividing the Indiana Territory, of which until then, she 
composed a part. The population of Michigan, at the time 
of her separation from Indiana, your memorialists have 
been unable to ascertain, but in the year 1810, a period of 
five years subsequent to her separate organization, her pop- 
ulation amounted to but about four thousand seven hundred 
and sixty ; and in the year 1820, to less than nine thousand 



— so that Michigan existed some fifteen years, as a distinct 
Territory, with a population of less than half that of West- 
ern Wisconsin at present; and each of the above named 
Territories, now composing so many proud and flourishing 
states, were created into separate territorial governments, 
with a much less population than that of Western Wis- 
consin, and that too at a time with a national debt of mil- 
lions. Your memorialists therefore pray for the organiza- 
tion of a separate territorial government over that part of 
the Territory of Wisconsin west of the Mississippi river. 


[The report given below of the proceedings of the Council, held by Governor 
Henry Dodge of the original Territory of Wisconsin, with the Chiefs and prin- 
cipal men of the Chippewa Nation of Indians in July, 1837, is taken from 
Tol. I, Nos. 11 and 14 of the Iowa News, a newspaper published at Dubuque. 
The report is reprinted literally, no attempt having been made to secure uni- 
formity in the spelling of the Indian names which appear in the report and in 
the treaty. The articles of the treaty concluded at this Council are taken from 
Kappler's Indian A fairs, Laws and Treaties, Vol. II, p. 491. — Editor.] 

20 TH DAY OF JULY, 1837. 

The head men of the nation having, by direction of 
Governor Dodge, been advised of his desire to meet them in 
council, their different bands assembled together near Fort 
Snelling, between the 1st and 20th of July to the number 
of about a thousand men, women and children, and on the 
last mentioned day, met the Governor at the council house. 

Gen. Wm. E. Smith, of Pennsylvania, appointed by the 
President of the United States, the colleague of Gov. Dodge 
in the commission, did not arrive to be present at the coun- 

The following named Chiefs were present, and recog- 
nized as such by the Governor : 

From Leech Lake. — Aish-ke-boge-kozhe, or Flat Mouth, 
and Ozawickanebik, or the Yellow Snake, commonly called 
by tlie French Fiereaince, or elder brother. 

From Gull Lake and Swan River. — Pa-goona-kee-zhig, 
or Hole in the day, & Songa-komok, or the Strong Ground. 

From Mille Lac. — Wash-ask-ko-kowe, or Rat^s Liver. 



From Sandy Lake. — Ka-nan-dwa-winza, or Le Broch- 

From Snake Eiver. — Naudin, or the Wind, Sha-go-bai, 
or the Six Pay-a-jig, and Na-qna-na-bic, or the Father. 

From Fond du Lac. — Mongo-sit, or Loon's Foot, and 
Shin-go-be or the Spruce. 

St. Croix Eiver. — Pe-she-ke, or the Buffalo. 

Ver Planck Van Antwerp, of Indiana, appointed by the 
President Secretary to the Commissioners, was also pres- 
ent at the meeting of the Council. 

The council pipe having been first smoked by Gov. Dodge, 
with the Chiefs, the Governor addressed them as follows — 
Chiefs, Head men, and Warriors of the Chippewa Nation: 

'^Your Great Father, the President of the United States, 
has sent me to see you in council to propose to you the 
purchase of a small part of your country, east of the Missis- 
sippi Eiver. 

This country, as I am informed, is not valuable to you for 
its game, and not suited to the culture of corn, and other 
agricultural purposes. 

Your Great Father wishes to purchase your country on 
the Chippewa and St. Croix rivers for the advantage of its 
pine timber, with which it is said to abound. 

A map of the country which your Great Father wishes to 
buy from you will be shewn to you, in which the rivers and 
water courses are laid down; and such explanations given 
through your interpreter, as will fully explain to you the 
particular part of your country east of the Mississippi 
River, which your Great Father proposes to purchase for 
the use of his white children. 

Your Great Father knows you are poor, and this pine 
region is not valuable to you for hunting purposes; his 
wish is to make you a full compensation for the country by 


giving you its full value, payable in such manner as will be 
most serviceable to your people. 

An estimate will be made of the probable value of your 
country, which it is proposed to purchase, of which you will 
be informed. I will request you, after fully deliberating 
upon the subject, to tell me your price for the country with 
as little delay as possible. 

Your Great Father, the President, was desirous that the 
Chippewas should be fully represented in this council, that 
all might know what had been done, and that equal justice 
should be done to all. I wish you to be prepared with your 
answer to the proposition made you, at our meeting in 
council to-morrow.'' 

Gov. Dodge having concluded his remarks and intimated 
his readiness to hear anything which the Chiefs or prin- 
cipal men might have to say to him, Aish-ke-boge-khoze 
(Flat Mouth) advanced and spoke as follows: My father, I 
have but little to say to you now. Living in a different part 
of the country from that which you propose to buy from us, 
I will be among the last of those who will speak to you upon 
that subject. After those shall have spoken who live in & 
nearer to that country, I will talk more to you. My father, 
my people have all the same opinion with me, and will abide 
by what I shall say to you ; I have come to listen first, to all 
you have to say to us, and will afterwards speak to you. 
My heart is with you. I have nothing more to say now. 

Nadin (the Wind) then came forward and said, **My fa- ; 
tlier, I once shook hands with our great Father beyond the | 
mountains, as I do with you now. I have not much to say I 
at present, and my brother who stands near me wishes to i 
speak with you. To-morrow, I expect that some more peo- 
ple will be here from the country you wish to buy from us. 
I was present when they began to run the boundary line 
between our country and that of the Sioux at the Red j 


Deer's Euinp. When you are ready to examine that line I 
will say more to you. ' ' 

Pe-she-ke (the Buffalo) ^*My Father, I am taken by sur- 
prise by what you have said to us, and will speak but few 
words to you now. We are waiting for more of our people 
who are coming from the country which you wish to buy 
from us. We will think of what you have said to us, and 
when they come, will tell you our minds about it. Men will 
then be chosen by us to speak with you. I have nothing 
more to say now. 

Na-can-ne-ga-be (the man that stands foremost) My fa- 
ther, the people will come from the country where my 
fathers have lived before me. Wlien they arrive here, they 
will speak to you. Until then I have nothing more to say. 

Gov. Dodge, after urgently impressing upon the Chippe- 
was the necessity of remaining quiet and at peace with the 
Sioux, during the continuance of the council, adjourned to 
meet again to-morrow. 

Friday, July 21st, 
The Governor was advised this morning by Mr. Vine- 
yard, their agent, that the Chippewas did not wish to meet 
in council to-day, as the people whom they expected had 
not yet arrived, and they wanted more time to talk with 
one another. 

Saturday, July 22. 
The morning being cloudy, with an appearance of rain, 
the council did not meet until 3 o'clock P. M., when Gov. 
Dodge directed the Interpreter to say to the Indians, that 
when he had parted with them two days ago, they had told 
him that they expected to meet more of their friends here, 
and were desirous before taking any further steps about 
what he had spoken to them, of talking to one another — 
that he had now met them to hear what they might have to 
say about their absent friends, and to listen to any com- 


nmnications which they might wish to make to him in re- 
gard to the councils which they had held, and the conclusion 
to which they had arrived. 

After an interval of 15 or 20 minutes, during which time 
the Interpreter, by direction of the Governor, repeated the 
expression of his readiness to hear any remarks which the 
Indians might wish to make to him, Aish-ke-boge-kozhe, 
(Flat Mouth) rose and said, ^^My Father, I shall say but 
little to you at this time. I am called a chief. I am not the 
chief of the whole nation, but only of my people, or band. 
I speak to you now only because I see nobody else ready to 
do so. I do not wish to take any further steps about what 
you have proposed to us, until the other people arrive who 
have been expected here. They have not yet come, and to 
do anything before their arrival, might be considered an 
improper interference, and unfair towards them. The resi- 
dence of my band is outside of the country which you wish 
to buy from us. After the people who live in that country 
shall have told you their minds, I will speak. If the lands 
which you wish to buy were occupied by my band, I would 
immediately have given you my opinion. After listening 
to the people whom we are expecting, and who will speak 
to you, I will abide by what they say, and say more to you 

My father, on getting up to speak to you, I hardly knew 
what to say. If I say no more, it is not because I am afraid 
to speak my mind before my people and those of the whole 
nation, and all others present, but because I have nothing 
more to say. 

Pe-she-ke (the Buffalo) I am deaf and cannot hear dis- 
tinctly what is said. I have seen the lips of the great chief 
move, but did not well hear his words, I have turned each 
ear to him to listen. There is another man here who has 
the confidence of my people beside myself, but we do not 


wish to say more, until the rest of our nation we are ex- 
pecting shall arrive. 

Pay-a-jig. My father, your children are not displeased 
with what you have said to them, but they wish you to give 
them four times more tobacco than you have given them. 
My father, what has happened to you? Have you cut off 
your breasts, that you cannot suckle your children. If you 
did so, it would render them more pliant and ready to yield 
to your wishes. This was the case at the treaty of Prairie 
du Chien. I was there, and know what was done. The 
boundary line between our country and the Sioux was then 
established, and my people wish now to have it explained 
to them. I have been told by the warriors and chiefs to say 
what I have said to you. I do not say it of my own accord. 
My people have chosen me and another to talk with you 
about the i3roposition that you have made to them to buy 
a part of our country. I am ready to proceed whenever the 
others are ready. Other men of power and authority are 
behind, and are expected here. They will soon come, when 
we will give you our answer. 

Nadin (the Wind.) There is no dissatisfaction; we are 
all contented. Your children around you, both Chippewas 
and Sioux, wish to be friendly together, and want to carry 
on a little trade and bartering among ourselves. 

My father, I wish you would give the same advice to the 
Sioux you have given us, but do not wish to prevent them 
from making friendly visits. 

Monday, July 24. 

The Council met at 11 o'clock, A. M. 

Gov. Dodge directed the Interpreter to inform the In- 
dians that four chiefs of their nation whom they had been 
expecting, had arrived at their encampment, and that fifty 
others were said to be near here, who had come from La 
Pointe with Messrs. Warren and Bushnell, who would prob- 

voL. IX — 28 


ably arrive this evening, and as they were all ofi the same 
nation and brethren; he wished those present to consult 
with them ; that he did not wish to hurry their deliberations 
among themselves, but to give them full time to consult their 
friends, who had arrived, and those who were coming, and 
that he would not hear any thing they might have to say 
to him. 

Nadin (the Wind) then rose and said, '^My father, I am 
very sorry to keep you so long in a state of suspense re- 
specting the matters which you have proposed to us. My 
people are glad to see you, and are gratified at the proposi- 
tion you have made to them. My father, I now speak to 
you through the lips of the Buffalo (the latter had advanced 
to the Governor's table with ^Hhe Wind," shaking him by 
the hand and remarking that he would do the same with all 
those present, but his arm was too short; after which he 
stepped back to allow the ^^Wind" to speak for him). He 
has been to see our Great Father beyond the mountains, 
and has come back safe. When I look at you I am struck 
with awe. I cannot sufficiently understand your impor- 
tance, and it confuses me. I have seen a great many Amer- 
icans, but never one whose appearance struck me as yours 
does. You have heard of the coming of those whose absence 
has prevented our proceedings in the matter proposed to 
us. This is the case with all our people here. My father, 
listen to what I am going to say to you. I listened to our 
Great Father beyond the mountains and have never for- 
gotten what he said to me. Others will speak after me, 
whose language will please you and put all things right. 
My father, we are a distracted people, and have no regular 
system of acting together. We cast a firm look on the peo- 
ple who are coming and all think alike about this matter. 
What we are going to say will not dissatisfy, but please 


Pay-a-jig (The one who stands alone.) What I am going 
to say to you is not my own language but the words of the 
cliiefs and others among you. They look at you who are 
all white^ while they are half breed. How can we forget 
our traders in this matter. You are come to dispense bene- 
fits to us, and we much think of the traders. I think well of 
them. They have used me well and supported me, and I 
wish to do them justice. We should certainly be all very 
miserable if they would not do for us what they have done 
heretofore. And if we do wrong to them, how can we ex- 
pect it. My father, look around on all your red children, 
the trader has raised them, and it is thro' his means that 
they are as they are. We wish you to do them justice. 
They will, by this means, go on and support us as hereto- 
fore. I referred, when I began to speak, to the half breeds ; 
many of them have been brought up among us, and we wish 
to provide for them. 

Ma-je-ga-bo, (The man who stands foremost) My father, 
I shall not say much to you now. You are not a man to be 
spoken to in a light manner. I am not a Pillager, (the com- 
mon name of the Leech Lake Band) but went among them 
when small, which gives me the right to speak as one of 
them. My brother, (the Wind) stands beside me, and we 
are descended from those who in former days were the 
greatest orators of our nation. My father, I am not back- 
ward in sa3dng what I wish, I am not going to say any 
thing to make your heart lean, and am not going to tell you 
what will be said by the chiefs. I will answer you when you 
make us an offer for our lands. As soon as our friends ar- 
rive, and I hear their decision, I will say all I have to sslj. 
I finish that subject for the present, and will speak upon 
another. My father, listen closely to me, I will hide nothing 
from you that has passed. But for the traders, you would 
not see all your children setting around you as they do to- 


day. It was not the chiefs, but the traders who have sup- 
ported them to the present time. Our Great Father has 
told us that an agent would be sent to us, but he has not yet 
been among us. The traders are in our country to trade 
for the skins of animals, which we take to them. Half of 
what they bring into the country and sell to your children 
is lost to them. I am glad to see the agent here who is to go 
into our country, and support our young men, women and 

We wish to do justice to the half breeds who have been 
brought up among us, and have them provided for. 

Sha-go-bai, (the Little Six) My father, I heard of you 
when I was yet a young man, a long time ago — and now I 
see you. I am struck with awe when you look at me. I am 
startled when the wind comes rustling by, and the thunder- 
cloud, though I know it will pass along without harming, 
alarms me. So it is, my father, when you talk to your chil- 
dren around you of their lands, which you wish to buy from 
them. I have great confidence in the chief here, and others 
who are coming. When they come to treat fully with you, 
we (pointing to the two men standing beside him, and him- 
self) will set far off and listen. I sprung from the same 
stock with the people who stand behind you — white men — 
(Sha-go-bai, half breed) and am related to all the half 
breeds in the country where I live. My father, look at the 
man who is standing near me. His and my ancestors were 
the chief men of the country that you want to buy from us. 
The traders have raised our children and we like them. I 
owe my life to the traders, who have supported us. I am 
glad to see the agent here who will live among us, and give 
us tobacco when we want it. 

Pe-she-ke (the Buffalo.) My father, listen to what I am 
going to say to you, let it enter deeply into your ear, and 
rest upon your heart. Tho' I may appear little in your 


sight, when I address the warriors of my tribe they listen 
to me. Nobody — no trader has instructed me what to say 
to you. Those who have spoken before me have told you 
the truth, and I shall hereafter speak upon the same sub- 
ject. I have been supported by the trader, and without his 
aid, could not get through the winter with naked skin. The 
grounds where your children have to hunt are as bare as 
that on which I now stand, and have no game upon them. 
My father, I am glad to see you here, to embrace the earth. 
We have not much to give the traders, as our lands and 
hunting grounds are so destitute. Do us a kindness by pay- 
ing our old debts. I have nothing more to say. You are 
our father, and we look up to you, and respect you. I have 
come here and seen you, and my heart is at peace. I have 
talked with my warriors, and heard their words, and my 
mind is tranquil. 

Aish-ke-hoge-bozhe (Flat Mouth.) My father, your eyes 
are upon me, and mine upon you. Wherever I have been 
the print of the white men^s hands have been left upon my 
own. Yours are not the first I have shaken. It is I and 
those men (pointing to the Elder Brother, the Strong 
Ground, and the Hole in the Day,) who have brought many 
of your children here. Their opinions are mine. My an- 
cestors were Chiefs of the tribes, and the villages while 
they lived. I do not, however, hold my title from them, but 
have obtained it by my own acts and merits. 

My father, when I came here this morning, I supposed 
you wanted to talk to us about the lands you wished to get 
from us, and not about the traders. 

After the question about selling the land shall be settled, 
it will then be time enough to talk about these traders. 

My father, I shall not be backward in speaking about 
what you propose to us, at the proper time. Many of my 
people have told me to say so ; but we can do nothing until 


the other people arrive. We must listen to them. As I 
have told you before, after they shall speak I will say more. 

Pa-goona-kee-zhig (the Hole in the Day.) He who is the 
master of all, hears me speak. I know the traders, and 
what has been their conduct. I know which of them are 
good men, and those who are bad and act like drunken men. 
Wlien our people come, I will speak again. 

Wash-ask-ko-kowe, (Rat's Liver.) My father, I am but 
little accustomed to speaking, and am generally one who 
listens. My father here (the agent) knows me and is ac- 
quainted with my character. If I wished to speak much I 
should feel no shame for my personal appearance ; but this 
you may not wish to hear. We are talking about the land 
which you have come for. I have walked over it with my 
war club in my hand. My forefathers and those of Pa- 
goona-kee-zhig, (Hole in the Day,) were the chiefs and pro- 
tectors of that country, and drove the Dakcotah away from 

My father, it is only to you that I look and listen, and not 
to the bad birds that are flying about us through the air. 
My own merit has brought me to the place I occupy to-day ; 
and I do not wish any body to push me forward as a speak- 
er. I have nothing to add now, but will say more when the 
business about the land has been settled. 

Que-we-shan-shez, (Big Mouth.) My father, what I am 
going to say to you now is not of much consequence. I have 
smoked with my friends and come to tell you the result. 
After reflecting upon the subject, we concluded to agree 
with those who have already spoken to you. We do not 
wish to do anything to injure the people who wear hats. 
My father, all that has prevented us from doing what you 
came here to have us do, is that we have been waiting for 
others of our people, who have been expected here, and who 
we are afraid to dissatisfy; I never before have spoken to 


your people at any length, and fear, my father, that yon 
will think I am drnnk, but I have here (putting his hand to 
his head) a great deal of sense which I have obtained from 
the white people, and as soon as the others of our nation 
come we will tell our minds to you. 

Sha-wa-nig-na-nabe, (South feather seated.) My father, 
what I have to say to you place it strongly at your heart. 
The Master of life and the earth both listen to us. The 
Master of life made the earth, the grass, and the trees that 
grow upon it, and the animals that roam over it. When the 
Great Spirit made the earth, he placed the red men upon 
it; it became very strong. Some of our chiefs are now here, 
and others are coming. They do not wish to act precip- 

Sheing-go-be, (the Spruce.) My father, I shall speak 
but few words to you. It is only I who can tell you the 
truth about the lands where I live, if you speak of the lands 
yonder, (pointing towards the country to be purchased.) 
I will not talk foolishly about them here in the midst of so 
many of those who first possessed the country (Ojibbe- 
ways.) Altho' I am but a child, I speak to the middle of 
the subject, and you shall hear straight about my lands, 
because I am the master of them. After you have spoken 
further about them, the Master of life will hear me answer 

Man-go-sit, (the Loon's Foot.) My father, I do not wish 
to say much. You do not know who I am and from whence 
I have sprung. I only wish to tell you now who my an- 
cestors were. I am the son of Le Brocheux, one of the 
greatest Chiefs of our nation. I have before given my 
thoughts to my children who have spoken to you, and I 
think before I speak. When I talk to the chiefs, I do not 
speak long. 

Ma-ge-go-be, after a long speech to the Indians, urging 


them to sell the land, but before doing so, to press upon the 
Governor to give them presents and furnish them with 
more provisions, said My father, this is all your children 
have now to say about our lands. They are all going to 
take a rest, and will then say more to you. 

Nadin (the Wind.) My father, when I saw our great fa- 
ther beyond the mountains, he gave me sense. Listen to 
me and let me tell you the truth. I listen to you and accede 
to your purposes. You must not suppose that things will 
not be as you wish. We are now arranging things to your 
liking. The station of Chief is a very difficult one, but when 
I was acknowledged as one by our great father beyond the 
mountains, I thought I never should be refused any thing 
I asked for. Your look is so firm that I think it would not 
be possible for you not to do what you wished. You have 
every thing around you, and can give us some of the cattle 
that are around us on the prairie. At the treaty of Prairie 
du Chien, the case was as difficult as this. The great Chief 
then fed us well with cattle. 

Grov. Dodge then directed the Interpreter to say, that 
their father, the Agent, would tell them whether he would 
give them cattle, and that he wished to see them in council 
early in the morning to-morrow; that he was glad to hear 
their friends would be here this evening, that as the weath- 
er was now good, they must make up their minds as soon 
as they could; that he hoped the chiefs would see that their 
people kept on friendly terms with the Sioux. 

Tuesday, July 25th. 
Governor Dodge was informed this morning that seventy- 
five or eighty Indians belonging to four or five different 
bands from Lakes de Flambeau and Coutereille La Pointe, 
&c. had just arrived, accompanied by the sub-agent Mr. 
Biishnell, and Mr. Warren, the trader at La Pointe. These 


gentlemen waited upon Gov. Dodge immediately on their 
arrival, and informed him that the Indians who had come 
with them could not go into council with him to-day. At 
their suggestion, therefore, and at the solicitation of Mr. 
Warren, the Governor postponed the meeting of the coun- 
cil until 9 o'clock to-morrow morning. 

Wednesday, July 26. 

On meeting in Council this morning, in addition to the 
Ojibbeways who had been present before, a large number 
of others appeared. The following are the bands to which 
they belong, and the names of the Chiefs. 

From Lac de Flambeau — Na-wa-ghe-wa, ^^The Knee," 
0-ge-ma-ga, ^'The Dandy," Pa-se-quan-gis, ^^The Commis- 
sioner," Wa-be-ne-me-ke, ^^The WTiite Thunder," Pish-ka- 
ga-ge, ^^The White Crow." 

Lake Coutereille. — We-non-ga-be, ^^The Wounded Man," 
and Ke-wa-se, ^'The Old Man." 

La Pointe, on Lake Superior. — Ghe-bish-ghe-kon, **The 
Buffalo," and Ta-qua-ga-nai, Joining Lodges." 

Gov. Dodge directed that in the future proceedings in the 
treaty, Stephen Bonga and Patrick Quinn should interpret 
the English language into Chippewa, and Scott Campbell 
and Jean Baptiste Dube, from Chippewa into English. 

He then addressed the Indians thus : My Children of the 
Chippewa Nation, assembled here: I have been informed 
that since I last met you, your people, whose absence had 
prevented the proceeding with our Council have arrived 
here. I wish now to learn from you if this is the case, and 
whether you are ready to proceed. I have before made a 
proposition to you, which those then present have, I pre- 
sume, communicated to you, who have recently arrived, for 
the purchase of a portion of your territory. You have de- 
ferred giving me an answer until your friends should ar- 


rive, and as I believe they are now all here, I will renew my 
proposition to you, and will shew you a map explaining 
which part of your country it is I wish to buy. 

I will now place the map before me, and wish the chiefs 
and head men, and particularly those from that part of the 
country which I wish to purchase, to wit : Lakes De Flam- 
beau and Coutereille, and the Chippewa, St. Croix and Eum 
Eiver, to come forward and examine it with me, as I direct 
it to be explained, and after this examination I wish you to 
inform me, whether or not you will sell this country to me. 

Ghe-bish-ghe-kon, (The Buffalo, from Lake Superior,) 
replied : We have come from a distance, and but lately ar- 
rived here, and what you have proposed to us, we want 
more time to think about. The notice you have given us is 
rather too short. Let us wait another day, and to-morrow 
we will be able to give you our answer. 

The Governor directed it to be said to them, that they 
could examine the map and have it explained to them ; con- 
sult each other between this and to-morrow morning, and 
be prepared then to give him an answer; that he did not 
wish to hurry them, but that he had already waited pa- 
tiently during several days, and was anxious to bring the 
business to a close* as soon as possible ; that he would now 
be glad to hear any thing from any of the Chiefs who might 
wish to speak to him, and that if they desired it, he would 
remain during the whole day for that purpose. He then 
explained the map fully to the Chiefs and principal men, 
and repeated to them that he had been informed that the 
country he wished to get from them, was very destitute of 
game, and of little value for agricultural purposes, but 
that it abounds in pine timber, for which their great father 
the President of the United States, wished to purchase it 
from them for the use of his white children; that he would 
give them a fair price for it; that he wished them to under- 


stand the map, and to enable them to do so, had mentioned 
and pointed out to them natural boundaries, commencing 
at the mouth of Crow Wing river, then to the source of the 
St. Croix river, thence to the head waters of the Wisconsin 
and down said river to the Plover Portage, where the line 
dividing the territory from the other Indians commenced; 
while on the west the tract would be bounded by the Missis- 
sippi river ; that he wished them to be prepared to-morrow 
to give him an answer whether they would sell the land, and 
their price for it ; that he wished them all to go home satis- 
fied, so that when they met their people there they might 
not be ashamed to tell them what they had done; that so 
many bands of their nation from such remote parts of it 
had never before, he believed, met together, and that he 
wished them now to advise with each other, to unite and act 
together as one people; that he wished them to consult to- 
gether this evening, and select out of their number two 
chiefs in whom they had confidence, to speak for them ; that 
he wished to meet them all in council, but that not more 
than two should speak, to save time, that they should direct 
the two speakers what to say to him ; although they were of 
different bands, yet they were of the same nation, and their 
interests were in common; that he wished them all to be 
satisfied with what should be done ; that their great father, 
the President of the United States, would be just to them, 
and that they should be just towards each other — that in 
their consultations he desired they should remember their 
half breed relatives, and be just towards their traders, and 
that he would now be glad to hear any thing the chiefs 
might have to say. 
I Pay-a-jik replied, that he and his brothers had talked to- 
gether, and had chosen a speaker. 

After waiting half an hour and none of the other chiefs 
having spoken, the Governor again took occasion to urge 


upon the Chippewas the necessity of being at peace with 
the Sioux. 

Several chiefs came forward to ask questions respecting 
the map of the country wished to be purchased, and seemed 
to understand and be satisfied with it. The council ad- 
journed till to-morrow. 

Thursday, July 27th. 

The Council met at 11 o 'clock, A. M. 

Ma-ghe-ga-bo, (The Trapper) Pa-goona, Pe-shig, (The 
Hole in the Bay,) came forward as speakers in behalf of 
their nation. 

Ma-ghe-ga-bo, was dressed in the full Indian costume, 
naked, with the exception of his leggings, breech cloth and 
flapp, highly painted with red, his hair hanging loosely on 
his shoulders, a coronet of the feathers of the bald eagle 
placed on his head by the chiefs, and several medals hung 
around his neck. He advanced to the Governor, and with 
the map before him, pointing to it with his finger, said: 
My father, this is the country which is the home of your 
children. I have covered it with a paper, (he had done so) 
and so soon as I remove that paper the land shall be yours. 
I have listened closely to the words the chiefs have told me 
to say to you. 

My father, when we first met here, we smoked and shook 
hands together. Four times we have gone through the 
same ceremony, and now, on the fifth, we have come to give 
you an answer. I stand here to represent the chiefs of the 
different bands of my nation, and to tell you that they agree 
to sell you the land you want. 

My father, in all the country we sell you, we wish to hold 
on to that which gives us life — the streams and lakes 
where we fish, and the trees from which we make sugar. I 
have but few words to say, but they are the words of the 
chiefs, and very important. The being who created us, 


! made us naked. He gave you and your people knowledge 
and power to live well. Not so with us ; we had to cover 
i ourselves with moss and rotten wood, and you must shew 
I your generosity towards us. The chiefs will now shew you 
: the tree we wish to preserve. This is it (placing an oak 
sprig upon the table.) It is a different kind of tree from 
the one you wish to get from us. Every time the leaves 
fall from it, we will count it as one winter past. 

My father: You have told us what you want, and I an- 
, swer you in the name of the chiefs. I am no chief, but a 
warrior, and the badge that I wear is to make me respected 
by my people. 

j We have understood you will pay us in goods and money 

for our lands, and we wish to know now how much you will 

give us for them. 

Gov. Dodge then directed the interpreter to say to them : 
i As the lands belong to you, I wish you to tell me what yon 
: wish me to pa}^ you for it. If you cannot come to a conclu- 
i sion among ourselves, I would recommend you to ask aid 
I of your fathers (the sub-agents Vineyard & Bushnell.) But 

if you can determine among yourselves, do so. 
Ma-ghe-ga-bo — My father. If you offer us money and 

goods we will take both. You see me count my fingers, 

(counting six.) Every finger counts ten. For so many 
j years we wish you to pay us an annuity. After that our 
: grand children, who will have grown up, can speak for 
I themselves. We will consult with our fathers, (the sub- 
j agents) and ask them what is the value of the land, and 
I what annuity we ought to receive for sixty years. 
I My father, take the land you ask from us. Our chiefs 

have good hearts. Our women have brought the half 
I breeds among us. They are poor, and we wish them to be 
I provided for. They are here, and have left many of their 

children behind them. We wish to divide with them all. 


This is the decision of the chiefs. Since we have met here 
this morning we have fully made up our minds to comply 
with your wishes. My father, we will not look back at what 
has happened before, but will begin our business anew with 
you from this day. What you propose to give us, we wish 
to share only with our half breeds, that our people may en- 
joy the benefits of it. We will hold firmly what you give us 
that nobody may get it from us. My father, we once more 
recommend our half breeds to your kindness. They are 
very numerous. We wish you to select a place for them on 
this river, where they may live and raise their children, and 
have their joys of life. If I have well understood you, we 
can remain on the lands and hunt there. — We have hereto- 
fore got our living on them. We hope your people will not 
act towards ours as your forefathers did towards our own, 
but that you will always treat us kindly as you do now. 

My father, we understand you have been told that our 
country is not good to cultivate. It is not true. There is 
no better ground to cultivate than it until you get up to 
where the pine region commences. 

My father, you will now see all your children in whose 
behalf I speak. All the chiefs who agree to sell you the 
land will now rise. (They did so, to the number of thirty 
and upwards.) Ma-ghe-ga-bo, then raised the paper he had 
placed over the map, took Gov. Dodge by the hand, and con- 
tinued. My father, I will not let go your hand until I have 
counted the number of our villages. The Great Spirit first 
made the earth thin and light, but it has now become heavi- 
er. We do not wish to disappoint you and our great father 
beyond the mountains in the o])ject you had in coming here. 
We therefore grant you the country you want from us, and 
the chiefs who represent all the villages within its limits 
are now present, the number of the villages (nineteen) is 
marked on this paper, and I present it to you in acknowl- 



edgment that we grant you the land. This piece (retaining 
in his hand another piece of paper) we will keep, because 
we wish to say something more on it. At the conclusion of 
this treaty, you will ask us to touch the quill, but no doubt 
you will grant us what we ask before we do so. At the end 
of the treaty I will repeat what the chiefs have to say to 
you, and keep this paper for that purpose. 

My father, the Great Spirit has given us a clear sky to 
talk together to-day. We must now rest, and when we meet 
again we will speak further. 

Gov. Dodge. Do you wish me to give you my answer this 
evening, or wait until to-morrow morning? Answer — To- 
morrow morning. 

Gov. Dodge. It is proper for me to explain to you, that 
your great father never buys land for a term of years. I 
will agree that you shall have the free use of the rivers and 
the privilege of hunting on the lands you are to sell, during 
the pleasure of your great father. If you sell these lands, 
you must sell them as all the other Indian nations have 
done, and I tell you this now that you may not hereafter 
say I have deceived you. Your great father has sent me 
here to treat you as his children — to pay you the whole 
value of your lands, and not to deceive you in any thing I 
may do or say. If you consult with your two fathers, (the 
sub-agents) it is my wish that they may do you justice. 
You have spoken frequently of your half-breeds. It is a 
good principle in you to wish to provide for them, but you 
must do so in money, and cannot give them land. You have 
mentioned that you wish to receive one half I may agree to 
give you in money, and the other half in goods. I do not 
object to this, but have a proposition to make to you now, 
which I wish you to consider. Your great father recom- 
mends that you should take from year to year in part pay- 
ment for your lands, certain sums of money to provide 


teachers to educate your cliildren and make them wise like 
white people. Farmers to teach you to cultivate the 
ground, for agricultural implements, and seeds to plant in 
the earth, for provisions and salt, for tobacco, for black- 
smiths, iron, &c., and for mills and millers to grind the corn 
you may raise. If you consent to this, let me know early 
to-morrow morning. 

Friday, July 28th, 1837. 
The Council met at 12 o'clock. After smoking and shak- 
ing hands — 

Aish-ke-boge-kho-ze, (Flat Mouth) said — My father, 
your children are willing to let you have their lands, but 
wish to reserve the privilege of making sugar from the 
trees, and getting their living from the lakes and rivers as 
they have heretofore done, and of remaining in the country. 
It is hard to give up the land. It will remain and cannot be 
destroyed, but you may cut down the trees, and others will 
grow up. You know we cannot live deprived of lakes and 
rivers. There is some game on the land yet, and for that 
we wish to remain upon it. Sometimes we scrape the trees 
and eat the bark. The Great Spirit above made the earth, 
and causes it to produce that which enables us to live. 

My father, we would long ago have agreed to let you have 
the lands, but when we agreed upon any point, there have 
been people to whisper in our ears — to trouble and dis- 
tract us. What the chiefs said yesterday they abide by. 
They cannot look back and change. 

My father, the Great Spirit above placed us on this land ; 
and we want some benefit from the sale of it; if we could 
derive none, we would not sell it, and we want that benefit 
ourselves. I did not intend to speak; what I say is the lan- 
guage of the chiefs. I was not in council yesterday, be- 
cause I was not well. I liave heard many things said — 
that we were going to put out the fires of the white people 


in our country — that we were going to send the traders 
out of it ; but I know nothing about it, and when I speak, it 
is not with sugar in my mouth. 

My father, your children are rejoiced to see the agents 
here to-day, one of whom is to live on Lake Superior, and 
the other on the Mississippi, to keep peace in the country. 
We are pleased that our agents may estimate the value of 
our lands, that our young men, women, and children may go 
home with their hearts at ease. We will wait to hear what 
you offer for the lands, and will then make you our answer. 
We will depend upon our two fathers (agents) to interest 
themselves for us ; and will submit it to them whether what 
you offer us is enough. 

My father, there are many of your children here from a 
distance, and among them are three chiefs from the Chip- 
pewa river, and what they say is the opinion and wish of 
I the people living there. They tell me to say to you that 
they have granted a privilege to some men of cutting timber 
1 on their lands, for which they are paid in tobacco and am- 
munition for hunting. They wish you not to break their 
word with these people, but to allow them to cut timber. 
They have granted you all you asked of them, and they 
wish you now to grant their request. 

Grov. Dodge. My friends, I have listened with great at- 
i tention to your chiefs from Leech Lake. I will make known 
j to your great father your request to be permitted to make 
|l sugar on the lands, and you will be allowed during his 
I pleasure to hunt and fish on them. It will probably be many 
years before your great father will want all these lands for 
the use of his white children. As you have asked me what 
I will give for the country, I will now tell you, and will rec- 
ommend the manner in which it ought to be paid to you. 
For that part of your country which I wish to buy, I offer 
you the sum of $800,000. I propose to give you an annuity 

VOL. IX — 29 


for twenty years of $20,000 in goods and money, one half 
in each, or all in goods if you choose, to provide $3,000 a 
year for the same time, to provide you with blacksmiths, 
&c., &c., (as in the treaty.) 

After the Governor had finished speaking, the council 
was adjourned. 

Saturday, July 29th, 1837. 
There were present about twenty chiefs at the opening of 
the council this morning. After the pipe was passed among 
them, Gov. Dodge said, he was now ready to proceed with 
the business before them, and wished to know whether they 
had agreed to accept the price he had offered them for the 
land they had sold to their great father, and whether they 
would accept the payment in the manner he had offered 
them. The chiefs present appeared unwilling to make an 
immediate reply, but talked among themselves in a low 
tone. After half an hour had passed, the warriors and 
braves to the number of several hundred, highly painted, 
with tomahawks and spears in their hands, carrying before j 
them the war flag of their nation, and the flag of the United 
States, dancing round the flagSy to the sound of their drums, 
with an occasional whoop were seen advancing toward the 
bower where the council was held, When they had come 
near the place where the Governor was seated, Mage-ga-bo 
and Ma-go-bai, two of the principal warriors advanced and ' 
after shaking hands with him, Ma-go-bai said : My father, 
you see before you to-day the principal warriors who have j 
spoken with you since you have invited your children to |i 
meet you. My father, the Great Spirit looks upon us all. I 
The Master of life made all the different bands of our na- J 
tion, and we are brothers. My father, the warriors of our 
people wish to be just. Our traders have clothed and sup- 
ported our young men, women, and children. They have i 
made our hearts glad, by being among us. We owe a debt 


to our traders and desire that they should be paid. Your 
children are poor, and not able to do them justice without 
the assistance of our great father. When you said you 
wished to buy our land your children were pleased. We 
thought you would give us a great deal, for the land and the 
tree you want ; and that we should then be able to pay our 
traders. My father, the hearts of our warriors were yester- 
day made lean, and a dark cloud passed over our eyes, 
when we heard what was said to you. My Father, we do 
not wish to displease you: you have been kind to us since 
we have been here, and your looks have always been pleas- 
ant. If you will not pay what we owe to our traders, we will 
return to our country, and live upon our lands. We now 
wait for your answer. 

The Governor replied : Your great father is much pleased 
to find that his red children wish to be just, and will assist 
you to pay what you owe to your traders. I will give sev- 
enty thousand dollars to pay your debts, in addition to the 
$800,000 which I promised to give your people and half 
breeds. Your father will, therefore, without taking any 
thing from that which you were to receive satisfy your 

After the Governor had ceased speaking, all the Chippe- 
was present gave token of satisfaction, and assented to the 
offer which had been made. The Governor then said — 

Nothing more is now necessary but to reduce what has 
been agreed upon to writing. The Secretary will prepare 
the papers, and we will meet again the afternoon, that the 
chiefs may touch the quill. 

Ma-ge-ga-bo then requested, in the name of all the braves, 
permission to hold a dance under the walls of Fort Snell- 
ing. The request having been granted, the gates of the fort 
were closed by the orders of Capt. Scott, as a matter of 
precaution. About three hundred braves immediately 


afterwards commenced the dance, in token of their joy and 
satisfaction that their wishes had been acceded to. This 
appeared to us to be intended as the greatest compliment 
and token of respect that could be paid by the Indians to 
the Commissioner; it also afforded the warriors oppor- 
tunity to boast of their deeds of bravery, to tell how many 
scalps they had taken from their enemies, (the Sioux.) We 
observed a great many of the Sioux standing near the 
ground where the dance was held, looking on with an air of 
apparent indifference, and listening quietly as each war- 
rior successively related his feats of arms, in the pauses of 
the dance. After the dance was ended, the Chippewas 
again assembled in council for the purpose of signing the 
treaty which had been prepared by the Secretary of the 
Commission. After many of the chiefs had touched the 
quill, the interpreter was directed to ask 

Pish-ka-ga-ge, (The White Crow,) to put his signature 
to the paper. This chief, (from Lake de Flambeau) had 
not spoken during the holding of the council, although he 
had come from that part of the Chippewa country which 
had been purchased by the Government, and was under- 
stood to be the most influential chief in his band. The 
White Crow having advanced and shaken hands with the 
Governor, said: My father, while the chiefs of my people 
have talked with you, I have yet said nothing. But you 
must not suppose that I am unable to speak on proper oc- ! 
casion, or that my people do not listen. The Great Spirit 
looks upon me, and is not displeased when I tread upon the 
land occupied by my forefathers. Since I have been here, 
my mind has been disturbed by the talking of many people, 
(alluding to the traders) so that I was not satisfied to speak 
to you. I am pleased with what the chiefs have said and ! 
what has been done. 

Tlie Governor then said, as Pish-ka-ga-ge did not arrive j 


in time to receive any of the presents given to the principal 
chiefs, he shall yet receive what was intended to be pre- 
sented as an acknowledgment of his station as chief. Pish- 
ka-ga-ge then said, My father, I now touch the quill, (touch- 
ing the pen in the hand of the Secretary, Mr. Van Antwerp) 
and at the same time I touch all the whiskey in your pos- 

The remaining chiefs then present signed the treaty, and 
the Indians immediately prepared to return to their coun- 


Articles of a treaty made and concluded at St. Peters ( the 
confluence of the St. Peters and Mississippi rivers) in 
the Territory of Wisconsin, between the United States 
of America, by their commissioner, Henry Dodge, Gov- 
ernor of said Territory, and the Chippeiva nation of 
Indians, by their chiefs and headmen. 

Article 1. The said Chippewa nation cede to the United 
States all that tract of country included within the following 
boundaries : 

Beginning at the junction of the Crow Wing and Missis- 
sippi rivers, between twenty and thirty miles above where 
the Mississippi is crossed by the forty-sixth parallel of 
north latitude, and running thence to the north point of 
Lake St. Croix, one of the sources of the St. Croix river; 
thence to and along the dividing ridge between the waters 
of Lake Superior and those of the Mississippi, to the sources 
of the Ocha-sua-sepe a tributary of the Chippewa river; 
thence to a point on the Chippewa river, twenty miles below 
the outlet of Lake De Flambeau; thence to the junction of 
the Wisconsin and Pelican rivers ; thence on an east course 
twenty-five miles; thence southerly, on a course parallel 


with that of the Wisconsin river, to the line dividing the 
territories of the Chippewas and Menomonies ; thence to the 
Plover Portage ; thence along the southern boundary of the 
Chippewa country, to the commencement of the boundary 
line dividing it from that of the Sioux, half a days march 
below the falls on the Chippewa river; thence with said 
boundary line to the mouth of Wah-tap river, at its junction 
with the Mississippi; and thence up the Mississippi to the 
place of beginning. 

Akticle 2. In consideration of the cession aforesaid, 
the United States agree to make to the Chippewa nation, 
annually, for the term of twenty years, from the date of the 
ratification of this treaty, the following payments. 

1. Nine thousand five hundred dollars, to be paid in 

2. Nineteen thousand dollars, to be delivered in goods. 

3. Three thousand dollars for establishing three black- 
smith shops, supporting the blacksmiths, and furnishing 
them with iron and steel. 

4. One thousand dollars for farmers, and for supplying 
them and the Indians, with implements of labor, with grain 
or seed ; and whatever else may be necessary to enable them 
to carry on their agricultural pursuits. 

5. Two thousand dollars in provisions. j 

6. Five hundred dollars in tobacco. 

The provisions and tobacco to be delivered at the same j 
time with the goods, and the money to be paid; which time I 
or times, as well as the place or places where they are to be I 
delivered, shall be fixed upon under the direction of the 1 
President of the United States. ] 

The blacksmith shops to be placed at such points in thei 
Chippewa country as shall be designated by the Superin- 
tendent of Indian Affairs, or under his direction. 

If at the expiration of one or more years the Indians f 


sliould prefer to receive goods, instead of the nine thousand 
dollars agreed to be paid to them in money, they shall be at 
liberty to do so. Or, should they conclude to appropriate 
a portion of that annuity to the establishment and support 
of a school or schools among them, this shall be granted 

Aeticle 3. The sum of one hundred thousand dollars 
shall be paid by the United States, to the half-breeds of the 
Chippewa nation, under the direction of the President. It 
is the wish of the Indians that their two sub-agents Daniel 
P. Bushnell, and Miles M. Vineyard, superintend the distri- 
bution of this money among their half-breed relations. 

Aeticle 4. The sum of seventy thousand dollars shall 
be applied to the payment, by the United States, of certain 
claims against the Indians; of which amount twenty-eight 
thousand dollars shall, at their request, be paid to William 
A. Aitkin, twenty-five thousand to Lyman M. Warren, and 
the balance applied to the liquidation of other just demands 
against them — which they acknowledge to be the case with 
regard to that presented by Hercules L. Dousman, for the 
sum of five thousand dollars; and they request that it be 

Aeticle 5. The privilege of hunting, fishing, and gather- 
ing the wild rice, upon the lands, the rivers and the lakes in- 
cluded in the territory ceded, is guarantied to the Indians, 
during the pleasure of the President of the United States. 

Aeticle 6. This treaty shall be obligatory from and 
after its ratification by the President and Senate of the 
United States. 

Done at St. Peters in the Territory of Wisconsin the 
twenty-ninth day of July eighteen hundred and thirty- 

Henry Dodge, Commissioner. 


From Seech lake: 
Aisli-ke-bo-ge-koshe, or Flat Mouth, 
E-clie-o-sau-ya, or the Elder Brother. 


Pe-zhe-kius, the Young Buffalo, 
Ma-ghe-ga-bo, or La Trappe, 
O-be-gwa-dans, the Chief of the Earth, 
Wa-bose, or the Kabbit, 
Che-a-na-quod, or the Big Cloud. 


From Gull lake and Swan river: 
Pa-goo-na-kee-zhig, or the Hole in the 

Songa-ko-mig, or the Strong Ground. 


Wa-boo-jig, or the White Fisher, 
Ma-eou-da, or the Bear's Heart. 


From St. Croix river: 
Pe-zhe-ke, or the Buffalo, 
Ka-be-ma-be, or the Wet Month. 


Pa-ga-we-we-wetung, Coming Home 

Ya-banse, or the Young Buck, 
Kis-ke-ta-wak, or the Cut Ear, 


From Lake Courteoville : 
Pa-qua-a-mo, or the Wood Pecker, 


From Lac De Flambeau: 
Pish-ka-ga-ghe, or the White Crow, 
Na-wa-ge-wa, or the Knee, 
0-ge-ma-ga, or the Dandy, 
Pa-se-quam-jis, or the Commissioner, 
Wa-be-ne-me, or the White Thunder. 


From La Pointe, (on Lake Supe- 
rior) : 

l*e-zhe-ke, or the Buffalo, 
Ta-qua-ga-na, or Two Lodges Meet- 


From Mille Lac: 
Wa-shask-ko-kone, or Rats Liver, 
Wen-ghe-ge-she-gak, or the First Day. 


Ada-we-ge-shik, or Both Ends of the 

Ka-ka-quap, or the Sparrow. 


From Sandy Lake: 
Ka-nan-da-wa-win-zo, or Le Brocheux, 
We-we-shan-shis, the Bad Boy, or Big 

Ke-che-wa-me-te-go, or the Big 


Na-ta-me-ga-bo, the Man that stands 

Sa-ga-ta-gun, or Spunk. 


From Snake river: 
Naudin, or the Wind, 
Sha-go-bai, or the Little Six, 
Pay-ajik, or the Lone Man, 
Na-qua-na-bie, or the Feather. 



Wa-me-te-go-zhins, the Little French- 

Sho-ne-a, or Silver, 


From Fond du Lac, (on Lake Su- 
perior) : 

Mang-go-sit, or the Loons Foot, 
Shing-go-be, or the Spruce. 


From Red Cedar lake: 
Mont-so-mo, or the Murdering Yell. 

From Red lake: 
Francois Goumean '(a half breed). 

From Leech lake: 
Sha-wa-ghe-zhig, or tlie Sounding Sky, 
Wa-zaii-k()-ni-;i, or ^'clIow Robe. 



Signed in the presence of — 

Verplanek Van Antwerp, Secretary to 

the Commissioner. 
M. M. Vineyard, U. S. Sub-Indian 

Daniel P. Biishnell. 
Law. Taliaferro, Indian Agent at St. 


Martin Scott, Captain, Fifth Eegi- 

ment Infantry. 
J, Emerson, Assistant Surgeon, U. S. 

H. H. Sibley. 

H. L. Dousman. 
S. C. Stambaugh. 
E. Lockwood. 
Lyman M. Warren. 
J. N. Nicollet. 
Harmen Van Antwerp. 
Wm, H. Forbes. 

Jean Baptiste Dubay, Interpreter. 
Peter Quinn, Interpreter. 
S. Campbell, U. S. Interpreter. 
Stephen Bonga, Interpreter. 
Wm. W. Coriell. 

(To the Indian names are subjoined a mark and seal.) 




John S. Bassett is the author of A Life of Andrew Jackson which 
recently appeared. 

A revised edition of Channing and Hart's Guide to the Study of 
American History is in preparation. 

The Yale University Press has issued the Records of the Federal 
Convention, edited by Max Farrand. 

A volume by Ellen Churchill Semple on The Influence of Geo- 
graphic Environment is announced by Henry Holt and Company. 

A new and revised edition of Justice to the Jew: The Story of 
What he has Done for the World, by Madison C. Peters, has 

A. C. McClurg and Company announce the publication of a vol- 
ume by R. K. Bucham entitled Gettysburg : The Pivotal Battle of 
the Civil War. 

Slason Thompson's Railway Statistics of the United States of 
America for the Year Ending June 30, 1910, contains the usual 
amount of valuable data. 

The World Peace Foundation is the title of a pamphlet by Edwin 
Ginn, describing the aims and activities of the Foundation, which 
has its headquarters in Boston. 

Leroy Eltinge is the writer of an article on the Psychology of 
War, which appears in the May number of the Journal of the 
United States Cavalry Association. 

The Report of the Twenty-Eighth Annual Meeting of the Lake 
Mohonk Conference of Friends of the Indmn and Other Dependent 
Peoples contains the papers and addresses at the meetings held on 




October 19-21, 1910. Two sessions were devoted to Indian affairs, 
two to the Philippines, one to Porto Rico, and one to Guam and 

Kate M. Scott is the writer of an illustrated booklet on The 
National Association of Army Nurses of the Civil War, which has 
been published by the Citizens Executive Committee of Atlantic 
City, New Jersey. 

The March Bulletin of the New York Public Library contains a 
concluding installment of the List of Works Relating to Arabia and 
the Arabs. In the April number there is a List of Works Relating 
to Muhammadanism. 

A monograph on Maryland under the Commonwealth: A Chron- 
icle of the Years 1649-1658, by Bernard C. Steiner, has recently 
appeared in the Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical 
and Political Science. 

The Bulletin of the Virginia State Library for January contains 
A List of the Official Publications of the Confederate States Gov- 
ernment in the Virginia State Library and the Library of the 
Confederate Memorial Literary Society. 

A pamphlet issued in May by the American Society of Judicial 
Settlement of International Disputes consists of a discussion of 
The Development of the American Doctrine of Jurisdiction of 
Courts over States, by Alpheus Henry Snow. 

In the January -April number of the Proceedings of the American 
Philosophical Society there is an article on The Formation of Coal 
Beds, by John J. Stevenson, w^hich is a contribution to the geo- 
logical history of one of the Nation's natural resources. 

The University of Pennsylvania has issued A History of the New 
England Fisheries, by Raymond McFarland. The volume, which 
is illustrated by a number of maps, deals with the history of the 
fisheries as an industry, rather than as a problem of diplomacy, 
although there is a brief discussion of the fisheries question. 

An Extension of the Known Area of Pleistocene Glaciation to 
the Coast Ranges of California is the title of an article by Ruliff S. 


Hoi way which opens the March number of the Bulletin of the 
American Geographical Society. F. V. Emerson's interesting dis- 
cussion of Geographic Influences in American Slavery is concluded 
in this number. 

The Beginnings of St. Andrews University, 1410-1418, by J. 
Maitland Anderson; The Dispensation for the Marriage of John 
Lord of the Isles and Amie MacRnari, 1337, by J. Maitland Thom- 
son; The Scottish Islands in the Diocese of Sudor, by Reginald L. 
Poole; Scottish Burgh Records, by George Neilson, are articles in 
The Scottish Historical Review for April. 

In The Quarterly Journal of Economics for May are the follow- 
ing articles : The Development of the Theory of Money from Adam 
Smith to David Ricardo, by Jacob H. Hollander; the concluding 
installment of Railway Rate Theories of the Interstate Commerce 
Commission, by M. B. Hammond ; and Scientific Management in the 
Operation of Railroads, by William J. Cunningham. 

Three pamphlets published by the American Association for 
International Conciliation in April, May, and June, respectively, 
are: The Expansion of Military Expenditures, by Alvin S. John- 
son ; The First Universal Races Congress, by Lord Weardale ; and 
the Opening Address at the Lake Mohonk Conference on Interna- 
tional Arbitration, May 24, 1911, by Nicholas Murray Butler. 

Among the articles in the Journal of the American Institute of 
Criminal Law and Criminology for May are: The International 
Union of Criminal Law, by J. A. Van Hamel ; The Administration 
of Criminal Justice in Wisconsin, by E. Ray Stevens; Shotdd Cap- 
ital Punishment Be Abolished f, by Maynard Shipley; and The 
Contributory Dependency Law of Iowa, by Henry E. C. Ditzen. 

Btdletin number forty-three published by the Bureau of Amer- 
ican Ethnology contains a scholarly monograph on the Indian 
Tribes of the Lower Mississippi Valley and Adjacent Coast of the 
Gulf of Mexico, by John R. S wanton. The writer deals with the 
tribes of this region by groups, taking up in order the Natchez, the 
Muskliogean tribes proper, the Tunicau group, the Chitimacha and 
the Atakapa Group. 



Barriers Against Democracy in the British Electoral System is 
the subject discussed by Edward Porritt in an article which opens 
the Political Science Quarterly for March. George H. Haynes 
writes on "People's RuW in Oregon, 1910. The power of Con- 
gress to charter interstate commerce corporations is discussed by 
Sydney D. Moore Hudson under the heading, Federal Incorpora- 
tion. James Harvey Robinson reviews Aulard's Political History 
of the French Revolution. 

Dudley 0. McCovney contributes a second installment of his 
discussion of American Citizenship to the April number of the 
Columbia Law Review. The present chapter deals with Unincor- 
porated Peoples and Peoples Incorporated with Less than Full 
Privileges. In the May number William C. Coleman discusses 
Constitutional Limitations upon State Taxation of Foreign Cor- 
porations, and Joseph M. Proskauer writes on Corporate Privilege 
Against Self-incrimination. 

Among the articles in The Survey during the past quarter are 
^'The AppeaV and its Influence, by W. J. Ghent; and The Cheer- 
ful Giver of Transportation, by Mary E. Richmond (April 1) ; 
The Proposed Wisconsin Industrial Commission, by Francis PI. 
Bird (April 22) ; a discussion of The Court of Appeals Decision 
relative to the workmen's compensation act (April 29) ; Is Man- 
kind Advancing?, by James Harvey Robinson (May 6) ; The Ideals 
of Progress, by Simon N. Patten (June 3). 

The May number of The Annals of the American Academy of 
Political and Social Science is devoted to Political and Social Prog- 
ress in Latin- America. The Monroe Doctrine, banking, monetary 
reform, commerce, public instruction, and immigration are among 
the subjects discussed in the various articles. Elihu Root, Henry 
White, Paul S. Reinsch, and Albert A. Giesecke are among the 
contributors. The Supplement to this number is devoted to a study 
of The Living Wage of Women Workers, by Louise Marion Bos- 

Historical Sketches of the Hampton Settlements on Long Island, 
by Josiah C. Pumpelly; and Coronado's March Across the High 


Plains, by L. D. Scisco, who discusses the much mooted question of 
the explorer's route, are articles in Americana for March. The 
April number opens with an estimate of Alexander Hamilton's 
Place in History, by Victor Hugo Duras. President Lincoln and 
the Case of John Y. Beall, by Isaac Markens; and Heroes of the 
Alamo, by John Savage, are among the contributions in the May 
number. John R. Meader's series on the Little Wars of the Re- 
public, and the History of the Mormon Church, by Brigham H. 
Roberts, are continued through all three numbers. 

AU those who had occasion to use the first volume of The Hand- 
hook of American Indians North of Mexico, prepared and pub- 
lished by the Bureau of American Ethnology, have v/elcomed the 
second volume which recently appeared. This volume contains 
Indian names from N to Z, together with a helpful synonymy and 
an extended bibliography. The completed work, of which Fred- 
erick Webb Hodge is the editor, is by far the best and most satis- 
factory authority on North American Indians that has appeared. 
Nearly three score men, all of whom are w^ell known for their 
ethnological and archaeological researches, have contributed to the 
work. There are also numerous illustrations which add to the 
value of the volumes. 

The Relation of Social Theory to Public Policy, by Franklin H. 
Giddings, opens the March number of The American Journal of 
Sociology. Ulysses G. Weatherly writes on The Racial Element in 
Social Assimilation. Frank W. Blackmar opens a discussion on 
Jjeadership in Reform, and is followed by Jerome Dowd, Maurice 
Parmalee, Albion W. Small, Edward A. Ross, and others. Another 
article is one by John M. Gillette on The Drift to the City in Rela- 
tion to the Rural Problem. Among the articles in the May number 
are : Sociological Appraisal of Western Influence in the Orient, by 
Edward Warren Capen ; The Church and the City Community, by 
Walter Laidlaw ; and Social Control of the Domestic Relations, by 
George Elliott Howard. 

A fourth series of the Bulletin of the American Economic Asso- 
ciation has been begun, and it bears the title. The American Eco- 
nomic Review. The first number appeared in March. Among the 



contributions in this number are : How Tariffs Should Not he Made, 
by F. W. Taussig; The Promotion of Trade with South America, 
by David Kinley; East Indian Immigration to British Columbia 
and the Pacific States, by H. A. Millis. About one hundred and 
forty out of the two hundred and twenty pages, as befits the name 
of the publication, are devoted to reviews and notes. The second 
number appeared in April and contains the Papers and Discussions 
of the Twenty-third Annual Meeting of the Association at St. Louis 
last December, opening with the address of the President, Edmund 
J. James, on The Economic Significance of a Comprehensive Sys- 
tem of National Education. 

Recent articles in The American Review of Reviews are: Photo- 
graphing the Civil War, by Henry Wysham Lanier; President- 
Choosing — Old Ways and New, by Victor Rosewater; and Will 
There he a New Party?, by James A. Edgerton (March) ; Glimpses 
of the Confederate Army, by Randolph H. McKim; Uncle Sam on 
Police Duty, by Arthur Wallace Dunn; and Timher Conservation 
as Related to Reciprocity, by Thomas B. Walker (April) ; The Cav- 
alry of the Civil War, by Theodore F. Rodenbough; and The 
Federal Regidation of American Railroads, by Charles H. Marshall 
(May) ; Canada's Tariff Policy, — The Old East Versus the New 
West, by Albert J. Beveridge; The New York Puhlic Lihrary, by 
Montrose J. Moses; The Volunteer Soldiers of 1861, by Charles 
King; and Twenty Years of International Copyright, by Brander 

A unique and up-to-date article is one on Aerial Jurisdiction, by 
George Grafton Wilson, which appears in the May number of The 
American Political Science Review. Theodore Marburg describes 
The Washington Meeting of the American Society for the Judicial 
Settlement of International Disputes. Frank J. Goodnow in an 
article on The Constitutionality of Old Age Pensions discusses a 
subject which will probably be of greater interest in the future 
than it has been in the past in the United States. The two remain- 
ing articles are: Political Institutions in Liheria, by George W. 
Ellis; and Tendencies of the Lahor Legislation of 1910, by Irene 
Osgood Andrews. Among the subjects dealt with in the Notes on 


Current Legislation, conducted by Horace E. Flack, are child labor, 
corrupt practices at elections, electoral systems, initiative and ref- 
erendum, labor legislation, the recall, Congressional legislation, and 
the proposed short-cut to the revision of the Constitution in 

Volume two of the University of California Publications in 
Economics has come to hand. It consists of A History of California 
Labor Legislation with an Introductory Sketch of the San Fran- 
cisco Labor Movement, by Lucile Eaves. The monograph is elab- 
orate and gives evidence of careful and scholarly preparation. 
Perhaps no other Commonwealth of the far West has had such 
varied and complicated labor problems as California. The suc- 
cessive chapters in the volume deal with the San Francisco labor 
movement, slave or free labor in California, Federal and State 
legislation for the exclusion and regulation of the Chinese, the 
length of the work-day, the protection of the wages of labor, the 
relations between employer and employee, child labor, the pro- 
tection of women workers, the protection of the life and health of 
employees, Sunday laws, employment agencies, convict labor, 
Bureau of Labor Statistics, Board of Arbitration, the union label, 
and judicial restraint on trade-unions. The index, unfortunately, 
is inadequate. 

A two-volume work which contains a good collection of hitherto 
unpublished documents has come from the press of the Arthur H. 
Clark Company under the title : Louisiana Under the Rule of Spain, 
France, and the United States, 1785-1807. The editor is James 
Alexander Robertson. The most extensive document is entitled 
Historical and Political Reflections on Jjouisiana, written in 1803 by 
Paul Alliot, a physician who, with his family, was deported from 
New Orleans to France and was later permitted to return to 
America. Among the briefer documents are a description of 
Louisiana written in 1790 by Thomas Jefferson, a military report 
by Baron de Carondelet, a letter from Minister Alvarez to the 
Captain-general of Cuba, instructions from Minister Decres to 
French officials, letters from Laussat and Talleyrand to Decres, and 



Tarious letters by Governor Claiborne. The work is fairly well 
indexed and in print and paper leaves little to be desired. It will 
prove useful to all students of Mississippi Valley history. 


The City Club of Chicago has published a pamphlet bearing the 
title, The Practical Operation of the Initiative and Referendum. 

Yesterday and Today: A History of the Chicago and North 
Western Railway System has been published by the Company in a 
revised and enlarged edition. 

S. Gale Lowrie is the compiler of a pamphlet on Corrupt Prac- 
tices at Elections, which has been published by the Wisconsin 
Legislative Eeference Department. 

The Need of a State Tax Commission in Colorado is pointed out 
by John Burton Phillips in the number of The University of Colo- 
rado Studies published in February. 

1 A special number of The Quarterly Journal of the University of 
? North Dakota contains the proceedings of the inauguration of 
President Frank Le Rond McVey in September, 1910. 

The February number of the North Dakota Magazine is devoted 
to brief biographical sketches of the members of the Congressional 
delegation from that State, the officers of the Commonwealth, and 
members of the State legislature. 

I Jesse Walter Fewkes presents a Preliminary Report on a Visit 
to the Navaho National Monument, Arizona, in Bulletin number 
fifty issued by the Bureau of American Ethnology. The volume is 

, profusely illustrated. 

j Two numbers of the Anthropological Papers of the American 
[ Museum of Natural History are : Contributions to the Anthropology 
of Central and Smith Sound Eskimo, by Ales Hrdlicka; and The 
I Social Life of the Blackfoot Indians, by Clark Wissler. 

The Charter Day Address delivered by Theodore Roosevelt in the 
i Greek Theatre at the University of California on March 23, 1911, 
3s printed in the April number of The University of California 

I VOL. IX— 30 


Chronicle. It is a plea not only for the raising of the common leTel 
of the people through higher institutions of learning, but also for 
the development of men who shall be masters in exceptional lines 
of work. Alice Lorraine Andrews is the writer of An Ode to the 
Pioneers which is a vivid reflection of the spirit of the westward 

Phonetic Constituents of the Native Languages of California, by 
A. L. Kroeber ; and The Languages of the Coast of California North 
of San Francisco, by the same author, are two recent monographs 
in the series of University of California Publications in American 
Archaeology and Ethnology. 

An article describing the scope and activities of the new School 
of Education at the University of Kansas is written by Charles 
Hughes Johnston for the March number of The Graduate Magazine 
of the University of Kansas. Alberta L. Corbin contributes Some 
Impressions of America and Germany. 


The Northwestern Banker for April contains an address by J. H. 
Ingwersen on The State We Live In. 

In The Grinnell Review for April there is an article on Oppoir- 
tunities for Service in Social Work. 

The Old Blair Building, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, is the title of a 
pamphlet published by The Torch Press. 

Some Statistics of Iowa State College Eiigineering Graduates are 
presented in the May number of The Iowa Engineer. 

The First Great Mission of the Church, by Inez Smith, is an 
article of interest in the April number of Autumn Leaves. 

A pamphlet by Charles R. Green is devoted to the Family History 
and Genealogy of the Dryden Barbour Family, Traer, Iowa. 

Henry L. F. Gillespie of Manchester, Iowa, is the author of a 
pamphlet entitled The Universalist Church and Freemasonry. 

Iowa Municipal Law, by A. W. Osborne; and Cement Concrete 
Paving, by Charles P. Chase, are articles in the April number of 



Midland Municipalities. The principal contribution in the May 
number is a brief article on Play Grounds for Iowa, by William 

Frank E. Horack presents a clear and concise resume of the 
workings of the primary in Iowa since 1907 in a paper on Primary 
Elections in loiva, which is reprinted from the Proceedings of the 
American Political Science Association. 

The Conservation of Iowa Lakes, Streams, and Woodlands is the 
title of a pamphlet by Thomas H. Macbride and Bohumil Shimek, 
which is a reprint from the first Report of the Iowa State Drainage, 
Waterways, and Conservation Commission. 

A clear statement of the arguments in favor of woman suffrage 
is presented by Carrie Chapman Catt in an article entitled The 
Will of the People, which appears in the March number of The 
Alumnus published at Iowa State College. In the April number 
there is an article on America and Peace in the Orient, by J. G. 

The Iowa Suffragists and their Work is the subject of a brief 
sketch by Mary J. Coggeshall which appears in the March number 
of The Midwestern. E. G. Wylie discusses freight rates in Iowa in 
an article entitled Looking Backward, in the April-May number. 
Applied Patriotism is the title given to a description of the work 
of the Sons of the American Revolution in Iowa. 

A symposium on the question Is Boman Catholicism a Danger? 
is to be found in The American Freemason for April, May, and 
June. In the last number there is an article on the Beginnings of 
American Freemasonry, by Julius F. Sachse. Thomas Carr's dis- 
cussion of The Swastika, its History and Significance is also con- 
tinued through these three issues. 

Three biographical sketches may be found in the March number 
of The Iowa Alumnus. W. B. Guthrie is the writer of a sketch of 
John G. Bowman, the newly-elected President of the State Univer- 
sity of Iowa. Charles NoMe Gregory, the retiring Dean of the Col- 
lege of Law, is the subject of an appreciation by Emlin McClain. 
J. G. Spielman writes a brief note on Charles E. Merriam, Son of 


^'Old Gold'' for Mayor of Chicago. In the April number there is 
an article by Herbert C. Dorcas discussing Entrance Requirements 
and Attendance at the State University, which is concluded in the 
May number. Here may also be found a sketch of the life of the 
late Professor Samuel Calvin, together with the addresses delivered 
at the memorial program on May 3, 1911. 

A reprint from the Bulletin from the Laboratories of Natural 
History of the State University of Iowa is a monograph by Bohumil 
Shimek on The Prairies which will be of great interest and value 
to the student of the early settlement of the West, because it con- 
tains clear and definite information concerning the geological and 
biological aspects of the prairies, and their suitability for human 


Elliott, Francis Perry, 

The Haunted Pajamas. Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Co. 
Foy, Frank, 

Money in Poultry and Squabs. Des Moines : Published by the 
author. 1911. 
Gillespie, Henry L. F., 

The Universalist Church and Freemasonry. Manchester, Iowa : 
Published by the author. 1910. 
Glaspell, Susan, 

The Yisioning. New York : Frederick A. Stokes Co. 1911. 
Goodyear, Lloyd E., 

Farm Accounting for the Practical Farmer. Cedar Rapids: 
Goodyear-Marshall Publishing Co. 1911. i 
Gordon, Henry Evarts, ! 
Vocal Expression in Speech: A Treatise on the Fundamentals | 
of Public Speaking. Boston : Ginn & Co. 1911. 
Green, Charles R., 

Family History and Genealogy of the Dryden Barbour Family, 
Traer,Iowa. Olathe, Kansas : Register Publishing Co. 1911. 
Hassell, Susan Whitcomb, 

The Old Home. San Diego, California : Frye and Smith. 1911. 



Heinz, Flora, and Martha Sanborn, 

Art and Love. Boston : Ginn & Co. 1911. 
Hillis, Newell Dwight, 

The Contagion of Character: Studies in Culture and Success. 
New York and Chicago : Fleming H. Revell Co. 1911. 
Hoist, Bernhart Paul, 

Practical American Encyclopedia. Chicago: Conkey Publish- 
ing Co. 1911. 
Lillibridge, William Otis, 

A Breath of Prairie and Other Stories. Chicago: A. C. Mc- 
Clurg & Co. 1911. 
Mahood, John Wilmot, 

The Lost Art of Meditation. New York and Chicago : Fleming 
H. Revell Co. 1911. 
Medbury, Charles S., 

From the Throne of Saul to Bethlehem. Cincinnati : Standard 
Publishing Co. 1911. 
Pammell, L. H., 

A Manual of Poisonous Plants. Cedar Rapids: The Torch 
Press. 1910. 
Parrish, Randall, 

Love Under Fire. Chicago : A. C. McClurg & Co. 1911. 
Quick, J. Herbert, 

Yellowstone Nights. Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Co. 

Richman, Irving B., 

California Under Spain and Mexico. Boston: Houghton Mif- 
flin Co. 1911. 
Robbins, E. Clyde, 

Selected Articles on the Commission Plan of Municipal Gov- 
ernment (Revised and enlarged edition). Minneapolis: 
H. W. Wilson Co. 1911. 
Sanborn, Martha, and Flora Heinz, 

Art and Love. Boston : Ginn & Co. 1911. 
Shimek, Bohumil, 

The Prairies. Iowa City : The State University of Iowa. 1911. 


Starbuck, Edwin Diller, 

The Psychology of Religion (Third Edition). New York: 
Charles Seribner's Sons. 1911. 


The Register and Leader 

Senatorial Deadlock of Early Days in Iowa, by L. F. Andrews, 
March 26, 1911. 

Mrs. Parker K. Holbrookes Work for Hall for Women at S. U. I., 
March 26, 1911. 

Forty-Sixth Anniversary of the Civil War and its Last Battle, by 
J. S. Clark, April 9, 1911. 

The Cabin of the Cabin Club of Cedar Falls, April 9, 1911. 

Flints Rescued by the Iowa State History Museum, by T. Van 
Hyning, April 9, 1911. 

Former Postmaster E. H. Hunter, by L. F. Andrews, April 9, 1911. 

Judge Cole in Eulogy of John A. Kasson, April 9, 1911. 

Grenville M. Dodge — Iowa's Great Soldier Celebrates his Eighti- 
eth Birth Anniversary, April 16, 1911. 

Sketch of Life of Samuel Calvin, April 18, 1911. 

Iowa's New Senator, William S. Kenyon, by F. W. Beckman, April 
23, 1911. 

Women Whom Des Moines Delights to Honor, by Mrs. Addie B. 

Billington, April 23, 1911. 
Sketch of Life of David B. Murrow — Polk County Pioneer, April 

28, 1911. 

Sketch of Life of ''Mike" Healy, April 28, 1911. 
Fiftieth Anniversary of Zetagathian Society at S. U. I., April 30, 

William B. Stewart, Oldest Clerk in the Railway Mail Service, 
April 30, 1911. 

Diplomatic Triumphs of Thomas C. Dawson, April 30, 1911. 
William D. Christy, Good Soldier and Good Citizen, by L. F. 

Andrews, April 30, 1911. 
Iowa's First White Settler a Member of the Fox Indian Tribe, by 

E. E. McGee, May 7, 1911. 



Aaron Ward Harlan — He Knew Black Hawk, Keokuk, and Other 
Early Iowa Leaders, by Edgar R. Harlan, May 7, 1911. 

Ex-Slave who Made Good — Scott McGaw of Davenport, May 7, 

The Lunde Family in Iowa, May 7, 1911. 

Mormons Look for Iowa City Church Bell for a Half Century, May 
14, 1911. 

Indian Relics in State Museum of History, by T. Van Hyning, May 
14, 1911. 

George W. Marquardt, one of Iowa's Pioneer Merchants, by L. P. 

Andrews, May 14, 1911. 
Driving by Road to Get the Steer to Market, by James E. Downing, 

May 14, 1911. 

Eulogy of Charles F. Saylor, by Truman G. Palmer, May 14, 1911. 
N. R. Kuntz, One of the Oldest Settlers of Polk County, by L. F. 

Andrews, May 21, 1911. 
Sketch of Life of John R. Mott, by P. W. Beckman, May 21, 1911. 
The Real Sherman, by L. P. Andrews, May 26, 1911. 
Hunt for Slayers of Col. George Davenport, Iowa's First Pioneer, 

by 0. H. Mills, May 28, 1911. 
John H. Peters, one of the Framers of the Constitution of Iowa, 

May 28, 1911. 

Esther A. Ridley, First White Woman in Emmet County, June 4, 

Robert T. Christy, a Pioneer Des Moines Pork Packer, by L. P. 

Andrews, June 4, 1911. 
Sketch of Life of W. L. Eaton, June 8, 1911. 

''Mother" Stoddard — Fifty Years Friend of Central College Stu- 
dents, June 11, 1911. 

Career of John Hafer, the Boatmaker of Okoboji, June 18, 1911. 

Common Errors That May be Found in Civil War Statistics, by 
Albert Loughridge, June 18, 1911. 

The Smith Family — A Notable Group of Polk County Pioneer Men 
and Women, by L. F. Andrews, June 18, 1911. 

The Burlington Hawk-Eye 

Twenty Years Ago. (In each Sunday issue.) 


The Pioneer Ross Family in Burlington and Southern Iowa, April 

2, 9, 16, 23, 1911. 
The Old Gear Homestead, April 9, 1911. 

Presentation of Portrait of Hon. Francis Springer, April 23, 1911. 
On Reading History, by Naboth Osborne, May 2, 1911. 
Article on Greeley and Lincoln by W. P. Elliott, May 14, 1911. 
Zetagathian Society of S. U. I., May 14, 1911. 
Reminiscences of Civil War, May 21, 1911. 

Sketch of Burlington before the War, by W. P. EUiott, June 11, 

Old Burlington Boat Club, June 18, 1911. 

The Dubuque Telegraph-Herald 

Mrs. Irene Thomas — Survivor of Spirit Lake Massacre, May 14, 

Rise and Fall of the Lumber Business on the Mississippi, June 4, 

Early Dubuque Directory, June 18, 1911. 



A. Hooton Blackiston describes the peculiar ruins of Quirigua 
in Guatemala in the March-April number of the Records of the 
Past. J. A. Jeancon tells of Explorations in Chama Basin, New 

The Manuscript Collections of the American Antiquarian So- 
ciety are described by Charles Henry Lincoln in a reprint from 
volume four of the Papers of the Bibliographical Society of 

The number of the Publications of the Onondaga Historical 
Association published in April contains a catalogue of portraits, 
relics, maps, and other historical material in the historical building 
at Syracuse, New York. 

The April number of The Medford Historical Register opens 
with an article on Trinity Methodist Episcopal Church, by Moses 
Whitcher Mann. An Old Medford Landmark is the subject of a 
brief note by John H. Hooper. 

A valuable volume which will probably be published during the 
current year is an analytical index to the Public Papers of Gov- 
ernor George Clinton, which has been announced by the State 
Historian of New York. 

The Addresses at the Unveiling of the Bust of Matt W. Ransom 
by the North Carolina Historical Commission on January 11, 1911, 
may be found in the Publications of the North Carolina Historical 
Commission, Bulletin No. 10. 

Two pamphlets published by the Chicago Historical Society are : 
The Indian as a Diplomatic Factor in the History of the Old North- 
west, by Isaac J. Cox; and The Preamble and Boundary Clauses 
of the Illinois Constitution, by Herman G. James. 



The volume of the Proceedings of the American Antiquarian 
Society at the Annual Meeting held in Worcester October 19, 1910, 
contains the ordinary reports and a symposium on The Present 
State of Historical Writing in America in which J. Franklin 
Jameson, John Bach McMaster, and Edward Channing participate. 

The Nebraska State Historical Society has published an Outline 
of Nebraska History, prepared by Albert Watkins. It furnishes 
lists of references on the various phases of Nebraska history from 
the earliest explorations down to the present time, and closes with 
a Summary of Nebraska History. 

History of the Chippewa Nation as Told by Themselves and 
Catholic Documents, by J. 0. Kinnaman; Can we Obtain any Def- 
inite Knowledge of the Beginning of Civilized Lifef, by N. Kolpin; 
and Physiography of the Great Colorado Canon, by Charles Hal- 
lock, are among the articles in The American Antiquarian and 
Oriental Journal for October-December, 1910. 

An illustrated article on The Court Houses in Salem, by Sidney 
Perley, is the opening contribution in the April number of the 
Historical Collections of the Essex Institute. There is a continua- 
tion of the Houses and. Buildings of Grov eland, Mass., by Alfred 
Poore; and a sixth installment of Sidney Perley 's discussion of 
Marblehead in the Year 1700. 

Volume seven of the seventh series of the Massachusetts His- 
torical Society Collections is devoted to the first part of the Diary 
of Cotton Mather 1681-1708, edited by Worthington C. Ford. Be- 
sides the diary proper there are letters to Increase Mather, John 
Cotton, and Samuel Penshallow, one of which tells of the execution 
of witches at Salem and the Jamaica earthquake. 

Volume thirteen of the Collections of the Connecticut Historical 
Society consists of the second volume of Correspondence and Docu- 
ments During Jonathan Law's Governorship of the Colony of 
Connecticut 1741-1750. The material included in this volume cov- 
ers the period from August, 1745, to December, 1746. These letters 
and documents should prove of great value to the student of early 
colonial history. 



A second and last installment of J. I. Good's contribution en- 
titled The Earliest Account of Protestant Missions, A, D. 1557, is 
to be found in the Journal of the Presbyterian Historical Society 
for March. The Little Family in the Presbyterian Church is the 
title of a sketch by Charles Little. Some Noteworthy Features in 
the Annals of the Mahoning Presbyterian Church, 1785-1910, are 
outlined by Robert Laird Stewart. 

The Records of the American Catholic Historical Society for 
March opens with the Baptismal Registers of Holy Trinity Church, 
Philadelphia, for 1793-4-5, transcribed by F. X. Reuss and edited 
by Thomas C. Middleton. Some copper objects found in Indian 
mounds are described by James Savage in an article on The Pre- 
historic Finds of Michigan. Another contribution consists of 
Philadelphia Catholic Historical Briefs. 

The April number of the Deutsch-Amerikanische Geschichts- 
bldtter opens with a brief account of the Elfte Jahresversammlung 
der Deutsch-Amerikanischen Historischen Gesellschaft von Illinois. 
Among the other contributions are: Der Deutsch-Amerikanische 
National-Bund, by William U. Pritsch; an Address Delivered at 
the Unveiling of the Steuben Statue, Washington, D. C, December 
7th, 1910, by Richard Bartholdt; and Peter Milhlenbergs Ingend- 
jahre, by C. F. Huch. 

Henry A. M. Smith discusses the Cypress Barony in The South 
Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine for January in his 
series on The Baronies of South Carolina. Another contribution is 
the Register of the Independent or Congregational (Circular) 
Church, 1732-1738, edited by Mabel L. Webber. In the April 
number Mr. Smith discusses the Wadboo Barony and there is pub- 
lished a Journal of the Campaign to the Southward, May 9th to 
July 14th, 1778, by John Fauchereau Grimke. 

Charles Edward Mann is the writer of a brief sketch of Deloraine 
Pendre Corey which appears in the April number of The New 
England Historical and Genealogical Register. Among the con- 
tinuations is the list of Emigrants from England, prepared by 
Gerald Fothergill; and a list of names connected with the First 


Ownership of Ohio Lands, by Albion Morris Dyer. A supplement 
to this number contains the proceedings of the Society at the an- 
nual meeting held on January 25, 1911. 

The Relation of Archaeology to History is the subject of an ad- 
dress by Carl Russell Fish, which appears in the December- 
February number of The Wisconsin Archeologist. Arlow B. Stout 
writes a brief sketch on The Winnebago and the Mounds. Charles 
E. Brown is the contributor of two articles, one on Silver Trade 
Crosses, and the other on A Group of Indian Mounds on the Peca- 
tonica Biver. There are also some Notes of the Four Lakes Indians, 
and a notice of The Centenary of Increase Allen Lapham. 

The January-March number of The Quarterly Publication of the 
Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio is devoted to a trans- 
lation of a Welsh pamphlet entitled The American. The pamphlet 
was written by B. W. Chidlaw, a Welsh minister in Ohio, and was 
first published in 1840. It describes a journey from the Ohio Val- 
ley to Wales in the year 1839 and contains a description of the 
State of Ohio and a brief history of Welsh settlements in America. 
An introductory note is written by L. Belle Hamlin. 

First Free School in Queen Anne's County is the title of an 
article by Edwin H. Brown, Jr., which opens the Maryland His- 
torical Magazine for March. A transcript of Admiral Cockhurn's 
Plan indicates clearly who was responsible for the suggestion which 
led to the attack on the city of Washington during the War of 1812, 
and also reveals what might easily have been the fate of Baltimore 
had the suggestion been followed without modification. Baltimore 
in 1846 is the title of a paper which was read before the Society in 
1875 by Henry Stockbridge, Sr. 

The Southwestern Boundary of Texas, 1821-1840, is the topic 
discussed by Thomas Maitland Marshall in a scholarly article 
which appears in the April number of The Quarterly of the Texas 
State Historical Association. E. W. Winkler tells of Some His- 
torical Activities of the Texas Library and Historical Commission. 
Alexander Horton contributes an autobiographical sketch under 
the heading, Life of A. Horton and Early Settlement of San Angus- 



tine County. An interesting article on a fascinating, subject is one 
by Adele B. Looscan, on Mica j ah Antrey, a Soldier of the Alamo. 

General Zachary Taylor and the Mexican War is the title of an 
article by Anderson Chenault Quisenberry, which appears in the 
May number of The Register of the Kentucky State Historical So- 
ciety. An appendix contains a roster of Kentuckians who served 
in the War with Mexico. A brief biographical sketch of Henry 
Watterson: World-Famous Editor of the Louisville Courier- 
Journal is written by Ella H. Ellwanger. Under the somewhat 
non-committal heading, Those Who Have Been and Are Not, A. D. 
Price presents an historical sketch of the physicians who once lived 
in Harrodsburg, Kentucky, or vicinity. 

James Peekham and Thomas L. Snead, two historical writers 
who made noteworthy contributions to the history of Missouri in 
their books dealing with events in that State during the year 1861, 
are the subject of discussion in a paper on Two Missouri His- 
torians, by H. E. Robinson, which appears in the April number of 
the Missouri Historical Revietv. Prank H. Hodder contributes 
some interesting Side Lights on the Missouri Compromise v^hich in- 
clude some letters from Senators Benton and Barton. Bryant's 
Station and its Founder, William Bryant, is the subject discussed 
by Thomas Julian Bryant. The closing article is one by Joab 
Spencer on John Clark, Pioneer Preacher and Founder of Meth- 
odism in Missouri. 

Volume six, part one, of the Historical Records and Studies pub- 
lished by the United States Catholic Historical Society contains 
some excellent contributions of western interest. Thomas J. Camp- 
bell is the writer of an article on Pierre Esprit Radisson which is 
not only entertaining reading, but gives evidence of careful re- 
search. Under the heading An Iroquois Chief, Edward P. Spillane 
writes a brief sketch of Jean Baptiste Taiaiake, the last great chief 
of the Iroquois Indians. Another contribution by Thomas J. Camp- 
bell is a discussion of the First Canadian Missionaries and the Holy 
Eucharist. There is also a review of the second volume of Reverend 
Campbell's history of Pioneer Priests of North America, which 
deals with the priests among the Huron Indians. 


The seventh volume of the Collections of the Illinois State His- 
torical Library comprises the second volume in the Executive Series 
which is devoted to the Governors' Letter-Books 1840-1853, edited 
by Evarts Boutell Greene and Charles Manfred Thompson. There 
is a general introduction by Professor Greene, and A Study of the 
Administration of Governor Thomas Ford, by Professor Thompson, 
which occupies eighty pages. The Governors whose letter-books 
are here presented are Thomas Carlin, Thomas Ford, Augustus C. 
French, and Joel A. Matteson. One hundred and thirty pages are 
also devoted to Letters of Wadsworth and Sheldon to Governor 
French, 1847-1853. A list of letters, a bibliography, and an ex- 
cellent index complete the volume and make it very convenient for 
use by the student. 

The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography for April opens 
with some transcripts of Minutes of the Council and General Court, 
1622-1624. The portion of The Randolph Manuscript here printed 
consists of some extracts from Council journals for the years from 
1686 to 1688. The Miscellaneous Colonial Documents illustrate 
various events in the year 1775, and among them may be found an 
advertisement by the agent of the Transylvania Company. Under 
the heading. Early Settlers in Greenbrier County, are some ex- 
tracts from the journal of Dr. Thomas Walker, who was one of the 
first men to make a trip into Kentucky, the date of the journal 
being 1750. Colonel Scarborough's Report, contributed by Thomas 
B. Robertson, tells of attempts to suppress the Quakers in what is 
now a part of Maryland. 

Frank E. Stevens is the writer of a biographical sketch of 
Alexander Pope Field appearing in the April number of the 
Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, which, to say the 
least, is not eulogistic. The Burial and Resurrection of Black 
Hawk is the subject of an article by J. F. Snyder which embodies , 
some interesting information concerning the famous chieftain and 
the burial customs of the Sac and Fox Indians. The Church j 
Records of Salt Creek Circuit, 1829-1833, form a contribution to 
early western church history. A sketch of the Life and Services of 
General Thomas J. Henderson, by J. W. Templeton, furnishes some 



sidelights on Abraham Lincoln. William R. Sandham is the writer 
of an appreciation of Hon. James M. Miller y who was largely re- 
sponsible for the act which created the Illinois State Historical 

In the January number of The Pennsylvania Magazine of His- 
tory and Biography may be found the proceedings of the banquet 
given by the Society on December 31, 1910, to celebrate the ninety- 
fifth anniversary of the birth of General George Gordon Meade. 
Joseph Richardson^ s Road is discussed by Samuel W. Pennypacker 
in an article which deals with an interesting phase of early Penn- 
sylvania history. Joseph Jackson in an article entitled The First 
Balloon Hoax shows that the balloon ascension which has been con- 
sidered to have taken place in Philadelphia on December 28, 1783, 
never occurred, and that it was a hoax perpetrated largely for the 
purpose of increasing the fame of the Philosophical Society of 
Philadelphia. Some Extracts from the Journal of Surgeon Ehen- 
ezer Elmer of the New Jersey Conti^iental Line, September 11-19, 
1777, are contributed by John Nixon Brooks. 

A rather extended account of The Meeting of the AmerHcan His- 
torical Association at Indianapolis during the last week in 
December, 1910, may be found in the April number of The Amer- 
ican Historical Review. Roger Bigelow Merriman is the writer of 
an article on The Cortes of the Spanish Kingdoms in the Later 
Middle Ages. Carl Becker discusses Horace WalpoWs Memoirs of 
the Reign of George the Third. Under the heading The Literature 
of the Russo-Japanese War appears an interesting article signed by 
"A British Officer". The only article in this number which may 
be said to come within the range of American History is one on the 
Privateers and Pirates of the West Indies, by Violet Barbour. The 
concluding, contribution is composed of a number of documents 
dealing with American Commercial Conditions, and Negotiations 
with Austria, 1783-1786, edited by Edmund C. Burnett. 

The eleventh volume of the Collections of the Kansas State His- 
torical Society, edited by George W. Martin, is a volume which 
contains much interesting and valuable material. To note all of 
the articles would be impossible, but the following are illustrative : 


The Significance of Kansas History ^ by Charles Harker Rhodes; 
First Appearance of Kansas at a National Convention, by A. G. 
Procter; The Swedish Settlements in Central Kansas, by Alfred 
Bergin ; The Boundary Lines of Kansas, by George W. Martin ; A 
History of Manufacturing in the Kansas District, by Richard L. 
Douglas ; Personal Recollections of the Battle of Shiloh, by Leander 
Stillwell; The Sauk and Foxes of Franklin and Osage Counties, 
Kansas, by Ida M. Ferris ; and Massacre of the Villazur Expedition 
hy the Pawnees on the Platte in 1720, by John B. Dunbar. A num- 
ber of maps and illustrations add interest to the volume, and there 
is a splendid index. 

The third volume of the Proceedings of the Mississippi Valley 
Historical Association, which contains the proceedings for the year 
1909-1910, exceeds the previous volumes in point of size and the 
number of papers. Two meetings were held during this year, one 
at Lincoln, Nebraska, on January 18, 1910, and the other at Iowa 
City on May 26 and 27, 1910. Among the numerous excellent 
papers which this volume contains are the following: In Kiowa 
Camps, by James Mooney; The Pioneer and the Forest, by Bo- 
humil Shimek ; The Significance of the Mississippi Valley in Amer- 
ican History, by Frederick Jackson Turner; The Significance of 
the Louisiana-Texas Frontier, by Isaac Joslin Cox; The Bid of the 
West for the National Capital, by Olynthus B. Clark; George 
Rogers Clark and Detroit 1780-1781, by James Alton James; Past 
and Present Sticking Points in Taxation, by Frank L. McYey; and 
The Conservation of Natural Resources, by W J McGee. 

Under Three Flags or the Story of St. Louis Briefly Told, by 
Gustavus A. Finkelnburg, is the opening contribution in the third 
number of volume three of the Missouri Historical Society Collec- 
tions. Walter B. Doupflas is the writer of an article on Manuel Lisa 
which is interesting and scholarly, and is to be continued. The 
Spanish Forts at the Mouth of the Missouri River is the title given 
a brief document copied from the General Archives of the Indies 
at Seville. Charles A. Krone continues his Recollections of an Old 
Actor. There is a Letter of Don Manuel Perez to the People of 
Sainle Genevieve, 1791, taken from the Valle papers, together with 



a brief sketch of Don Manuel Perez, which is the closing contribu- 
tion. Among the notes in the back of the volume is a biographical 
sketch of Pierre Chouteau, who died on November 21, 1910, and 
whose ancestors included such famous pioneers as Pierre Chouteau, 
the great merchant, Charles Gratiot, and Laclede, the founder of 
St. Louis. 


A summer school will be maintained by the School of American 
Archaeology during August at El Rito de los Frijoles, New Mexico. 

The North Central History Teachers Association held a meeting 
at Evanston on May 20th, in connection with the meetings of the 
Mississippi Valley Historical Association. 

The sum of two hundred and fifty thousand dollars has been 
appropriated by the legislature of North Carolina for the erection 
of a fire-proof building for the accommodation of the Historical 
Commission, the Hall of History, the Supreme Court, and the State 

At the annual meeting of the Maryland Historical Society on 
February 13, 1911, the following officers were elected: President, 
Mendes Cohen ; Vice Presidents, W. Hall Harris, George A. Leakin, 
and Henry Stockbridge; Corresponding Secretary, Richard H. 
Spencer; Treasurer, William Bowly Wilson. 

Mr. David M. Matteson is engaged in preparing a general index 
to all of the publications of the American Historical Association. 
The second volume of the Annual Report for 1908, which completes 
the Diplomatic Correspondence of the Republic of Texas, is an- 
nounced for early distribution. The Association has also nearly 
completed the preparation of its biennial Handbook. 

The Chicago Historical Society is planning to commemorate the 
centennial of the Port Dearborn massacre by the publication of a 
volume of documents edited by Milo M. Quaif e. The Society has 
recently come into possession of the splendid collection of Lewis 
and Clark literature formerly owned by Charles H. Conover. The 
Keport of the Society for 1910 indicates a growth along all lines. 

VOL. IX — 31 


Carl R. Fish's Guide to the Materials for American History in 
Roman and Other Italian Archives, and William H. Allison's In- 
ventory of Unpublished Materials for American Religious History, 
Chiefly in Protestant Church Archives, have been published by the 
Carnegie Institution of Washington. David W. Parker's Calendar 
of Territorial Papers in Government Archives at Washington is 
in press. 

At the fifteenth annual meeting of the Texas State Historical 
Association on March 2nd the following officers were elected: 
President, A. W. Terrell ; Vice Presidents, Beauregard Bryan, R. L. 
Batts, Milton J. Bliem, and Luther W. Clark ; Recording Secretary 
and Librarian, E. C. Barker; Corresponding Secretary and Treas- 
urer, C. W. Ramsdell. Fifty new members were elected and 
Edward Dunn was chosen a Fellow. 


The State Historical Society of Illinois held its annual meeting 
at Evanston and Chicago on Wednesday and Thursday, May 17 
and 18, 1911. The following addresses and papers were presented: 
an address of welcome, by Mayor Joseph E. Paden of Evanston; 
Thom,as Sloo, Jr., a Typical Politician of Early Illinois, by Isaac 
J. Cox ; The Fordhams and La Serres of the English Settlement in 
Edwards County, Illinois, by Walter Colyer; The Development of 
the Illinois State Constitutions, by Christopher B. Coleman; 
Massachusetts, the Germans, and the Chicago Convention of 1860, 
by Frank I. Herriott; and an address by Clark E. Carr; Abraham 
Lincoln* s Early Connection ivith the Republican Party, by I. P. 
Wharton ; and Life and Labors of William H. Collins, One of the 
Founders of the Illinois Historical Society, by James Robert Smith. 

At the business meeting practically the same officers who have 
served during the past year were reelected. The report of the 
Secretary-Treasurer, Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, revealed a con- 
sistent growth in the activities of the Society, which now numbers 
()V(;r twelve hundred members. The volume containing the Trans- 
actions for 1909 is about ready for distribution. The next volume 
of the CoUeclions to be publislied will probably contain the George 



Rogers Clark papers. Bills for a commission to formulate plans 
for the erection of a building for the Society, and appropriating, 
money for the purchase of Starved Rock and vicinity, over a thou- 
sand acres, have been especiallj^ urged by the Society in the legis- 
lature. Plans are being made for the celebration next year of the 
centennial of Madison County, Illinois, which was established in 
1812 by Governor Ninian Edwards. The Committee on Archae- 
ology recommended active work along archaeological and eth- 
nological lines. 


The fourth annual meeting of the Mississippi Valley Historical 
Association was held at Chicago and Evanston on Thursday and 
Friday, May 18 and 19, 1911, following the annual meeting of the 
State Historical Society of Illinois. In Chicago the sessions were 
held in the building of the Chicago Historical Society, while at 
Evanston the place of meeting was the rooms of the Evanston His- 
torical Society in the Public Library building. The following pro- 
gram, with a few omissions and rearrangements, was carried out: 

May 18, 2:30 P. M. 
Address of Welcome — Dr. Otto L. Schmidt. 

President 's Address — The Iowa School of Research Historians — 
Benjamin F. Shambaugh, Professor in the State University of 

Paper — Robert J. Walker, Imperialist — William E. Dodd, Pro- 
fessor in the University of Chicago. 

Paper — Myths of the American Indians as Material for Supple- 
mentary Reading in Our Secondary Schools — Orin G. Libby, 
Professor in the State University of North Dakota. 

Paper — Some Notes on the Fort Dearborn Massacre — M. M. 
Quaife, Professor in Lewis Institute. 

Paper — Some Materials for the Social History of the Mississippi 
Valley During the Nineteenth Century — Solon J. Buck, Re- 
search Assistant in the University of Illinois. 


May 18, 8:00 P. M. 

Address — Old Steamboat Days on the Mississippi River — George 
B. Merrick, Madison, Wisconsin. 

Informal reception to the members of the various associations by 
the Chicago Historical Society. 

May 19, 10:00 A. M. 

Paper — The Mississippi Valley and Internal Improvements, 1825- 
1840 — R. B. Way, Professor in the University of Indiana. 

Paper — A Comparison of Some of the Source Material on Brad- 
dock's Campaign — Archer B. Hulbert, Professor in Marietta 

Paper — The Early Harbor History of yVisconsin — A. G. Plumb, 

Manitowoc, Wisconsin. 
Paper — Were the Outagami of Iroquois Stock? — N. H. Winchell, 

St. Paul, Minnesota. 
Business Meeting of the Mississippi Valley Historical Association. 

May 19, 12:30 P. M. \ 
Luncheon tendered to the members of the visiting associations by 

Mayor and Mrs. Joseph B. Paden at the Evanston Club, Grove 

Street and Chicago Avenue. Following the luncheon Mr. 

Henry J. Patten provided automobiles for a ride through the 

city of Evanston. 

May 19, 3:00 P. M. 
Paper — Personal Recollections of the Civil War — Mrs. R. A. 

Stewart, Evanston, Illinois. 
Adjourned business meeting of the Mississippi Valley Historical 


May 19, 5:00 P. M, j 
Reception tendered to the members of the visiting associations by ? 
Mr. and Mrs. Charles G. Dawes, at their home. Greenwood | 
Boulevard and Sheridan Road. 

May 19, 8:15 P. M. 
Address — Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas as Lawyers 
— Grin N. Carter, Associate Justice of the Illinois Supreme 



The attendance was perhaps not as large as at the meeting at 
Iowa City last year, but what was lacking in numbers was supplied 
in interest and enthusiasm. The papers were unusually good and 
when published in the fourth volume of the Proceedings will con- 
tribute materially to the reliable literature of Mississippi Valley 

At the business session an amendment to the Constitution was 
adopted whereby changes are made in the provisions relative to 
membership and membership dues. Three classes of membership 
are now provided: active, sustaining, and life, of which the dues 
are one, five, and fifty dollars, respectively. There was quite a 
spirited debate on the proposition to raise the active membership 
dues to two dollars. 

The following officers were elected: President, Andrew C. Mc- 
Laughlin; First Vice President, Reuben Gold Thwaites; Second 
Vice President, James Alton James ; Secretary-Treasurer, Clarence 
S. Paine. The Executive Committee was considerably enlarged. 

Dr. Louis Pelzer's biography of Henry Dodge has come from the 
press and will be distributed within a short time. 

Mr. Clifford Powell has been appointed to the position of General 
Assistant for the summer months, to succeed Mr. Carroll B. Martin. 

The Superintendent, Dr. Benjamin F. Shambaugh, delivered an 
address before the Old Settlers' Association of Cedar County at 
Tipton on June 10th. 

The biography of James Harlan by Mr. Johnson Brigham, which 
will make a volume of over four hundred pages, is practically 
ready for the printers. 

A collection of papers of Leander Clark, former Indian Agent 
for the Meskwaki Indians in Tama County, has recently been de- 
posited with the Society. 

Mr. Kenneth W. Colgrove, a member of the Society and the con- 
tributor of a number of articles to The Iowa Journal of History 
AND Politics, is spending the summer in Europe, chiefly at 
Eisenach, Germany. 


Miss Eliza L. Johnson, who is in charge of the library of the 
Society, has been granted a three months' leave of absence and is 
spending the summer in Europe. Miss M. Florence Franzen has 
charge of the library in her absence. 

Mr. Henry E. C. Ditzen of Davenport, a member of the Society, 
is the author of an article on The Contributory Dependency Law 
of Iowa, which appears in the May number of the Journal of the 
American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology. 

The following persons have recently been elected to membership 
in the Society: Mr. R. J. Fleming, Des Moines, Iowa; Mr. C. R. 
Benedict, Shelby, Iowa; Mr. A. C. Oustafson, Red Oak, Iowa; 
Mr. Oscar Hale, Wapello, Iowa; Mr. 0. J. Henderson, Webster 
City, Iowa; Mr. Hugh Mossman, Vinton, Iowa; Mr. E. B. Soper, 
Emmetsburg, Iowa; Mr. Geo. M. Bechtel, Davenport, Iowa; Mr. 
L. M. Bosworth, Ames, Iowa; Mr. John C. Bryant, Red Oak, Iowa; 
Dr. Olynthus B. Clark, Des Moines, Iowa; Mr. M. H. Cohen, Des 
Moines, Iowa; Mr. William Louden, Fairfield, Iowa; Mr. B. E. 
Stonebraker, Rockwell City, Iowa; Mr. Dillon Turney, Fairfield, 
Iowa; and Mr. A. W. Wilkinson, Winterset, Iowa. 


The rooms of the Society will be the scene of unusual activity 
along the lines of research in Iowa history during the present sum- 
mer. Four Research Associates have been appointed and will be 
in residence at Iowa City during the greater part of the summer 
months. Mr. Jacob Van der Zee, a graduate of Oxford University, 
England, who has been connected with the work of the Society for 
several years, will complete his volume on the Dutch in Iowa. Mr. 
Van der Zee is at present pursuing law studies at Harvard Univer- 
sity. Dr. E. H. Downey of Kenyon College, Oambier, Ohio, 
the author of the History of Labor Legislation in Iowa, will make 
investigations along the line of industrial history. Dr. John C. 
Parish of Montclair, Colorado, whose contributions to the publica- 
tions of the Society are well known, will be at work on a biography 
of George W. Jones. Dr. John E, Brindley of the Iowa State Col- 
lege at Ames, author of the History of Taxatio7i in Iowa, will trit»ke 
a study of road legislation in Iowa. 



Besides the Research. Associates a number of Research Assistants 
have been appointed. Mr. Clarence R. Aurner will be engaged in 
writing a history of township government in Iowa, and Professor 
Frank H. Garver of Morningside College will pursue studies along 
a similar line with respect to county government. Professor 
Olynthus B. Clark of Drake University will continue an investiga- 
tion which he has already begun in the field of Iowa politics during 
the period of the Civil War and Reconstruction. Professor L. B. 
Schmidt of Iowa State College will also be engaged in working out 
some subject in the political history of Iowa. 

A number of graduate students and others are also planning to* 
do research work in connection with the Society during the sum- 
mer. Dr. Dan E. Clark, the Assistant Editor, plans to complete a 
volume on the history of senatorial elections in Iowa. 



Provision has been made for the establishment of a Bureau of 
Research in Municipal Government at Harvard University. 

On April 27 to 29 the fifth annual meeting of the American So- 
ciety of International Law was held at Washington, D. C. 

The Fifth International Congress of the International Tax Asso- 
ciation will be held at Richmond, Virginia, September 5-8, 1911, 

The next annual meeting of the Political Science Association will 
be held at Buffalo, New York, during the last week in December. 

Professor George F. Kay of the State University of Iowa has 
been appointed State Geologist of Iowa to succeed the late Professor 
Samuel Calvin. 

A Massachusetts Municipal League was recently organized. 
Professor Albert Bushnell Hart of Harvard University is the First 
Vice President. 

Charles Noble Gregory has resigned from the position of Dean 
of the College of Law in the State University of Iowa, and has ac- 
cepted a similar position in George Washington University. 

Professor H. C. Fairchild of the University of Rochester is the 
president of a new organization to be known as the Commission 
Government Association of New York State, which was formed by 
delegates from twenty-two cities at a meeting in February. 

An American International Municipal Congress and Exposition 
will be held in Chicago from September 18th to 30th. Delegates 
are expected from all of the principal cities of America and Europe. 
John Mac Vicar of Des Moines is the Commissioner General of the 
Municipal Congress. 

An unusual method of revising the State Constitution has been 
proposed in Indiana. Although the Constitution provides that 
amendments shall pass two successive legislatures and be submitted 




to the people, the General Assembly has passed a bill embodying a 
revised Constitution, which will be submitted to the voters at the 
November elections in 1912. The proposed Constitution originated 

with Governor Thomas R. Marshall. 


A most disastrous fire occurred on March 29th, when the New 
York State Library was almost totally destroyed by fire. Of the 
splendid collection of manuscripts which the library contaiued only 
about one-tenth were saved, and there was an equal proportionate 
loss among the books. The legislative reference section, which rep- 
resented years of labor, was also totally destroyed. Everything was 
practically in readiness for moving the library into the magnificent 
new building. 


In the death of Samuel Calvin, which occurred on April 17, 1911, 
the State of Iowa lost one of its most noted scientists. Professor 
Calvin was born in Wiltonshire, Scotland, in 1840. He came to 
America in 1852 and to Iowa in 1855. He received his collegiate 
training at Lenox College, to which institution he returned as a 
member of the staff of instruction after a brief military service in 
the Civil War. In 1874 he was called to the State University of 
Iowa where he remained until the date of his death, having been 
for many years head of the Department of Geology. From 1892 
to 1904 and from 1906 to the date of his death Professor Calvin 
was State Geologist and his labors in that capacity have brought 
the geology of Iowa to a point equalled by but few of the States of 
the Union. He was a frequent contributor to the various scientific 
publications of the country and was a prominent member of a 
number of learned societies. In the class room and as a citizen he 
was beloved by all who knew him. 


Willard Lee Eaton of Osage, a member of the Society, died at 
his home on June 7, 1911. Mr. Eaton was born in Delaware County, 
Iowa, on October 13, 1848. In 1856 he moved with his parents to 
Osage, where he made his home until the date of his death, a period 
of nearly fifty-five years. He graduated from the College of Law 


of the State University of Iowa in the class of 1872, and early 
attained prominence as a member of the bar of northern Iowa. 

Mr. Eaton served in many official capacities. He was three 
times elected Mayor of Osage, and served for a period as County 
Attorney of Mitchell County. He represented Mitchell County in 
the lower house of the State legislature for three sessions, from the 
twenty-seventh to the twenty-ninth, and during the last session 
he was Speaker of the House. He served as State Railroad Com- 
missioner for one term beginning in 1907, and during his term he 
wrote the opinions of the board. 

In private life Mr. Eaton was a good citizen and took part in 
many movements for the upbuilding of the community. He was 
at one time Grand Master of the Iowa Grand Lodge of Masons. 
He was an active member of the State Bar Association, and his 
interest in education is shown by the fact that at the time of his 
death he was a trustee of Cedar Valley Seminary and of Upper 
Iowa University. 


On May 14, 1911, occurred the death of Jacob Springer, a mem- 
ber of the Society and a pioneer of Benton County. He was born 
in Uniontown, Pennsylvania, on January 21, 1824. On March 11, 
1845, he was married to Eliza Jane McCormick. Seven years later, 
in 1852, the family emigrated to Iowa and settled in what is now 
St. Clair Township, Benton County. Here he found typical pio- 
neer conditions. To the southward of his log cabin there was only 
one settler between him and Cedar Rapids, while to the northward 
the nearest settlers were twenty-four miles away. During the sixty | 
years which followed he witnessed the gradual disappearance of 
frontier conditions and the growth of a prosperous community. 

In 1855 he was appointed a commissioner to organize the first I 
school district in that region. In the following year he organized | 
a precinct in what are now St. Clair and Eldorado townships for I 
election and judicial purposes, naming the precinct in honor of 
Arthur St. Clair. He served two years as Justice of the Peace,! 
nine years as County Supervisor of Benton County, and for twenty- 1 
six years as a member of the Board of Trustees of the College for 



the Blind. In politics he was an ardent Republican. He took a 
deep interest in the political questions of the day, and especially 
in local issues, but he was not inclined toward office-holding. 

Jacob Springer was a worthy representative of the pioneers of 
Iowa, and his quiet, unassuming good citizenship will long be re- 
membered in the community in which he lived. 


Ethyl. E. Mabtin, Clerk to the Superintendent of The 
State Historical Society of Iowa. Born near Decatur, Illinois, 
January 5, 1887. Graduated from the High School at Winter- 
set, Iowa, in 1904. Student at the State University of Iowa. 
Author of A Bribery Episode in the First Election of United 
States Senators in Iowa. 

Clarence Eay Auenek, Eesearch Assistant in The State 
Historical Society of Iowa. (See The Iowa Journal of His- 
tory AND Politics for April, 1911, p. 332.) 

Feank Harmon Gaever, Eesearch Assistant in The State 
Historical Society of Iowa. Professor of History and Politics 
in Morningside College. Born at Albion, Iowa, 1875. Grad- 
uated from Upper Iowa University, 1898. Received the degree 
of M. A. at The State University of Iowa, 1908. Author of 
Reminiscences of John H. Charles, History of the Establish- 
ment of Counties in Iowa, Boundary History of Iowa Counties, 
A Critical Study of the Definition and Alteration of County 
Boundaries in Iowa, The Story of Sergeant Charles Floyd. 
(See The Iowa Journal op History and Politics for July, 
1908, p. 500.) 



VOL. IX-— 32 


Besides numerous joint resolutions, nearly five hundred 
bills were introduced in the Senate and six hundred in the 
House of the Thirty-fourth General Assembly. Out of this 
mass of eleven hundred bills and resolutions two hundred 
and seventy bills and six joint resolutions were adopted. 
Of these two hundred and seventy enactments, one hundred 
and thirty-four originated in the Senate and one hundred 
and thirty-six in the House. Four of the joint resolutions 
originated in the Senate and two in the House. Moreover, 
this product of legislation as classified by the Secretary of 
State for publication consists of one hundred and eighty- 
nine general laws; twenty-four appropriation acts; ten 
special acts ; forty-seven legalizing acts ; and six joint reso- 

The Thirty-third General Assembly adjourned on April 
9th and the Thirty-fourth adjourned on April 12th. An 
examination of the records shows that about two-thirds of 

I the legislative output of each Assembly was enacted in the 
closing days of the session. In 1911 nearly one-half of the 
laws passed were signed by the Governor after the ad- 

I journment,^ showing that they must have been passed 
within the last three days of the session. But in this re- 
spect the Thirty-fourth General Assembly differs very 

I little from its predecessors, as an examination of the ses- 

I sion laws will indicate. 

1 Laws of Iowa, 1911, 

2 The Governor is given thirty days in which to sign or disapprove bills 
after adjournment. 



The increased compensation of its members is tlie only 
act of importance passed by the Thirty-fonrth General As- 
sembly affecting the legislative department^ — although 
the Federal census of 1910 occasioned some changes in the 
representation of counties in the lower house/ In refer- 
ence to the executive department the only acts of im- 
portance were those making slight extensions of the 
Governor's appointive and removal power.^ Several im- 
portant acts were approved relating to the administrative 
officers, boards, and commissions, which will be considered 
under special headings. 

Several acts were passed a:ffecting the judicial depart- 
ment. In 1884 the Constitution of Iowa was amended so 
as to permit the General Assembly to provide for holding 
persons to answer for any criminal offense without the 
intervention of the grand jury.'' No legislation, however, 
had been enacted in accordance with that authority until 
1911, when the Thirty-fourth General Assembly passed an 
act providing for the prosecution of criminals to final 
judgment either on indictment by the grand jury or upon 
information by the County Attorney.^ An additional 
judge was provided for in three different districts,"^ making 
the total number of District Court judges fifty-six. Jus- 
tices of the Peace were authorized to require security for 
costs in cases coming within their jurisdiction.^ 

The primary election law was modified by two slight 
amendments, one of them changing the time of holding the 

3 The Lieutenant Governor and the Speaker of the House will now receive 
$2,000 each, that is, double the compensation of members. 

4 Des Moines and Lee counties are reduced to one representative each and 
Black Hawk and Wapello will get two representatives each. 

5 For instance see Laws of Iowa, 1911, pp. 105, 106, 126, 140. 
e Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 201. 

7 Laws of Iowa, 1911, pp. 3, 4. 

8 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 185. 


primary from the first Tuesday after the first Monday in 
June to the first Monday in June,^ and the other relating 
to the nomination of persons whose names do not appear 
on the official ballot.^ ^ 

Local government in Iowa, being dependent upon the 
General Assembly, ofPers to the legislator a fertile field for 
the production of new statutes. In respect to county gov- 
ernment there is the usual biennial grist of powers vested 
in or denied to the Board of Supervisors. Perhaps the 
most important act affecting the governing board of the 
county was the subjecting of the Board of Supervisors to 
the provisions of the Cosson Law, which provides for their 
removal for misfeasance, malfeasance, or nonfeasance in 
office.^^ Another act makes the removal of county seats 
more difficult.^ ^ Furthermore, the office of County Sur- 
veyor was abolished, and the Board of Supervisors was 
authorized to employ a competent person *^for the purpose 
of making general specifications for the grading, repairing 
and building of roads, bridges and culverts, and to perform 
such other duties as the board of supervisors may deter- 
mine".^^ The Board of Supervisors was also authorized, 
with the consent of the voters at an election, to levy a tax 
not to exceed one mill upon the dollar for the purpose of 
prospecting for coal.^* 

Except for the provisions requiring the County Attorney 
to appear in behalf of the township trustees in counties of 
less than twenty-five thousand population whenever they 

9 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 42. 

10 Laws of Iowa, 1911, pp. 42, 43. 

11 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 43. 

12 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 15 

13 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 18 

14 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 22. 


are made parties to litigation/^ all of the laws relating to 
the township enacted by the Thirty-fourth General Assem- 
bly will be referred to under the head of road legislation. 

Municipal legislation must ever be a patchwork of 
statutes as long as the present scheme of municipal organ- 
ization maintains. Therefore each successive General 
Assembly grinds a full hopper of laws relating to or affect- 
ing cities and towns. Twenty-six acts were passed in 1911 
giving cities and towns power to act in matters where they 
ought to be able to act without special legislative authority. 
To make valid actions where authority has been wanting or 
where doubt has arisen thirty-three legalizing acts were 
passed for the relief of cities and towns.^^ In addition 
several other acts of minor importance affecting cities as 
well as the other grades of local government were passed.^ ^ 
The commission plan of city government was amended by 
four different acts, the most important of which was the 
re- writing of the provisions relative to the civil service.^ ^ 

From the standpoint of city boosting'' the act provid- 
ing for the creation of a department of publicity in cities 
is deserving of special notice. The purpose of this depart- 
ment is declared to be ^'collecting and distributing, by 
correspondence, advertising and other means, information 
relating to the industrial, commercial, manufacturing, resi- 
dential, educational and other advantages and resources of 
such city."^^ 

Of the two hundred and seventy acts of the Thirty-fourth 
General Assembly not many can be said to be of general | 
public interest. Minor statutory changes, acts dealing with 

15 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 23. 
10 Out of forty-seven legalizing acts passed. 

17 Laws relative to taxation, etc. 

18 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 38. 

19 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 41. 


teclmical subjects or the various state departments not of 
general interest will not be considered. Most of the laws 
passed which are of general interest may broadly be classed 
as Social and Economic Legislation ' ' — the field of legis- 
lation which has furnished every State legislature its most 
difficult problems. This class of legislation, which is fre- 
quently called freak legislation'' by the special interests 
affected, will be considered under special headings. 


The subject of taxation received more attention from the 
Thirty-fourth General Assembly than it had received in 
I many years. A temporary tax commission was created for 
I the purpose of securing information looking toward a com- 
I plete revision of the tax laws.^^ An act exempting moneys 
I and credits from more than nominal taxation was passed,^^ 
i and may be regarded as an invitation to capital to remain 
in and come to the State. In connection with this act men- 
tion should be made of the act prohibiting the employment 
j of tax ferrets to discover moneys and credits which the 
assessor has failed to locate.^^ The former assessment of 
1 moneys and credits at the ordinary rate of taxation, to- 
j gether with the employment of tax ferrets, has been held 
1 to be one of the influences responsible for the marked de- 
1 crease in the population of the State. 

The collateral inheritance tax law was completely re- 
written, and covers fifteen pages in the printed laws.^^ The 
1 act exempts estates of less than one thousand dollars after 
I deducting debts. The old soldiers' tax exemption was in- 
I creased from $800 to $1,200.24 It is also of interest to note 

20 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 229. 
I 21 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 45. 

22 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 48 

23 Laws of Iowa, 1911, pp. 50-64. ^ 

24 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 44. 


that the Thirty-fourth General Assembly by joint resolu- 
tion ratified the proposed income tax amendment to the 
Constitution of the United States.^^ 


Among the laws enacted by the Thirty-fourth General 
Assembly is a long act of fifty-two sections entitled Mines 
and Mining", which codifies and strengthens the former 
provisions relative to safety and sanitation in mines. The 
new features of the act relate largely to protection against 

Another act of much importance is one looking toward a 
more comprehensive code of labor laws. A temporary com- 
mission, known as the Employer's Liability Commission,^^ 
was created to investigate the problem of industrial acci- 
dents and especially the present condition of the law of 
liability for injuries or death suffered in the course of in- 
dustrial employment as well in this state as in other states, 
and shall inquire into the most equitable and effectual meth- 
od of providing compensation for losses suffered''. The 
work of this commission, like that of the tax commission, is 
limited to investigation and recommendation. 


Before January 1, 1913, all street cars will be required 
to have power brakes other than hand and equipment for 
sanding rails.^^ The construction of caboose cars was reg- 
ulated by a law which will be in effect after January 1, 
1912.2^ Passenger boats for which certificates of inspec- 
tion are issued must carry in view and within easy reach of 

25 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 301. 
20 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 105. 

27 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 230. 

28 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 28. 

29 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 92. 


the passengers, life preservers equal to one-half the number 
of passengers that may be carried by such boat.^^ 

Following the example of many other States the office of 
State Fire Marshal was created.^^ The incumbent is an 
appointee of the Governor, holds office for four years, and 
receives an annual compensation of $2,500. It is the duty 
of the State Fire Marshal to keep a record of all fires oc- 
curring in the State, showing the name of the owners and 
the name or names of occupants of the property at the time 
of the fire, the sound value of the property and the amount 
of insurance thereon, the amount of insurance collected, 
together with the cause or origin of the fire. He is further 
authorized to enter and inspect buildings for the purpose 
of determining whether they are especially liable to fire or 
are so situated as to endanger other buildings. And he is 
required to see that all teachers in buildings of more than 
one story conduct at least one fire drill each month and 
keep all doors unlocked during school hours. 


Governmental interference with private individuals to 
maintain public health has grown by leaps and bounds in 
the last quarter of a century, and Iowa has not been back- 
ward in enacting such legislation. The Thirty-fourth Gen- 
eral Assembly included infantile paralysis among the dis- 
eases subject to quarantine, and passed an act requiring 
disinfection in cases of death from tuberculosis.^^ An 
antitoxin department was established in connection with 
the State Board of Health to furnish antitoxin to the people 
of the State ^*at the reduced rates established by the 
board. ''^^ The sale of cocaine and other injurious drugs 

30 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 125. 

31 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 140. 

32 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 134. 

33 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 136. 


is prohibited ' ' except upon the original written prescription 
of a registered physician or veterinarian or licensed dent- 
ist The practice of optometry is further regulated by 
a very material increase in the qualifications for a license.^^ 
Nurses must obtain certificates from the State Board of 
Health to entitle them to practice in this State.^^ 

The title of the State Food and Dairy Commissioner was 
changed to that of State Dairy and Food Commissioner. 
His salary was increased and he was given more assistance. 
Under the new act ^^no person, firm or corporation shall sell 
milk or cream .... without being licensed by the 
state dairy and food commissioner'', and numerous penal- 
ties are provided in cases of the sale of impure, skimmed or 
adulterated milk.^^ Two other pure food acts were passed: 
one defining what shall constitute misbranded and adulter- 
ated f oods,^^ and the other defining ice cream.^^ 

An act evidently for the benefit of Des Moines, disguised 
under the heading of general laws, provides that ^'the emis- 
sion of dense smoke within the corporate limits of any of 
the cities of this state now or hereafter having a population 
of sixty-five thousand (65,000) inhabitants or over, includ- 
ing cities acting under the commission plan of government 
is hereby declared to be a public nuisance. 


Two new liquor laws were enacted by the Thirty-fourth 
General Assembly and two of those already on the statute 

34 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 139. 
30 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 139. 

36 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 135. 

37 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 126. 

38 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 189. 
3i> Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 191. 

40 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 27. . , 


books were amended. The penalties for the violation of the 
act prohibiting the manufacture and sale of intoxicating 
liquors were increased.*^ Druggists holding permits to sell 
liquor are now allowed to fill out the application blanks 
themselves whereas, under the old law the applicant was 
required to fill out the blank. Wholesale druggists in this 
State are permitted to sell intoxicating liquors to registered 
pharmacists and licensed physicians.*^ 

An act relative to the liquor traffic, which is perhaps of 
greater importance than any of the preceding, is one direct- 
ing the County Attorney in each county to secure quarterly 
and file with the County Auditor for public inspection a 
list of the names of persons holding Federal liquor licenses. 
The holding of a Federal liquor license is declared to be 
prima facie evidence of violation of the liquor laws of the 
State, unless the holder of such license has also complied 
with all the terms and conditions of the Mulct Law or is a 
registered pharmacist.** This act is expected to close up 
all club and private bars and illegal saloons, since the 
County Attorney is subject to the provisions of the Cosson 
Law in case he fails to prosecute the holders of such license. 

Another act clearly in the interest of public morals pro- 
hibits the exhibition of ^^any deformed, maimed, idiotic or 
abnormal person or human monstrosity''.*^ Surely the fat 
lady and the living skeleton as attractions of the side show 
and the dime museum are gone from Iowa forever. 

It was also made an offense*^ to be in possession of 
*'any roulette wheel, klondyke table, poker table, faro or 

41 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 101. 

42 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 101. 

43 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 102. 

44 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 104. 

45 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 193. 

46 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 194. 


keno lay-outs'', except in pursuance of proceedings to 
destroy them. 


The most important act passed under this heading, and 
one of the most important laws of the whole session, is an 
act to prevent the procreation of habitual criminals, idiots, 
feeble minded and insane persons.^^ By this act Iowa takes 
a long step forward toward checking crime. 

A number of other acts affecting the defective and de- 
pendent classes was passed. All children received in the 
Soldier's Orphan's Home are made wards of the State and 
may be placed with persons or families under contracts pro- 
viding for their custody, care, education, maintenance, and 
earnings.^^ An act similar in character was passed relative 
to the placing of boys and girls committed to the industrial 
school.*^ Provision was made for the commitment of girls 
to ^'any reputable institution within this state devoted to 
the detention and reformation of wayward and fallen 
girls ' ', instead of to the industrial school.^^ In like manner 
an act was passed providing for the commitment of females 
adjudged guilty of the violation of any law, ordinance, or 
police regulation, to the care of benevolent or charitable in- 
stitutions instead of to the county, city, or town jail.^^ The 
law providing for the commitment of boys and girls to the 
industrial school was also strengthened.^^ The better regu- 
lation of inmates of the State Hospital for Inebriates was 
provided for,^^ and an act defining vagrants was enacted.^^ 

47 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 144. 

48 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 150. 

49 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 152. 
CO Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 155. 

51 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 200. 

52 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 153. 
63 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 97. 
04 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 108. 



Three of the most important measures passed by the 
Thirty-fourth General Assembly may be classed under this 
heading. A new office was created in connection with the 
Board of Eailroad Commissioners for the purpose of mak- 
ing the work of the Board more effective in the matter of 
uniform and equal rates to shippers. The new official is 
known as the Commerce Counsel. He is appointed by the 
Board of Eailroad Commissioners, with the approval of 
two-thirds of the members of the Senate, for a period of 
four years at a compensation of $5,000 per year. His duties 
are ^^to diligently investigate the reasonableness of the 
rates charged, or to be charged for services rendered, or to 
be rendered by the railroad companies, express companies, 
and all other individuals, parties, or corporations, subject 
to the jurisdiction of the said board of railroad commission- 
ers", and to prosecute all violations of law before the 
Board of Eailroad Commissioners or the Inter-State Com- 
merce Commission according as they affect intrastate or 
interstate business.^^ 

An elaborate act entitled Uniform Bills of Lading", 
embodying fifty-seven sections, describes and defines nego- 
tiable bills of lading. The act defines also the rights and 
duties of common carriers and of all persons issuing and 
I receiving such bills of lading.^^ 

The Bulk Sales Bill received quite as much publicity as 
the famous Five Mile Bill. It was defeated in the middle of 
the session, but was reconsidered and finally passed in the 
closing days. It prohibits anyone from selling his stock of 
I merchandise in bulk without giving his creditors proper 
notice of his intention to sell.^^ 

55 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 93. 

56 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 169. 
J 57 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 165. 


An act of considerable interest to the householder pro- 
vides that wherever flour is sold in quantities of more than 
one pound the actual number of net pounds must be plainly 
designated on the package.^^ 

An act regulating the marking of articles of merchan- 
dise made in whole or in part of gold or silver or their 
alloys'' and prohibiting the false marking of such mer- 
chandise was passed.^^ The State Dairy and Food Com- 
missioner was empowered to make inspection of scales, 
weights, and measures, and penalties were provided for 
keeping false weights and measures.^^ In order to encour- 
age the business of manufacturing in Iowa an act was 
passed conferring upon the Iowa State Manufacturers As- 
sociation the right to designate who may use the trade mark 
bearing the words * * Made in Iowa ' '.^^ 


In the matter of highway legislation much disappoint- 
ment was felt by the people, in spite of the fact that several 
important acts were passed. The bridge companies were 
charged with being the great stumbling block in the way of 
good roads legislation. Three measures affecting roads 
were passed by the Thirty-fourth General Assembly. One 
abolishes the office of County Surveyor and permits the 
Board of Supervisors to hire an engineer to aid in road 
building and authorizes the levy of a two mill tax to create 
a good roads fund. The township trustees are directed to 
meet the first Monday in February and select a superin- 
tendent of dragging and employ a road superintendent''.^^ 

£58 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 195. 
C9 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 195. 

60 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 168. 

61 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 178. 

62 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 18. 


The second good roads act is entitled Dragging of Pub- 
lic Highways", and provides that the township trustees 
shall at their April meeting * ^ divide the public roads of the 
township into permanent road-dragging districts'^, and 
shall ^'from time to time designate what districts shall be 
dragged ".^^ 

The third act, entitled * ^ Eegistration of Motor Vehicles", 
is probably the most important act of its class, as it will 
furnish the means for much permanent road improvement.^* 
It is a long act containing thirty-five sections which repeals 
the chapter dealing with motor vehicles in the Code Supple- 
ment of 1907. It defines the status of motor vehicles and 
regulates their use upon the highways of the State, and 
provides for an annual registration fee, varying with the 
horse power of the vehicle, which fee is in lieu of all taxes 
general or local. Eighty-five per cent of the fund thus cre- 
ated is divided among the counties to be used for the 
improvement of roads. 

Commenting upon the good roads legislation of the 
Thirty-fourth General Assembly The Register and Leader 
declared that ^^the state has not accepted the road legisla- 
tion of this session as settling anything. At best all this 
I legislature has done has been to patch an old harness. 
I Some compulsory dragging has been provided, which may 
i amount to more than our compulsory weed cutting. . . . 
I A dry summer will assist greatly in diverting public atten- 
! tion. But after all the problem remains and will remain 
until Iowa goes about it as other states are doing. 


Besides the rather liberal appropriations for the educa- 
tional institutions of the State, four acts for the promotion 

63 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 65. 

64 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 69. 

65 The Eegister and Leader, April 10, 1911. 


of education were passed. An act entitled ^'Training of 
Teachers for Eural Schools'' provides that such four year 
accredited high schools as the State Superintendent may 
designate shall receive State aid to the amount of $500 per 
year for the introduction of normal courses of study and 
training in the eleventh and twelfth grades''. The act also 
provides for ^*an inspector of normal training in high 
schools ".^^ Children living in a district where there is no 
accredited high school are permitted to attend an accredit- 
ed high school in another district, the expense of tuition 
being borne by their home district.^^ Another act provides 
for the issuance of life certificates to teachers.^^ Finally, 
provision was made for the consolidation of independent 
school districts and for the transportation of children to 
and from school.^^ 

What was said above relative to road legislation may 
also well be said of the school legislation of the 1911 ses- 
sion : it is mere patchwork. A thorough revision and codifi- 
cation of our schools laws has yet to be made. In 1907 an 
educational commission was appointed to recommend legis- 
lation looking toward the unifying and coordinating of the 
entire school system of the State, but unfortunately the 
legislature did not enact the recommendations of the com- 
mission into law. Too frequently such commissions are 
created only to divert public attention and delay action. It 
is to be hoped that the recommendations of the tax com- 
mission and the employer's liability commission will not 
meet the same fate as that of the educational commission. 


In conclusion a few words relative to what the Thirty- 

ee Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 148. 

67 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 163. 

68 Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 145. 
«» Laws of Iowa, 1911, p. 158. 


fourth General Assembly did not do may be of interest. 
The Public Utilities Bill, which was defeated in the legis- 
lature in 1909, passed the House in the Thirty-fourth Gen- 
eral Assembly, but was defeated in the Senate. The 
reasons for its defeat may be said to be, first, the fact that 
the relations between the city and the State had not been 
completely worked out; second, the fact that the corpora- 
tions favored the bill led many to look upon it with sus- 
picion; and third, the attitude of the author of the bill on 
the subject of prohibition, and particularly the Five Mile 
Bill, which aroused opposition on the part of the prohibi- 
tion element. 

The Whitney Good Eoads Bill, designed to centralize the 
administration of the road laws by enlarging the powers of 
the State Highway Commission and creating the office of 
County Engineer, met with three powerful sources of op- 
position, namely, the bridge companies, the companies 
manufacturing road machinery, and the County Super- 
visors. It is estimated that at least half of the money 
spent upon our roads annually is worse than wasted be- 
cause of the undoubted existence of graft in connection 
with bridge and road work. 

An important bill which passed both houses, but was de- 
feated by the Governor's veto, was the Oregon plan of 
electing United States Senators. In spite of the fact that 
Governor Carroll declared the act to be unconstitutional, 
the legislature of Minnesota passed a similar bill shortly 
after the adjournment of the Iowa legislature and it was 
signed by the Governor of that State. Commenting upon 
the action of the Governor of Minnesota in signing the bill, 
The Register and Leader sarcastically remarked : 

"When the constitution has been driven from pillar to post in 
every legislature and by every governor, it can still turn to Iowa 
for refuge. 

VOL. IX — 33 


On this occasion it would seem to be entirely proper to emphasize 
the value of a few weeks in the law on the part of prospective pub- 
lic officials. If Governor Eberhart had taken a night course he 
would not so readily have made himself a party to this insidious 
attack upon the citadel of our liberties.'^*^ 

Among the other important measures which failed to pass 
may be mentioned the Five Mile Bill, prohibiting the sale 
of liquor within five miles of any educational institution 
of the State, the bill to abolish the office of School Treas- 
urer, and the Woman's Suffrage Bill. The much needed 
revision of the game laws was not even attempted. 

The Thirty-fourth General Assembly was no more con- 
spicuous for what it did not do than were most of its prede- 
cessors. Legislation to-day is a compromise of conflicting 
interests in which it is impossible to satisfy the full de- 
mands of all; and in reviewing the work of the Thirty- 
fourth General Assembly it should be borne in mind that 
half a loaf is better than no loaf at all. The legislature had 
before it some new and difficult problems, and if it hesi- 
tated to act upon incomplete or imperfect information it 
should be congratulated. The Senatorial deadlock over- 
shadowed all else in the eyes of the public and the General 
Assembly received a great deal of abuse for not doing 
sooner what was finally accomplished at the close of the 

Perhaps no better estimate of the work of the Thirty- 
fourth General Assembly could be made than is to be found 
in the following editorial comment in a leading Iowa news- 
paper : — 

The test of the Thirty-fourth general assembly will come when 
the Thirty-fifth general assembly convenes. 

Matters of importance have been attended to in the Thirty- 
fourth, and a great many needless and vicious bills have been in- 
definitely set aside. But the session as a whole has been preHmi- 

70 The Register and Leader, April 24, 1911. 


nary merely — a sort of unfinished sitting. What has marked it has 
been the breaking up of old alignments, the entrance of new men, 
and the general promise of something to be realized in the future. 

The Thirty-fourth marks a transition period. For the past ten 
or twelve years there has been a compact leadership. Such names 
as Funk, Healy, Garst, Cheshire, Maytag, Perry, suggest them- 
selves. The board of control law, the anti-pass law, the Blanchard 
law are readily recalled. But with the exception of Senator Smith 
these men are out of public life. 

It would be easy to name the men who have stood in opposition 
during this ''Iowa idea" period. They, too, have passed. With 
the standpatters as with the progressives this legislature has been 
in the hands of new men. And among the new men standpatters 
and progressives have crossed lines in a way to make any definite 
new alignment hard to locate. As with men so with measures; it 
is a period of transition. 

With the opening of the Thirty-fifth general assembly the definite 
alignments for the coming decade will form. Men will seek their 
natural affiliations and natural leaders will appear. With leader- 
ship issues will arise and forces will be marshaled. The next 
legislature will be a legislature of definite alignments. For these 
alignments the men who are to determine the future course of 
events are getting ready. 

There will never be a larger field for constructive statesmanship 
than will be offered to the Thirty-fifth general assembly. Iowa 
herself is in a transition period. She is just where the old days of 
the frontier, with its volunteer road work, and volunteer school, 
and volunteer railroad, and volunteer water company, must go 
with the volunteer brass band and volunteer hose cart. She has 
not yet entered fully upon the new period of intensified farming 
on $200 land, the public service no longer a doubtful speculation 
but an established monopoly, when the school and road, and tele- 
phone, and everything else must be made to contribute very def- 
initely to the prosperity of a people, who must make every step 

The public discussion of the next two years is going to be largely 
about state affairs. This in the face of a national campaign. There 
is nothing vital in national politics to monopolize attention, and 


there is something vital now in the new life that is stirring in Iowa. 
"We shall hear more about what Iowa needs and what Iowa ought 
to do in the coming two years. There will be more favorable pub- 
licity for Iowa; more encouragement of new industries for Iowa; 
more call for investment of Iowa money in Iowa ventures; more 
Iowa talk all along the line than in any other years. All of this 
will lead to an insistent demand upon the Thirty-fifth general as- 
sembly for adequate plans for the future. 

There are men of brains in this legislature who will be members 
of the Thirty-fifth to work a revolution in this state. It will be the 
measure of their service now what they do then. The two sessions 
will be taken together. They can easily be made a turning point 
in the progress of the state.'^^ 

Fkank Edward Horack 

The State University of Iowa 
Iowa City 

71 The Begister and Leader, April 13, 1911. 




A study of legislation during the middle period in the 
history of the United States reveals a general movement 
for the codification of law, led in New York by Mr. David 
Dudley Field.^ This movement, moreover, bore early fruit 
in Iowa where the results, in at least one instance, were so 
distinguished as to serve as a model for other States. 

Since the establishment of the Territory in 1838 there 
have appeared in Iowa six official codes^ and four private 
compilations^ of the laws. Unfortunately those who com- 
piled the various codes have left scarcely any first-hand 

1 For a discussion of the codification of law, the following references may be 
consulted: Codification in The American Law Beview, Vol. XX, pp. 1, 315; 
Codes and the Arrangement of the Law in The American Law Beview, Vol. V, 
p. 1; and Field's The Codes of New YorJc and Codification in General in The 
Albany Law Journal, Vol. XIX, p. 192. 

2 The six official codes are : The Statute Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838- 
1839, or The Old Blue Boole ; Bevised Statutes of the Territory of Iowa, 1842- 
1843, or The Blue Boole; The Code of 1851; Bevision of 1860; The Code of 
1873; and Code of 1897. 

In 1860 there was published a separate volume entitled Code of Civil and 
Criminal Practice. It was desired to place before the public the code of civil 
and criminal practice as soon as possible; and so the book referred to was 
published in May, 1860, and later incorporated in the complete edition of the 
Bevision of 1860 which came out in the following September. The volume was 
published as a private enterprise. 

There are two supplements to the Code of 1897, one published in 1902 and 
the other in 1907. 

3 The four private compilations are : Stacy 's The Code of Civil Procedure, 
Des Moines, 1878; Overton's The Annotated Code of Civil Practice for Wis- 
consin and Iowa, Chicago, 1875; Miller's Bevised and Annotated Code of Iowa, 
Des Moines, 1880; McClain's Annotated Statutes, Chicago, 1880. 



accounts of their work. And so, the story of these books 
must be gathered from widely scattered sources, such as 
official documents, magazine articles, and contemporary 
newspapers. The secondary sources, moreover, have been 
found to be more or less unsatisfactory and unreliable. 

In the broadest sense the laws in force in Iowa include 
the Constitution of the United States, the acts of Congress 
and the treaties of the United States, the Constitution of 
Iowa, the acts and resolutions of the General Assembly, 
the decisions of the courts, and the Common Law rules 
prior to 1707 and not locally inapplicable.* To gather from 
these sources the laws, to coordinate and classify them, 
and to publish the results constitute the task of codifica- 
tion. In Iowa, however, no attempts have been made to 
codify all the law in force in the State. It is worthy of 
note that New York did make such an attempt at an early 
date but abandoned the undertaking.^ 

A code, to be binding as a body of law, must be enacted 
as such by legislative authority. It differs from an ordi- 
nary compilation of legislative acts, such as the session 
laws, in that it deals with general law only, and does not 
include joint resolutions or those laws which are purely 

Eevised editions of Miller's work were gotten out in 1884, 1888, and 1890. 

A supplement to Judge McClain's work appeared in 1884. In 1888 he pub- 
lished the Annotated Code and Statutes. In 1892 a supplement to the latter 
work was published. 

For a list of Iowa codes, both official and private, see Check List of the Pub- 
lications of the State of Iowa, 1904, p. 34. 

4 See Iowa Historical Lectures, 1892, p. 84. In 1840 the Territorial legisla- 
ture enacted a law which provided that none of the statutes of Great Britain 
should be in effect in Iowa. The court holds that this ' ' does not extend to the 
statutes of England", but ''was intended to prescribe the event of the union 
of the crown of England with that of Scotland, as the period at which the 
statutes of England should cease to operate upon our law". — O'Eerrall v. 
Simplot, 4 Iowa 381. The quotations are from the syllabus. See Laws of the 
Territory of Iowa, 1840 (Ex. Session), Chap. 29, Sec. 8, p. 20. 

5 Preface to the Revision of 1860, p. iv. 



private or local in their nature. This distinction is ad- 
mirably brought out in a Georgia case, where the court 
holds that there is quite a difference between a code of 
laws for a state and a compilation in revised form of its 
statutes. The code is broader in its scope, and more com- 
prehensive in its purposes. Its general object is to embody- 
as near as practicable all the law of a state, from whatever 
source derived. When properly adopted by the law-making 
power of a state, it has the same effect as one general act 
of the legislature containing all the provisions embraced 
in the volume that is thus adopted. It is more than evi- 
dentiary of the law. It is the law itself. '^^ A code, then, is 
*^a general collection or compilation of laws by public au- 
thority. The word is used frequently in the United States 
to signify a concise, comprehensive, systematic reenactment 
of the law, deduced from both its principal sources, the pre- 
existing statutes, and the adjudications of courts, as dis- 
tinguished from compilations of statute law only.''"^ 

Two methods have been employed in the making of the 
codes in Iowa. During the Territorial period the legisla- 
ture itself attempted to do the work without the aid of men 
learned in the law ; but the results of this method were far 
from satisfactory. After the Territory became a State, the 
work of codification was invariably entrusted to a board of 
Commissioners, who prepared a code for adoption or re- 
jection, in whole or in part, by the General Assembly. 

Although there were codes so-called in the several juris- 
dictions^ to which the Iowa country was subjected prior to 

6 Quoted from the article on Code in the Cyclopedia of Law and Procedure, 
7 Cjc. 269. The case is reported in 104 Georgia 831. 

7 From the article on Code in The American and English Encyclopedia of 
Law, (2nd edition), Vol. VI, p. 173. 

8 The jurisdictions were: District of Louisiana, 1804-1805; Territory of 
Louisiana, 1805-1812 ; Territory of Missouri, 1812-1821 ; Territory of Michigan, 
1834-1836; and the Original Territory of Wisconsin, 1836-1838. 



1838, none of these early compilations^ will be considered 
in this paper for obvious reasons. Nor will any notice be 
taken in this connection of the extra-legal codes or consti- 
tutions adopted by the early settlers in their Claim Associ- 
ations,^^ or the by-laws subscribed to by the Dubuque 
miners in 1830.ii 

The first publication of Iowa laws which bears any 
semblance to a code is The Statute Laws of the Territory 
of Iowa, 1838-1839, known to some writers as The Old Blue 
Booh}^ This was followed in 1843, by a more extensive book 
entitled the Revised Statutes of the Territory of Iowa, 1842- 
1843, and popularly known as The Blue Booh}^ These vol- 
umes, which belong to the Territorial period, are not codes 
in any strict sense of the term. And yet, both have some 
resemblance to a systematic compilation in the arrangement 
of matter, which does not follow the chronological order of 
the acts as approved; both served as a guide to the law of 
the Territory; and both may be considered as the fore- 
runners to the later real codes of the State. 

The first suggestion looking toward a codification of the 

9 For example, in Michigan there had been published prior to 1834 three so- 
called codes: The Woodward Code, 1805, published at Washington, D. C; the 
Cass Code, 1816, published at Detroit, Mich.; and the Code of 1820. These 
compilations are reprinted in Vol. I of the Laws of the Territory of Michigan 
as published in 1871, p. xiii. 

10 See Shambaugh 's Constitution and Becords of the Claim Association of 
Johnson County; also Shambaugh 's Frontier Land Cluhs or Claim Associations 
in the Annual Beport of the American Historical Association for 1900, Vol. I, 
pp. 67-84. 

11 See Parish 's The Langworthys of Early Dubuque and Their Contributions 
to Local History in The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, Vol. VIII, 
p. 317. 

12 Cole's Historical Bibliography of the Statute Law of Iowa in The Law 
Bulletin, (State University of Iowa), No. 2, note on p. 40. He says ''This vol. 
is the 'Old Blue Book' having been bound with blue paper sides." 

13 Cole's Historical Bibliography of the Statute Law of Iowa in The Law 
Bulletin, (State University of Iowa), No. 2, note on p. 41. 


laws of Iowa was made by Governor Henry Dodge in his 
message to the Legislative Assembly in 1837, where he 
says : — 

By the organic law of Congress, the laws of the late Territory 
of Michigan are in force until altered, modified, or repealed. There 
has been a great accession of population to this Territory within 
the last four years, from every part of the United States : the state 
and condition of the people has been greatly changed, and the 
existing laws now in force (many of them) are not suited to the 
habits and wants of the citizens of this territory. I recommend 
for your consideration, at an early day of your session, the pro- 
priety of selecting three or more competent persons to report a code 
of laws to be submitted to the action of the Legislative Assembly 
during their present session.^* 

A leading newspaper of the time, after mentioning the 
convening of the legislature, remarks editorially : — 

There is one measure to be acted on, which all concede to be of 
paramount importance — we mean the revision of our present, or 
the adoption of an entire new code of laws. Something must be 
done on this subject, or we shall have to halt. It is time the people 
should know what laws are in existence in our Territory, and what 
are not. This opportunity, we hope, will soon be afforded them.^^ 

Less than a year later, on Jnly 4, 1838, that part of Wis- 
consin Territory lying west of the Mississippi Eiver was 
j erected into the Territory of Iowa. By the act which cre- 
ated this Territory it was provided that *^the existing laws 
of the Territory of Wisconsin shall be extended over said 
I territory, so far as the same be not incompatible with 
the provisions of this act, subject, nevertheless, to be 
altered, modified, or repealed by the governor and legisla- 
i tive assembly of the said territory of Iowa'^^^ 

14 Shambaugh 's Messages and Proclamations of the Governors of Iowa, Vol. 
I, p. 12. 

ii5 Wisconsin Territorial Gazette and Burlington Advertiser, Vol. I, No. 18, 
Thursday, November 11, 1837. 
I 16 Section 12 of the act of Congress, approved June 12, 1838, ' ' to divide the 
I Territory of Wisconsin, and establish the Territorial Government of Iowa. ' ' 


Although the legislature of the original Territory of Wis- 
consin had by a joint resolution provided for the printing 
of a compilation of the laws in force in the Territory,^ the 
first Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Iowa pro- 
ceeded to enact a great many new laws which finally took 
the form of a volume entitled The Statute Laws of the Ter- 
ritory of Iowa, 1838-1839. 


The first Territorial legislature met on November 12, 
1838, at Burlington. On this same day Governor Robert 
Lucas, in a lengthy message outlining the needs of the new 
Territory, strongly urged the adoption of a code of laws in 
the following terms : — 

The compilation and enactment of a complete Code of laws, par- 
ticularly adapted to our situation and interest, would require more 
time and deliberation, than is allotted to the Legislative Assembly 
during its session. And, indeed, experience has taught us, that it 
is impracticable to digest, report, and enact a complete code of 
laws during the session of a Legislative body. 

I would therefore suggest for your consideration, as a subject of 
the greatest importance to the future prosperity of the Territory, 
the appointment of a committee not to exceed three persons, of 
known legal experience and weight of character, to digest and pre- 
pare a complete code of laws during the recess of the Legislature, 
and to report them for consideration and enactment at the ensuing 
session. By pursuing this method, in the course of two years we 
will be released from the ambiguity of existing laws, and our system 
of jurisprudence will be established upon a firm foundation, pecu- 
liar [l]y adapted to the situation, interests, habits, and wants of our 

17 Laws of Wisconsin, 1836-1838, Joint Eesolutions, Nos. 11 and 15, pp. 524, 

1 « Shambaugh 's Executive Journal of Iowa, 1838-1841, p. 55; Shambaugh's 
Messages and Proclamations of the Governors of Iowa, Vol. I, p. 89; Council 
Journal, Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 12; and Journal of the House of 
Bepresentatives, Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 11. 



The suggestion of Governor Lucas did not seem to meet 
with the hearty approval of the legislature. In the House, 
Mr. James Brierly of Lee County offered a resolution call- 
ing for the appointment of a committee ^^to draft and revise 
a code of laws for the Territory of lowa'*;^^ but on the 
motion of Mr. James W. Grimes, the resolution was laid 
upon the table, from which it seems never to have been 

At the outset the two houses of the legislature pursued 
a different course of action in reference to the making of a 
code. In the journal of the House of Representatives it is 
recorded that on November 14, 1838, Mr. Grimes of the 
Judiciary Committee, offered the following resolution, 
which was adopted : 

That the Judges of the Supreme Court, be requested to present 
to this House during, the present session, for its action upon the 
same, such bills for this Territory as they should deem necessary 
for adoption.^^ 

The Council, on the other hand, simply referred that part 
of the message of Governor Lucas which related to the ap- 
pointment of a committee to draft and prepare a code of 
laws to the Judiciary Committee,^^ which was composed of 
Messrs. Stephen Hempstead, Jonathan W. Parker, E. A. M. 
Swazy, Charles Whittlesey, and Arthur Inghram.^^ 

On November 21, 1838, both houses adopted a joint reso- 
lution, similar to the House resolution of November 14th, 
requesting the Judges of the Supreme Court ^^to furnish 
this Legislative Assembly, during its present session, with 

19 House Journal, Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 21. 

20 House Journal, Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 21. 

21 House Journal, Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 20. 

22 Council Journal, Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 40. 

2B Council Journal, Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 23. Messrs. Charles 
Whittlesey and Arthur Inghram were added later in the session. 


such bills, as will, in their opinion, form a proper code of 
jurisprudence for Iowa, and regulate the practice of the 
courts thereof/ 

Previous to the adoption of this resolution, however, 
copies of several laws, covering various subjects, were sub- 
mitted to the legislature by Judges Charles Mason, T. S. 
Wilson, and Joseph Williams,^^ and were enacted into law. 
In fact, many of the most important laws passed at this first 
session of the Legislative Assembly were penned by Judge 
Mason, who was at that time the Chief Justice of the Su- 
preme Court.2^ rji]^^ resolution above referred to was 
looked upon as an act of employment, and the question of 
the compensation of the Judges in framing the laws gave 
rise to a complex legislative controversy.^^ 

The question of who should print the laws was the next 
question to be settled. Two firms had champions in both 
houses. James G. Edwards of Burlington had printed the 
laws of Wisconsin Territory the previous year, and Mr. 
Grimes, chairman of the Judiciary Committee in the House, 
was strongly in his favor.^^ But it appears that on No- 
vember 27, 1838, a joint resolution was approved, providing 
*^that Eussell and Eeeves, of Du Buque, be employed to 
print the Laws passed at the present session on the same 
terms, [that is, the same prices as were paid to the printers 
of Congress for such work] and that the said Eussell and 
Eeeves be required to enter into bonds, with good and suf- 

24 The Statute Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 517, Joint Eeso- 
lution, No. 7, approved January 4, 1839. 

2r> House Journal, Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 74. 

26 For a paper on Chief Justice Mason see McClain 's Charles Mason — Iowa 's 
First Jurist in the Annals of Iowa, 3rd Series, Vol. IV, p. 595. 

27 House Journal, Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, pp. 129, 130, 134, 139, 142, 
and 144. The question was kept alive during a considerable part of the session. 

28 House Journal, Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 36. 


ficient security, to the Secretary of the Territory, in the 
sum of five thousand dollars, to have the same ready for 
delivery on the first day of May, A. D. 1839/^29 

The act, however, which authorized the publication of the 
laws of 1838-1839 was approved January 21, 1839.^^ By 
its provisions the Territorial Secretary was directed to fur- 
nish the Territorial printer with a true copy of the acts and 
joint resolutions passed at that session of the legislature; 
and in addition he was required ^Ho make an index and 
marginal notes'' to the same and to furnish these to the 
printer along with the laws, ^^to superintend the printing, 
in such manner as he may conceive most conducive to the 
public good'', and to certify that the laws were correct ac- 
cording to the enrolled bills in his office .^^ Furthermore 
the act stipulates that * * there shall be prefixed to the volume 
. . . . a complete table of contents" and various docu- 

As stated above. The Statute Laws of the Territory of 
Iowa, 1838-1839, do not in the strict sense of the term con- 
stitute a code of laws. It would be more proper to refer to 
them simply as the session laws of 1838-1839. But the 
arrangement of the statutes under various headings, their 
publication in alphabetical order, and the scope of the sub- 
jects included give to the work something more than the 
appearance merely of a code. Containing as it did the 
various important documents, the volume served the pur- 
pose of a code rather than a collection of acts and may be 
properly regarded as a forerunner of later compilations. 

The Statute Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, 
contains five hundred and ninety-eight pages. Two thou- 

29 The Statute Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 515. 

30 The Statute Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 321. 

31 The Statute Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 322. 


sand copies were ordered to be printed and put np in half 
binding,^^ the covers of which were a pale blue cardboard 
— from which it took the name of The Old Blue Booh. The 
title page in full reads as follows : — 




DU buque: 


The Secretary's certificate, required by the act author- 
izing the publishing of the volume, stating that the printed 
pages were correct copies of the enrolled bills, is dated 
July 23, 1839.^^ The joint resolution provided that the 
book should be ready for delivery on the first day of May. 
Thus it is evident that there was a considerable delay in 
completing the work, a fact which caused trouble when it 
came time to pay for the printing. 

The first document in this compilation is the ^'Declara- 
tion of Independence'', which is followed by the Consti- 
tution of the United States", ''The Ordinance of 1787", 
and "The Organic Law of Iowa". In addition to these, in 
an appendix at the close of the book, may be found an act 
of Congress concerning the Naturalization of Aliens, of 
May 24, 1828, and the "Articles of Confederation. 

The acts of the Territorial legislature are grouped under 

S2 The Statute Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 517. 

33 The Statute Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, reverse of title page. 

34 The Statute Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 522. 


seventy-four headings, which are arranged alphabetically, 
commencing with Abatement'' and ending with "Wor- 
shipping Congregations''. The statutes themselves com- 
pare favorably with those of later assemblies. They are 
clear and free from ambiguity; and though some may be 
criticised as to arrangement, the majority are of a high 
order, both from a literary and a legal standpoint. 

The headings of the various sections are sometimes mis- 
leading. For example, under Mechanic "^^ the law refers 
to liens and the methods of foreclosing the same; under 

Legislative Assembly "^^ the act is one ^^to district the 
Territory of Iowa into electoral districts, and to apportion 
the Eepresentatives of each"; and under Burlington "^"^ 
appears ^^An Act to improve the Police of the City of 
Burlington. ' ' 

In the arrangement of the contents, laws of a general 
nature are not separated from those of a special or private 
character. And so the book contains a number of acts 
granting ferry privileges and regulating their operation, 
acts establishing roads,^^ and acts authorizing individuals 
to erect mill dams. There are also eleven acts which refer 
to counties and to county boundaries."^ One statute 
changes the old county of Slaughter into the Washington 
County of to-day;*^ and another provides that **so soon as 
the place shall be selected" for a seat of government, it 
should be called *^Iowa City".^^ A considerable number of 

35 The Statute Laws of the Territory of loiva, 1838-1839, p. 327. 

36 The Statute Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 324. 

37 The Statute Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 71. 

38 There were six acts relating to Eoads. — The Statute Laws of the Territory 
of Iowa, 1838-1839, pp. 427-435. 

39 The Statute Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, pp. 89-107. 

40 The Statute Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 100. 

41 The Statute Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 437. 


laws are headed Incorporations ' ',^2 since in the absence 
of a general incorporation law every organization that de- 
sired corporate life had to secure a special charter from 
the legislature. The laws relating to county organization 
and county officers are not grouped into one division, but 
are scattered throughout the book. 

Many of the statutes printed in The Old Blue Booh are 
naturally of interest only from an historical standpoint. 
There is a law concerning Blacks and Mulattoes''*^ 
which seems very harsh and unjust to-day, but which in 
1839 expressed the sentiment of a majority of the inhab- 
itants of lowa.*^ No black or mulatto was allowed to reside 
or settle in the Territory unless he could produce a cer- 
tificate under seal showing his freedom, and give a bond of 
five hundred dollars conditioned on his good behavior, and 
that such black or mulatto would not become a charge on 
the county. A conviction of any crime or misdemeanor 
acted as a forfeiture of such bond. Moreover, if the negro 
or mulatto failed to provide such security, it became the 
duty of the county commissioners to hire him out to the 
highest bidder for cash.*^ 

Another law of interest is the one in regard to seals, as 
it shows the tendency of the early legislators to break away 
from some of the restrictions of the Common Law.^^ The 
law now is, of course, much more liberal than then ; but the 
act referred to was more liberal than the Common Law, 
since it provided ^^That any instrument, to which the per- 

42 The Statute Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 227. There was 
a total of fourteen acts headed ' ' Incorporations ' 

43 The Statute Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 65. 

44 Many of the early settlers were from the South and naturally had the 
southern attitude toward the colored race. 

45 The Statute Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 66. 
4« The Statute Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 435. 



son making the same shall affix any device, or scrawl, by 
way of seal, shall be adjudged and held to be of the same 
force and obligation as if it were actually sealed", and 
further, ^'All instruments shall be considered, and ad- 
judged, as sealed instruments whenever the aforesaid 
scrawl or device, is attached by the mark thereof, although 
the word ^seaP is not mentioned in the body of the instru- 

In the act defining crimes and punishments is found the 
interesting provision that ^^any person who shall steal any 
hog, shoat, or pig, or mark or alter the mark of any hog, 
shoat, or pig, with an intention of stealing the same, for 
every such offence, upon being thereof duly convicted, shall 
be fined in any sum not exceeding one hundred dollars, and 
moreover shall be imprisoned for a term not exceeding five 
years''.*^ The crime of horse stealing, being of a much 
graver nature, was punished by a prison sentence of ten 

The code of criminal jurisprudence, which covers thirty 
pages, is to be found under the heading ^' Courts ".^^ The 
act is divided into ten divisions, graded according to the 
enormity of the crime. One noticeable feature is the statu- 
tory definitions of murder, manslaughter, and the various 
crimes.^^ As a matter of fact, the crime of murder is not 
as fully defined in the Code of 1897 as in the first code of 
the Territory. The Old Blue Book^ however, has nothing 
to say of the greatest of all crimes, namely, treason. 

The militia is very elaborately organized into three di- 

47 The Statute Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 435. 

48 The Statute Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 150. 

49 The Statute Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 149. 

50 The Statute Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 142. 

51 The Statute Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 142. 

VOL. IX — 34 


visions of not less than two brigades eacli.^^ Such an 
organization seems to have given considerable trouble, as 
the militia law was continually being changed. The popula- 
tion of Iowa in 1838 was 22,859,^^ and the minimum organi- 
zation called for six brigades ; while to-day with a popula- 
tion of over two million the militia is organized into one 
brigade. The Adjutant General was to keep extensive rec- 
ords and was allowed ^^one hundred and fifty dollars, 
annually, for book stationery, and in full for all his serv- 
ices as such".^* 

The last statute in the book is headed Worshiping 
Congregations which is an act *^to preserve good order 
in all worshiping congregations in this Territory. ''^^ The 
act makes it a crime, triable by jury, to use profane or 
vulgar language, or sell liquors within a certain distance of 
worshiping assemblages. 

Under many of the acts of a private nature are to be 
found notes from the pen of Governor Lucas, which usually 
declare that so far as the law interferes ^'with private 
rights, or the property of the United States, it will be con- 
sidered void'^ but in other respects it is valid.^^ These 
notes closely resembled judicial opinions and as such were 
clearly superfluous. 

Throughout the volume there are complete marginal 
notes of an exceptionally high character. These are of 
great aid to the student who seeks a concise, correct state- 
ment of the law. The statutes are clothed in such simple 

f52 The Statute Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 329. 

53 House Journal, Territory of Iowa, 1840-1841, p. 316. 

54 The Statute Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 334. 

r^s The Statute Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 513. 

60 The writing of these opinions by Governor Lucas raised considerable op- 
position in the first session of the Legislative Assembly. — See Parish's Robert 
Lucas, p. 211. 



and clear language that the man who is unacquainted with 
the law can easily understand them. At that time annota- 
tions had not made their appearance in compilations of 
Iowa laws ; indeed, there were practically none to be made 
in connection with these Iowa statutes as the Supreme 
Court had only been in existence for a few months.^"^ Fol- 
lowing the acts of the Legislative Assembly are the joint 
resolutions — twelve in number. 

As stated above, there was considerable delay in the pub- 
lication of the laws. This was very provoking to Governor 
Lucas^ and in his second annual message he gives a com- 
plete account of the reasons for their tardy appearance, in 
which he seeks to throw the blame on Secretary Wm. B. 
Conway, who had prepared the book for publication.^^ In 
speaking of the delay he says : — 

They have just been received at this city, within a few days of 
six months after the time specified in the obligation. On examining 
the printed volume, delivered to me by the Secretary of the Terri- 
tory, I find it contains his official certificate, dated the 23d of July, 
A. D. 1839, (nearly three months after the time the laws should 
have been ready for delivery) certifying that he had compared the 
pages with the ''engrossed bills" deposited in his office, and that 
they contained true and correct copies. (The Secretary, I suppose 
meant the enrolled bills, as no "engrossed bills" are ever filed in 
the Secretary's office as laws.) In this certificate the Secretary has 
been in error in one particular at least; for, in the first section of 
the act providing for and regulating general elections, in the Ter- 
ritory, I discover a very important interpolation in the printed 

57 There were only 191 cases tried during the Territorial period. Chief Jus- 
tice Mason wrote 166 of the opinions, one of the most important of which was 
the case of Ealph, a colored man, which is reported in Bradford's Eeports of 
the Decisions of the Supreme Court of Iowa, 1840, p. 3. This case is also re- 
ported in Morris, p. 1. See McClain's Charles Mason — Iowa's First Jurist in 
the Annals of Iowa, 3rd Series, Vol. IV, p, 598, and also Parish's An Early 
Fugitive Slave Case West of the Mississippi Biver in The Iowa Journal of 
History and Politics, Vol. VI, p. 88. 

58 The Statute Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 321. 


copy, that changes materially the meaning of the law. The original 
enrolled bill signed by the presiding officers of both branches of the 
Legislative Assembly, approved by the Executive, and deposited in 
the Secretary's office, in the clause relating to the election of Dele- 
gate to Congress, reads as follows: ''An election for Delegate to 
Congress, for members of the council, and county recorder, shall 
take place on the first Monday in August next — and forty, and on 
the same day in every second year thereafter." The printed copy 
is made to read "An election for Delegate to Congress, for mem- 
bers to the council, and county Recorder, shall take place on the 
first Monday of August, Eighteen hundred and forty, and on the 
same day in every second year thereafter." Thus we find the 
word "next^' where it occurs after the word August" in the 
original enrolled bill omitted, and the words Eighteen hundred", 
that are not in the original roll interpolated in the printed copy. 
I have also examined the appendix with care, and find under the 
head Naturalization of aliens An act of Congress entitled "an Act 
to amend an Act concerning Naturalization," approved 24th May, 
1828, printed which is the only act on this subject that I could find 
in the volume. The acts of the Legislative Assembly require the 
publication, in an appendix to the laws of the Territory, all acts of 
Congress now in force, relative to the naturalization of aliens, which 
would have included a general law on that subject, approved 14th 
April 1802, an additional act approved 26th of March 1804, an act 
regulating seamen, &c. approved 3d of March 1813, an act supple- 
mentary to acts heretofore passed, &c. approved July 30th, 1813, 
an act relative to evidence in case of naturalization, approved May 
29th, 1824, all of which acts are in force and should have preceded 
the act published in the appendix.^^ 

To avoid a repetition of such a delay, the Governor 
urged the appointment of a Public Printer.^^ But this rec- 
ommendation met with little favor during the Territorial 
period, and the printing was given to those printers who 
were allied with the dominant political party. 

''i> Ifoiisc Journal, Territory of Iowa, 18.39-1840, p. 13. For the report of the 
le^islHtivo committee on the delay in printing, Avhich gives a partial history of 
The Old Blue Booh, see House Journal, Territory of Iowa, 1839-1840, pp. 4G-48. 

ao House Journal, Territory of Iowa, 1839-1840, p. 13. 



At the session of 1839-40 it became necessary to provide 
for the payment of the printing of The Old Blue Book. 
Messrs. Eussell and Reeves had filed bonds in the sum of 
five thousand dollars, with three securities, that the laws 
would be published on May 1, 1839.^^ Because of the delay 
the Governor thought the legislature should interfere 
but in the early part of the second session a joint resolution 
was passed, declaring ^^That Eussell & Eeeves, publishers 
of the laws of the territory, be and they are hereby entitled 
to the balance due on said work, as though the same had 
been done by the first day of May eighteen hundred thirty- 
nine."^^ The Governor refused to sign this resolution, and 
it was passed over his veto.^^ What is meant by bal- 
ance'^ in this resolution is hard to determine. After 
Eussell & Eeeves had filed their bond, Mr. Grimes had 
introduced in the House a resolution that $1,500 be ad- 
vanced to them, but such resolution never became a law.^^ 
They were paid, however, ^ ^ the like prices allowed for work 
by Congress". This amounted to $3,943.00.^6 The last 
word on the question of paying for this code was given in 
the report of a committee to examine the amount annually 
appropriated for public printing.^^ It reads : — 

Your committee are of opinion, that, at the prices fixed, the 
amount for printing the first volume should not have exceeded 
$3239.36. Yet it will be seen by the above exhibit, that $3943.00 
was appropriated to satisfy "a balance" supposed to be due for 

61 House Journal, Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 263. 

62 House Journal, Territory of Iowa, 1839-1840, p. 13. 

63 Joint Eesolution, No. 2. Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1839-1840, p. 147. 

64 See above note 63. 

65 House Journal, Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 263. 

66 See report of the Investigating Committee, House Journal, Territory of 
Iowa, 1841-1842, pp. 234, 235. 

6T House Journal, Territory of Iowa, 1841-1842, p. 236. 


that object — what was the whole sum allowed for that work the 
committee have been unable to ascertain; but this "balance" ex- 
ceeds the amount your committee believe to have been due for the 
whole of said work; the sum of $703.64. 

Despite the fact that The -Old Blue Booh was hastily 
gotten together and comprised the laws of only one session 
of the Legislative Assembly, it was, nevertheless, destined 
to serve as a code of law for another jurisdiction, namely, 
Oregon. From 1841 nntil 1845 the question of local govern- 
ment in Oregon was a serious one. The United States had 
made no provision for a form of government and many of 
the settlers, who were loyal to the United States, feared 
that the joint occupancy of the country by Great Britain 
and the United States would terminate in the Englishman's 
favor. Accordingly, they did everything in their power to 
hold Oregon for the Union.^^ The most important act of 
the settlers was, perhaps, the formation of the Provisional 
Government.^^ On May 2, 1843, a meeting was held at 
Champoeg where it was decided by the settlers, by a very 
close vote, to form a government.'^^ A committee was ap- 
pointed to draw up a constitution which was to be sub- 
mitted on July 5, 1843. The preamble of the report reads : — 

We, the people of Oregon Territory, for the purpose of mutual 
protection and to secure peace and prosperity among ourselves, 

08 The following papers deal with the organization of Oregon Territory : 
Bradley's Political Beginnings in Oregon in The Quarterly of the Oregon His- 
torical Society, Vol. IX, p. 42; Herriott's Trails planting Iowa's Laws to Oregon 
in the Annals of Iowa, 3rd Series, Vol. VI, p. 455, reprinted in The Quarterly 
of the Oregon Historical Society, Vol. V, p. 139; Scott's The Formation and 
Administration of the Provisional Government of Oregon in The Quarterly of 
the Oregon Historical Society, Vol. II, p. 95; Eobertson's The Genesis of Po- 
litical Authority and of a Commonwealth Government in Oregon in The Quar- 
terly of the Oregon Historical Society, Vol. I, p. 3; Benton's Thirty Years' 
View, Vol. II, pp. 470-482; and the Congressional Globe, 1842-1843, pp. 149-155. 

fi» Scott's The Formation and Administration of the Provisional Government 
of Oregon in The Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society, Vol. II, p. 95. 

70 The Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society, Vol. IX, p. 50. 



agree to adopt the following laws until such time as the United 
States of America extend their jurisdiction over us.'^^ 

Two sections in this constitution provide for the adoption 
of the Iowa statutes. Article 12 of Section 2 declares : — 

The laws of Iowa territory shall be the laws of this territory, in 
civil, military and criminal cases ; where not otherwise provided for, 
and where no statute of Iowa applies, the principles of common law 
and equity shall govern. '^^ 

Again in Article 19 the framers of the Provisional Gov- 
ernment made the following provision : — 

That the following portion of the laws of Iowa, as laid down in 
the statute laws of the territory of Iowa enacted at the first session 
of the legislative assembly of said territory held at Burlington, 

A. D., 1838-9, published by authority, Du Buque, Bussel [Russell], 
and Reeves, printers, 1839. Certified to be a correct copy by Wm. 

B. Conway, secretary of Iowa territory, be adopted as the laws of 
this territory. 

A list of over thirty acts is then appended to the resolu- 
tionJ^ Thus were the laws of Iowa embodied in the first 
Constitution of Oregon. The legislature which met later 
passed an act adopting the statutes of Iowa, so far as 
they were applicable to the circumstances of the country. ""^^ 

Two reasons have been assigned for the adoption of the 
Iowa statutes as a part of the Constitution of Oregon. One 
writer says that there was but one copy of the Iowa code 
in Oregon, and so far as we have been able to find out, there 
was no other copy of any kind of a code within reach of 

71 The Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society, Vol. IX, p. 51. 

72 Annals of Iowa, 3rcl Series, Vol. VI, p. 459. This constitution, copied from 
Grover's Oregon Archives, pp. 28-32, may be found in Bancroft's History of 
Oregon, Vol. I, pp. 306-309. 

"^^ Annals of Iowa, 3rd Series, Vol. VI, p. 459. 

'^'^ Annals of Iowa, 3rd Series, Vol. VI, p. 460. 

75 The Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society, Vol. IX, p. 59. 


the legislators, and ignorant of modes of legal procedure 
as they were, it was necessary that they have some guide. 
The same writer suggests that Iowa was laboring under the 
same conditions as Oregon, and her laws were more suit- 
able than those of any other State or Territory for the use 
of the ^^Provisional Government ".'^'^ Another writer in- 
timates that the Iowa statutes might have been adopted as 
the result of a bill introduced in the United States Senate 
by Senator Louis F. Linn of Missouri, which provided for 
the organizing of Oregon into a Territory and extending 
the jurisdiction of the courts and judges of Iowa over the 
new TerritoryJ^ The bill failed of passage, but the pro- 
visions therein may have induced the inhabitants to con- 
sider lowa^s laws more favorably than those of any other 
commonwealth J ^ 

The original edition of The Old Blue Booh is very rare, 
and this fact led the Historical Department of Iowa to re- 
print the volume in 1900.^^ Judges Horace E. Deemer and 
Scott M. Ladd had this work in charge, and they had print- 
ed one thousand copies, bound in sheep, and of a larger 
size than the original. The reprint contains six hundred 
thirty-four pages, six by nine inches in size. 

It should be remembered that The Old Blue Book did not 
contain all the law of the Territory. In 1839 the Judiciary 
Committee of the House reported a list of thirty-four acts 
of the Territories of Wisconsin and Michigan that were in 
force in lowa.^^ Most of these acts related to the subjects 

7*5 The Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society, Vol. IX, p. 59, 

77 The Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society, Vol. IX, pp. 59, GO. 

78 Benton's Thirty Years' View, Vol. II, p. 470. 
7» Annals of Iowa, 3rd Scries, Vol. VI, p. 4G2. 

80 Prefatory note to the reprint of The Statute Laws of the Territory of 
Iowa, 1838-1839. 

»i House Journal, Territory of Iowa, 1839-1840, p. 51. 


of property or criminal law, and in certain cases were the 
only laws on the subjects covered, which were in existence 
in Iowa.^2 

Except as modified by acts of the Legislative Assembly, 
The Old Blue Book remained in force for fonr years, or 
nntil the Revised Statutes of the Territory of Iowa, 1842- 
1843, known to the bar as The Blue Booh, was adopted. 
The majority of the laws were held in high regard, owing, 
no doubt, to their simplicity and clearness. Indeed, many 
of the acts were models in every respect. Few met with 
criticism and disapproval. Although many petitions came 
to the legislature to repeal the law concerning Blacks and 
Mulattoes,^^ the legislature persistently refused to modify 
the statute. Indeed, the select committee, to which the pe- 
titions were referred, reported that ^^an amendment to the 
law, prohibiting, positively, their settlement among us, 

would approach more nearly the true policy of our Terri- 
tory. ''^4 

This interesting little book was the forerunner of the 
codes of Iowa. Though it did not contain all the statute 
law in force, it served the same function as the present-day 
code. In it there was no attempt to classify the law ac- 
cording to topics, or arrange the acts in the order of their 
approval by the Governor. The laws were arranged alpha- 
betically under a system of arbitrary headings, which were 
in many cases misleading. But the laws themselves were 
of a high character. It was only natural that with every 
session of the legislature new laws should have been enact- 
ed, until it became necessary to displace this work with 
another more complete. But for four years The Old Blue 
Booh served as a guide to Iowa's laws, and for five years 

82 The act regulating marriages was one of this class. 
Bouse Journal, Territory of Iowa, 1840-1841, p. 235. 
Rouse Journal, Territory of Iowa, 1841-1842, p. 224. 


under the Provisional Government it served as a part of the 
Constitution of Oregon. In it were first enunciated some of 
the principles of Iowa jurisprudence and it stands to-day 
as the first monument to codified law in Iowa. 


It soon became evident, that with the large number of 
new laws passed at each session of the Legislative As- 
sembly, The Statute Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838- 
1839, would have a rapidly decreasing value. Further- 
more, many laws were repealed during this period,^^ so that 
it became difficult to tell what statutes were in force, and 
what were not. On November 5, 1840, Mr. Shepherd Lef- 
fler of Des Moines County, who was chairman of the Judici- 
ary Committee,^^ introduced a resolution in the House of 
Representatives calling ^^for the appointment of a Com- 
mittee to revise the laws".^'^ After being buffeted about, 
the resolution was indefinitely postponed. Again, in the 
session a year later, Mr. James K. Moss of Jackson County 
introduced a Joint Resolution relative to the revision of 
the laws of the Territory ".^^ This bill seemed to show 
some signs of passing, but it was laid upon the table shortly 
before the close of the session. 

Early in the session of 1842-1843 the question of revising 
the laws was again agitated. One leading newspaper, 
speaking editorially, plainly states that ^^The opinion has 
been for a long time past universal among those most con- 

85 At the extra session of 1840 an act was passed repealing all the laws of 
Michigan and Wisconsin in force on July 4, 1838, and also provided that ' ' none 
of the statutes of Great Britain shall be considered as law of this Territory." 
— Chapter 29, Laws of the Territory of Iowa, Extra Session, 1840, p. 21; re- 
print p. 25. See also above note 4. 

86 House Journal, Territory of Iowa, 1840-1841, p. 16. 
ST House Journal, Territory of Iowa, 1840-1841, p. 149. 
ss House Journal, Territory of Iowa, 1841-1842, p. 177. 



versant with, the operation and effect of our statutes that 
they need a careful revision. The Iowa Capitol Reporter 
(Iowa City) declares that ^Hhere has perhaps never been 
an instance in our country where the laws continued in so 
imperfect, defective, confused and conflicting state for so 
long a time", and it further declares that the need for re- 
vision is a ^'highly necessary and pressing exigency ".^^ 
Nevertheless there was strong opposition to revision en- 
countered in both houses. On December 7, 1842, in the 
House of Eepresentatives, Mr. Thomas McMillan of Henry 
County offered the following resolution : — 

Eesolved, by the Council and House of Representatives, That it 
is expedient to revise the laws of a general nature now in force in 

this Territory, and that a committee of members on the 

part of the Council, and members on the part of the House 

of Representatives, be appointed a Committee of Revision for that 

A week later the resolution was amended so as to read : — 

That a committee of three be appointed on the part of the House, 
to confer with a similar committee to be appointed on the part of 
the Council, to take into consideration the expediency of revising 
the laws of this Territory, and report to this House.^^ 

The resolution as thus amended was adopted by the 
House and Messrs. George H. Walworth, Thomas McMil- 
lan, and Thomas Eogers were appointed on the Committee.^^ 
Three days later these gentlemen reported a resolution fa- 
voring a revision of the laws of the Territory and calling 

89 Iowa Capitol Reporter (Iowa City), Vol. II, No. 3, Saturday, December 24, 

90 Iowa Capitol Eeporter (Iowa City), Vol. II, No. 3, Saturday, December 24, 

^1 House Journal, Territory of Iowa, 1842-1843, p. 16. 
92 House Journal, Territory of Iowa, 1842-1843, p. 39. 
House Journal, Territory of Iowa, 1842-1843, p. 39. 


for the appointment of a committee of eight, which was to 
act with a similar committee from the Council^* as a stand- 
ing committee on revision. It appears, however, that about 
one-third of the members were much opposed to such a 
method of revision, and through Mr. Thomas Rogers they 
offered a substitute, providing ^'that three competent in- 
dividuals be appointed by the Governor, by and with the 
advice and consent of the Council for that purpose, and 
report the result of their labors to the next session of the 
Legislature ' But by a vote of nineteen to seven this 
substitute was lost and the committee 's report was adopted. 

A spirited contest also took place in the Council. On 
December 9, 1842, Mr. Joseph B. Teas of Jefferson County 
introduced a resolution calling for the appointment of a 
committee to work with a similar committee from the House 
^Ho revise and compile'^ the laws of the Territory.^^ This 
was referred in the course of time to the Judiciary Com- 
mittee, but before they could report, the House resolution 
calling for the committee to investigate the '^expediency" 
of revising the laws was received and adopted by the Coun- 
cil, Messrs. Joseph B. Teas, Robert Christie, and William 
H. Wallace being appointed on the committee.^^ 

Here, as in the House, the joint resolution which the 
committee reported^^ had its enemies. Mr. Thomas Cox, 
an influential member, moved to amend the resolution ''by 
requiring the Judges of the Supreme Court to revise and 
compile the laws and report to the next Session of the Legis- 
lature ' but his motion was lost by a vote of nine to three. 

»4 Jlouse Journal, Territory of Iowa, 1842-1843, p. 49. 

House Journal, Territory of Iowa, 1842-1843, p. 50. 
»o Council Journal, Territory of Iowa, 1842-1843, p. 14. 

07 Council Journal, Territory of Iowa, 1842-1843, p. 23. 

08 See above note 94. 

00 Council Journal, Territory of Iowa, 1842-1843, p. 27. 



The majority seemed determined to kill all amendments or 
substitutes, and in the end the original report of the com- 
mittee was adopted. 

The resolution which was finally adopted by the Legis- 
lative Assembly provided for a standing committee on 
revision to be composed of four members from the Council 
and eight from the House. Those appointed from the Coun- 
cil were Mr. Joseph B. Teas, who had worked hard to secure 
the passage of the resolution, and Messrs. William H. Wal- 
lace, William Patterson, and Robert Christie.^^^ From the 
House came Messrs. Frederick Andros, Henry Felkner, 
Abner Hackleman, Isaac N. Lewis, Joseph Newell, Joseph 
M. Robertson, and two champions of the revision, Messrs. 
Thomas McMillan and George H. Walworth.^^^ 

Newspaper sentiment was not wholly in favor of such a 
method of revision as had been adopted. One of the news- 
papers most friendly to the measure considered it a make- 
shift, until the Territory should become the State of lowa.^*^^ 
Another leading newspaper of the day arraigns the measure 
in the following terms : — 

If such a work should be executed skilfully it would be a great 
public benefit, but if it cannot so be done, it would be better let 
alone and left undone. It appears from the resolution first intro- 
duced, and from some remarks made in the House where it was 
moved, that an idea is entertained of having a revision made by the 
legislature itself, during its session. It is impossible in the nature 
of things that such a revision can be in any way a complete one, or 
such as is demanded. The defects of a system of laws cannot be 
perceived on a casual or even a careful reading by an experienced 
lawyer, much less can they be understood by persons not expert in 
the law; as are most of the members of our legislature. A ship 

100 Council Journal, Territory of Iowa, 1842-1843, p. 28. 

101 House Journal, Territory of Iowa, 1842-1843, p. 55. 

102 The Iowa Standard (Iowa City), Vol. Ill, No. 4, Thursday, December 29, 


builder or a master sailor may look at a piece of construction in that 
art, and both pronounce it to be perfect in model and finish: but 
when the master has become better acquainted by an actual trial, 
he frequently finds that he has been much deceived, and that the 
performance of his vessel in some respects is by no means equal to 
the promise held out to the eye. He then is first made acquainted 
with its defects. So it is with laws. It is necessary that even a 
jurist should be acquainted with their practical operation in the 
courts, before he is sensible of their defects. 

But if the legislature were composed wholly of such kind of men, 
they would be unable to make a proper revision of laws during the 
session. My life on it, the best lawyers in both houses will so con- 
fess. A revision of a body of laws requires the patient, secluded, 
uninterrupted labor of the closet. It cannot be effected in the 
midst of the multiplied and various business of legislation, in the 
hurry, din, confusion, and political intrigue, the thousand applica- 
tions and interruptions from abroad, the perpetual bustle, motion, 
argumentation and project of the members themselves. This is no 
time, this is no place, these are not attendants favorable to a calm 
and deliberate examination, to the patient and severe labor of 
providing and skilfully executing the work of a new body of laws. 

It would be no compliment to former legislatures to assume on 
the part of the present, that these could, under the very same cir- 
cumstances, and with the same facilities enjoyed by former legis- 
latures, and no better, put the laws into so much better shape as is 
requisite than their predecessors could. 

The expense of doing the work by the legislature would be much 
greater than by a committee of jurists, and the work when done, 
would be of very little value, or none at all. It would still require 
that revision which it can only have in a mode different from that 
intimated in the resolution. The time required for its completion 
in that way was assumed to be fifty days. The legislature is com- 
posed of thirty nine members and ten officers — in the whole forty- 
nine. These are all under pay while the work progresses, fifty days 
at three dollars a day: the whole expense of which will be $7350. 
The expense of printing would raise the whole expense of the work 
to about $10,000, and it would be nearly if not quite lost. On the 
other hand, committee of two jurists at $1500 or three at $1000 
would be competent to complete the business, which would be a 


saving of $4000 to $5000 dollars; and the work when done would 
be much more valuable.^^^ 

On January 23, 1843, a resolntion was introduced in the 
Council calling upon the Secretary of the Territory to re- 
ceive proposals from the different editors in the Territory 
for the printing of the laws^^* — a proposition which did not 
meet with general approval. As a matter of fact the print- 
ing was let by joint resolution to Hughes and Williams,^^^ 
to be done according to the prices prescribed by law.^*^^ 
This resolution, however, did not pass without strong op- 
position, as the firms of John B. Eussell and of Wilson and 
Keesecker had many friends in both houses.^^^ 

The exact method of preparing the book is not fully 
known, as much of the labor was done as committee work, 
of which no records were preserved. The title of the book 
gives the information that the laws contained tisercin were 
^^Eevised and Compiled by a Joint Committee of the Legis- 
lature .... and Arranged by The Secretary of the 
Territory. "^^^ At various times throughout the session 
the Committee on Eevision reported the introduction of 
bills for the action of the legislature. The labor performed 
by the Secretary in arranging the laws was prescribed in 
the Organic Law of the Territory but the Legislative 
Assembly also empowered him to employ an assistant, ap- 
propriating therefor the sum of two hundred and fifty 

103 Iowa Capitol Eeporter (Iowa City), Vol. II, No. 3, Saturday, December 24, 

104 Council Journal, Territory of Iowa, 1842-1843, p. 80. 

105 Bevised Statutes of the Territory of Iowa, 1842-1843, p. 730. 

106 Bevised Statutes of the Territory of Iowa, 1842-1843, p. 498. 

107 Council Journal, Territory of Iowa, 1842-1843, p. 156. 

108 Bevised Statutes of the Territory of Iowa, 1842-1843, the title page. 

109 The Statute Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 32. 

110 Local Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1843, joint resolution number 10, p. 98. 


The law authorizing the publishing of this work provides 
that ^^two thousand five hundred copies of the laws of a 
general nature, enacted at the present session of the Legis- 
lative Assembly, together with all laws of a general nature, 
ordered to be reprinted by this Legislative Assembly, shall 
be published in one volume, to be bound after the manner of 
the volume of laws enacted at the first session of the Legis- 
lative Assembly in 1838 and '9."^^^ The local laws and 
those of a private nature were printed in a separate vol- 
ume.^ This fact explains the absence of statutes of a gen- 
eral nature in the session laws of this Legislative Assembly. 

The Revised Statutes of the Territory of Iowa, 1842-1843, 
was known to the bench and bar as The Blue Booh, and like 
its predecessor it derived this name from the color of its 
covers.^ In size the compilation of 1842-1843 is larger 
than the earlier volume of 1838-1839, containing nine 
hundred and four pages as compared with five hundred and 
ninety-eight pages in the latter. The title page reads : — 







111 Bevised Statutes of the Territory of Iowa, 1842-1843, p. 378. 

112 The laws of a local nature were printed in pamphlet form and entitled 
Local Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1843. 

113 See above note 13. 



The certificate of the Secretary is dated July 1, 1843, and 
states ^Hhat the Acts and Resolutions, hereinafter pub- 
lished have been compared with the copies on file in this 
Office, and that they correspond in every respect with said 
copies.'' 0. H. W. StuU was Secretary at this time and on 
him was later placed the blame for the delay in the prepara- 
tion of the volume. 

Aside from the laws and resolutions, the scope of the 
contents of The Blue Booh are very similar to those of The 
Old Blue Booh. There is the Declaration of Independence, 
the Constitution of the United States and the amendments 
thereto, the Ordinance of 1787, the Organic Law and the two 
amendments to the same, and the Treaty of Cession of 
Louisiana. Following the joint resolutions is a list of the 
published acts, by number and title, and the Federal Act 
concerning the Naturalization of Aliens. An interesting 
and valuable feature of The Blue Booh is a section entitled 
^^Explanations of certain terms made use of in the existing 
Laws of lowa.'^^^^ The index covers one hundred seventy- 
three pages and is more complete than the unsatisfactory 
indices found in most of the volumes of early Territorial or 
State documents. 

The laws contained in this volume are divided into one 
hundred sixty-two chapters, which are arranged alphabet- 
ically in the same manner as in The Old Blue Booh. Some 
of the headings, not having been selected with proper re- 
gard to the purpose or contents of the act, are misleading. 
Forty-seven of the chapters are taken in whole or in part 
from The Old Blue Booh; while one hundred fifteen chap- 
ters are acts passed subsequent to the session of 1838- 
1839.^^^ Each act is introduced by an abstract of the sec- 

^^^Bevised Statutes of the Territory of Iowa, 1842-1843, p. 745. 

115 The acts taken from The Old Blue BooTc are in most cases taken entire, 
only one or two being taken in part. 

VOL. IX — 35 


tions — wMch takes the place of the marginal notes in The 
Old Blue Booh. 

An examination of the various laws included reveals 
some interesting facts. There are fourteen distinct chap- 
ters referring to the courts,^^^ instead of one act creating 
and regulating the same. Chapter sixty-six is headed 
Education'', but provides for gifts of land to educational 
or religious societies.^ Another chapter is an act *^to 
abolish imprisonment for debt'';^^^ and it is worthy of note 
that this is the first time in the history of Iowa that such an 
act appears in a compilation other than the Session Laws.^^^ 
Chapter eighty-two, headed Immoral Practices '',^2^ makes 
it a misdemeanor punishable by a fine to sell intoxicating 
liquor on the Sabbath or to swear within the hearing of any 
religious assembly. The act on ^^Worshipping Congrega- 
tions 'V^^ contains stipulations similar to those in the act 
on ' ' Immoral Practices ' \ 

The section on Justices of the Peace'' is the longest in 
the book^^^ — covering sixty-eight pages — and along with 
the two chapters on Practice "^^^ constitutes the code of 
civil procedure. Section three of the law on Grocery Li- 
censes "^2* holds that ^^A grocery shall be deemed to in- 
clude any house or place where spirituous or vinous liquors 
are retailed by less quantities than one gallon." The li- 
ne Bevised Statutes of the Territory of Iowa, 1842-1843, p. 135. 

117 Bevised Statutes of the Territory of Iowa, 1842-1843, p. 242. 

118 Bevised Statutes of the Territory of Iowa, 1842-1843, p. 235. 

119 A similar act had been first published in the Laws of the Territory of 
Iowa, 1839-1840, Chapter 82, p. 122. 

120 Bevised Statutes of the Territory of Iowa, 1842-1843, p. 294. 

121 Bevised Statutes of the Territory of Iowa, 1842-1843, p. 657. 
^22 Bevised Statutes of the Territory of Iowa, 1842-1843, p. 302. 
128 Bevised Statutes of the Territory of Iowa, 1842-1843, p. 466. 

124 Bevised Statutes of the Territory of Iowa, 1842-1843, p. 373. i 



cense fee ranged between twenty-five and one hundred 

dollars, according to the will of the county commission- 

There are three acts concerning the militia, the first being 
approved on January 4, 1839 ; the second on J uly 31, 1840 ; 
and the third on February 17, 1842. It is difficult to under- 
stand why the first act is included as it is superseded by the 
second.^ One of the peculiar sections of this latter act 
reads as follows : — 

The commandants of companies are hereby authorized to put 
under guard, or to commit to prison for the day, and to return to 
the proper court-martial, any non-commissioned officer, musician 
or private, who shall appear on parade wearing any false face, 
personal disguise or other unusual ludicrous article of dress, or 
any arms, weapons, or other implements or things not required by 
law, and which are calculated to interrupt the peacable and orderly 
discharge of duty.^^'' 

The book contains a chapter on ' ' Marriages ' \ which was 
lacking in The Old Blue Booh — the laws of Michigan and 
Wisconsin being the only statutes then in force on that sub- 
ject. The act on Divorce and Alimony is also one which 
appears for the first time in a book of Iowa law. Other 
chapters on important subjects which are new in this vol- 
ume are those on Landlord and Tenant * ^ Agriculture ' ^ 
* ^Mortgages'', Fugitives from Justice'', ^^Poor Houses", 
* ^ Coroners ", * ^ Common Schools Trespassing Animals ' ', 

Townships ", and Prairies". 

In some instances the laws in The Blue Booh lack the 
brevity and clearness of those in The Old Blue Booh. For 
example confusion is caused by the appearance in several 
instances of two acts on the same subject. This situation 

125 Bevised Statutes of the Territory of Iowa, 1842-1843, p. 374. 

126 Bevised Statutes of the Territory of Iowa, 1842-1843, p. 396. 

127 Bevised Statutes of the Territory of Iowa, 1842-1843, p. 413. 


resulted in all probability from the method employed in 
revision, as it was difficult to make a critical inspection of 
the numerous laws on the different subjects in the manner 
adopted by the committee on revision. 

At the close of the session, Mr. John D. Elbert, the Presi- 
dent of the Council, said in his farewell address: *^Your 
untiring efforts to perfect a code of laws for the people of 
this rapidly rising, interesting and beautiful Territory, 
cannot fail to meet their entire approbation. '^^^^ A year 
and a half later Governor John Chambers in his annual 
message declared that ^^Our Statutory Code seems to be 
satisfactory to the people, and I am not aware that any 
material changes in it are necessary. '^^^9 

Despite these statements The Blue Book did not meet 
with universal approval. In the first place there was great 
delay in getting it into the hands of those who were to use 
it. The principal reason for the delay is explained by Mr. 
Charles Negus in his article on The Early History of 

It was made the duty of the secretary to take charge of their pub- 
lication and distribution [Revised Statutes]. StuU, who was then 
secretary, undertook the work, but, before he had completed it, 
was turned out of office, and S. J. Burr appointed in his place. 
Stull, being very much incensed at being deprived of his office, im- 
mediately abandoned the superintending of publishing and dis- 
tributing the laws, and left the business in such a condition that it 
was very difficult to readily proceed with the work. On account 
of this interruption, the laws were not ready for distribution till 
late the next fall, and the people were from six to nine months with 
scarcely anyone knowing what the laws were. This delay caused 

128 Council Journal, Territory of Iowa, 1842-1843, p. 185. 

120 Shambaugh's Messages and Proclamations of the Governors of Iowa, Vol. 
I, p. 285. 

130 Negus's The Early History of Iowa in the Annals of Iowa, April, 1871, 
Vol. IX, No. 2, p. 474. 



the clause to be inserted in the constitution, soon after framed, 
which provided that no laws of a public nature should take effect 
until the same were published and circulated in the several counties 
by authority.^^^ 

The contemporary newspapers also blame Secretary 
Stull. William Crum, the editor of The Iowa Standard 
(Iowa City), writes: — 

For the information of those at a distance, who are desirous of 
knowing in what situation the Revised Statutes of session before 
last, are, we will say that they have been bound and ready for de- 
livery for the last three months. It is the duty of Ex-Secretary 
Stull to distribute them, or see that it is done ; for he has received 
four hundred and fifty dollars for indexing and distributing them : 
Perhaps he was not aware that they were finished.^^^ 

The severest criticisms passed upon The Blue Booh were 
in reference to its contents and the arrangement of the 
laws. In December, 1843, one of the leading newspapers 
contained these words : — 

One very necessary work to be performed by the present Legis- 
lature will be to revise the Revision, As unfinished husinessj it 
might claim precedence of anything else. To be sure, no passing 
legislation can efface all its crudities, or set right the whole of its 
undigested and undigestible enactments. . . . But some of the 
more glaring faults might be corrected, and the rest left to be re- 
moved when a State code shall be arranged.^^^ 

Then follows a comparison of various sections of the 
revenue law, the valuation law, and the statute on Crimes 
and Punishments. In concluding the article the editor re- 
marks : — 

We will not take up our space by further citations. What we 
have brought to view sufficiently proves the necessity for a re- 

131 Constitution of Iowa, 1846, Art. 3, Sec. 27. 

132 The Iowa Standard (Iowa City), Vol. IV, No. 20, Thursday, May 16, 1844. 

133 The Iowa Standard (Iowa City), Vol. Ill, No. 49, Thursday, December 7, 


Revision. Nor will we, at this time, allude to imperfections in 
other particulars, attaching to the work — lest we be subjected to 
a charge of ill-will. 

The criticisms on the arrangement of the laws have been 
summed up by Judge Emlin McClain as follows : — 

The Revised Statutes of the Territory published in 1843, com- 
piled by a joint committee of the Legislature and arranged by the 
Secretary of the Territory, was a mere aggregation of existing 
statutes, under general headings selected with more or less dis- 
cretion as the case might be, and arranged in alphabetical order. 
The results of this plan were in some instances truly wonderful. 
You find for example edifying chapters on Abatement, Agent, 
Auctioneer, Acts Amended, Blacks and Mulatoes, Chancery, Dogs, 
Right, Gaming, Immoral Practices, Grocery License, Laws, Prair- 
ies, Right, Stallions and Jacks, Wolves, and Worshipping Congre- 
gations; and you marvel at the high regard for consistency and 
convenience which seems to have dominated the minds of the com- 
pilers in selecting the titles and thus determining the order of the 
contents. It must have required the concurrent wisdom of master 
minds to collect provisions as to commissioners to sell county lands, 
a superintendent of public buildings at Iowa City, and commis- 
sioners to sell town lots in Iowa City, all under the head of Agents ; 
to arrange in another chapter designated as Acts Amended, various 
provisions relating to taking up strays, fixing terms of court, rege- 
lating criminal procedure, and sales under execution ; to place pro- 
visions relating to the offense of swearing within the hearing of a 
religious assemblage in the chapter on Immoral Practices and those 
as to the disturbance of a religious meeting by profane swearing, 
vulgar language, or immoral conduct in a chapter on Worshipping 
Congregations in a distant part of the volume; to bring together 
two different codes for the government of the militia, one of which 
wholly superceded the other; to treat Bills of Exchange in one 
place and Promissory Notes in another; to treat the Action of 
Ri^(ht as a substitute for ejectment and again among the R's; to 
insert in the chapter headed Repeal, and regulating the effect of 
the repeal of a statute, a section repealing, "An act respecting 
seals"; to collect statutes as to Roads in one place and insert else- 
where as the sole topic under Supervisors a section as to penalties 



for refusing to work on the roads, while provisions as to Road Tax 
were placed in a chapter between Trespassing, Animals and Town- 
ships; and to treat Boats and Vessels in one chapter and Water- 
crafts, Lost Goods and Estrays in another.^^* 

The Blue Booh was the last attempt to publish all the 
statutes of the Territory in one volume. Neither The Blue 
Booh nor its predecessor were codes, as the term is tech- 
nically used ; but both books had many features which made 
them more than mere compilations of existing statutes. 
Their influence was considerable, since the statutes which 
they contain were the ground-work for the later laws of 
Iowa. Indeed, many of the splendid features of Iowa law 
are to be traced to the statutes of the Territorial period. 
Following the publication of The Blue Booh, the question 
of State organization and admission into the Union en- 
grossed the attention of the legislators and the question of 
another revision was not seriously considered until state- 
hood had been secured. 

Cliffokd Powell 

The State Historical Society of Iowa 
Iowa City, Iowa 

i34]y:cClain's Charles Mason — Iowa's First Jurist in the Annals of Iowa, 
3rd Series, Vol. IV, p. 605. 



[Bene Stem uit Pella (A Voice from Pella) is the title of a pampUet in the 
Dutch language written by Henry Peter Scholte in the month of March, 1848, 
printed at Amsterdam by Hoogkamer & Company, and now preserved in the 
archives of The State Historical Society of Iowa. The following pages are a 
more or less literal translation of this notable historical pamphlet. As the 
reader may judge, it was prepared specially for dissemination in The Nether- 

Most memorable in the history of emigration from Holland are the years 
1846 and 1847, because they represent the dates of the founding of pros- 
perous Dutch colonies in Michigan and Iowa and mark the beginning of an 
exodus which has never abated. Thousands of Hollanders have since found 
homes in all of the north central States. 

After William I. came to the throne of Holland in 1814, irregularities in 
the State Church and deviation from its doctrines so alarmed the orthodox, 
conservative party throughout the country that in 1834, under the leadership 
of a few clergymen, scores of people seceded from the State Church and 
formed small congregations. Of these clergymen, all of whom were suspended 
from their churches, Scholte was perhaps the foremost figure: he has been 
called ''the Father of the Separation". 

Despite the Dutch government's relentless persecution for many years, the 
Separatist congregations throve and flourished; but even after they were 
lecognized by royal decree in 1839 the members of the new sect were despised 
and cast out so that the economic distress throughout Holland was only ag- 
gravated among adherents of the new faith. Under these circumstances Scholte 
organized an Association at Utrecht in 1846; and in the spring of 1847 over 
eight hundred members of the Association, ''the flower of the Dutch emigra- 
tion of that day", departed for the United States, arriving in Iowa late in 
August, 1847. Such were the facts in brief which led to the coming of 
hundreds of Hollanders to the Pella colony southwest of Des Moines. — 


Numerous former fellow-countrymen of mine must long 
ago have expected some article from my pen. The reason 
for my silence hitherto lies not in any indifference toward 
the land of my birth ; for during my domicile in the United 



States of North America I followed as closely as possible 
the fortunes of The Netherlands. It pained me to hear 
that affairs after my departure were so conducted that the 
blood of citizens had to be poured out, due not to differences 
with foreign potentates but to civil dissensions. Just as 
little must the reason for my silence be sought in dissatis- 
faction arising from my past experience. With grateful 
acknowledgment of God's good hand over me for the un- 
usual honor which has come to me in my new country, I 
have sincerely forgiven the land of my birth for the unjust 
treatment meted out to me in various ways. The reason 
for my silence hitherto is that I did not like to trouble my 
former fellow-countrymen with matters which they can read 
in every book on America, and I did not care [2] to tell 
them facts which in themselves are of trifling importance 
but when colored a little have a certain charm for the minds 
of men. I believe I have become well enough acquainted 
with human nature to know how little it takes to portray a 
situation in light wholly different from the real, and I am 
convinced of having so much regard for my fellowmen that 
I do not wish to be instrumental in deluding them in any 

As soon as I arrived in the United States of North Amer- 
ica, I took pains to secure all possible information, useful 
and necessary for our colonization. The rumor of our com- 
ing had preceded me; and hardly had I reached America 
when I was stormed from various sides with offers of land 
so tempting that I am not surprised when foreigners who 
come here unprepared fall into the snare set for them by 
some land speculator. For the sake of our future peace of 
mind I took the trouble to investigate as accurately as pos- 
sible the opportunities presented to me in various States. 

Since the door to different circles was opened to me both 
by means of letters of recommendation from the North 


American Minister in Holland and by influential friends, 
whose acquaintance I had previously made, I had abundant 
opportunity to obtain instruction in everything which I de- 
sired. At Washington too I found the higher government 
officials so ready and willing to help me in every way that 
[3] I could hardly trust my own experience, and I was in- 
voluntarily driven to compare them with officials in Holland 
— a comparison which did not redound to the credit of the 
latter country. Not only did I not experience any gruff ness, 
not only was no greedy hand anywhere extended, but with 
the greatest modesty and willingness in answering my 
questions of investigation printed documents were present- 
ed to me free of cost, while a few days later a set of maps 
of the various States indicating the unsold government 
lands was sent to me at New York free. 

Everything which I came to know as a result of those 
investigations convinced me more and more that the atten- 
tion which we had fixed upon the western States during 
previous investigations in Holland was due to the good 
guidance of Providence. 

During my sojourn in the old States I did not forget that 
Hollanders had made a settlement in Michigan. While I 
was at New York City the gifts of Christian charity were 
collected there to enable the Hollanders in Michigan to 
build a saw-mill. These tokens of good-will toward the 
Dutch colonist did not, however, induce me to trek to that 
region. I perceived the same thing at Albany, and I re- 
ceived also a letter from Sleijster who had journeyed from 
Wisconsin to Michigan to examine that colony's situation 
and who had obtained such a bad impression that [4] he 
returned again to Wisconsin where he lives at present. 

The reasons which caused me to turn away from Michi- 
gan entirely, so far as the establishment of the colony of 
Netherlanders there is concerned, were : 1st, that region is 


situated too far north; 2nd, the entire want of suitable 
roads by which to get there; 3rd, the lack of sufficient 
prairie adapted to agriculture, because nearly all the land 
is covered with a heavy growth of timber; 4th, the prox- 
imity of the Indians and the distance from other settlements 
of whites. All these reasons taken together caused me to 
judge that for the class of Netherlanders, with whom I 
should colonize, that region could not be considered desir- 

To the farmer who had already spent a part of his life in 
the level hay lands and fields of Holland, the unusual battle 
with trees and the constant view of stumps in the midst of 
meadows and cultivated fields could not be agreeable. Not 
to detract from Michigan's fertility, nor from the value of 
many kinds of wood, nor from the pleasure of hearing the 
warble of birds in the cool shade of virgin forests, I had, 
however, experienced enough of real life to know that 
stumps of trees are disagreeable obstacles to farmers, and 
that the value of wood decreases very much when every- 
thing is wood. Besides, I was too well convinced that the 
Hollanders who were coming to North America were more 
prosaic than poetic, and consequently they thought not so 
much of pleasing their eyes and ears as of buying soil suit- 
able for farms, [5] the easier to cultivate the better. I 
knew that the Dutch farmers, of whom our Association 
chiefly consisted, were especially eager to be able early to 
possess pastures and milk-cows, to use plow and harrow on 
the land, and that they were not at all inclined to prefer ax 
to spade or to become dealers in wood. 

Before my departure from Holland I had read a pub- 
lished letter from Michigan in which the healthfulness of 
that State was reported as far superior to that of Iowa. 
Having arrived in North America, I received quite different 
opinions of Iowa ; while I was reading some newspaper tes- 


timonials at New York as an advertisement of a certain kind 
of pills, I came across a letter also from the Michigan colony 
praising the pills and ordering more, so that I became con- 
vinced that people there as everywhere else in the world 
had to wrestle with indisposition and disease. 

In addition to all this, I received, while at New York, 
letters from St. Lonis from the Hollanders who had been 
there some months, informing me that they had been in- 
vited by Rev. van Raalte to come to Michigan, but that after 
some correspondence and by investigating opportunities 
nearer by they had decided not to go to Michigan, but after 
our arrival to have Iowa inspected first. Keppel, a member 
of the Committee of Investigation previously appointed in 
Holland, had gone thither [to Michigan] with a couple of 
other men in order to make a personal examination and to 
be able to give an accurate report. 

[6] Another part of my work was to investigate the best 
means of inland transportation for the Hollanders who were 
coming. I was thus enabled to come into touch with a class 
of persons whom people are accustomed to call kidnappers 
and deceivers, who storm each incoming ship of emigrants 
like bands of hungry wolves. Everyone of them attempts 
to gain the foreigner's confidence by telling him with the 
utmost concern that all other people are liars, but that they 
know of good lodging-houses and can point out the cheapest 
means of transportation. Every transportation office has a 
few such way-men in its service, and this method of exploit- 
ing the purses of foreigners is so involved that even now, 
after having experienced everything, I can not yet con- 
fidently recommend any office as one upon which people can 
safely rely. 

If all foreigners who arrive knew English, if they had 
familiarized themselves with conditions in North America 
before their dex)arture from Europe, then the safest plan 


would certainly be that everybody should inform himself of 
steamboat and railway service in order to proceed in the 
most advantageous manner. These kidnappers have be- 
come so accustomed during recent years to see incoming 
ships filled with half -starved Irishmen or ill-smelling Ger- 
mans that the rumor of the coming of so many Hollanders, 
who were bringing some money and a fairly cleanly appear- 
ance with them, goaded their zeal anew to give chase after 
what people [7] here have already quite generally learned 
to call ^^willempjes". Among the ship's assailants who 
were interested in the oncoming ^^willempjes" were also 
several Hollanders, Jews as well as Gentiles, who were ac- 
qr^ainted with the relatives and circumstances of some of 
whose coming they had heard, obviously obliged by allies 
equally concerned in Holland. One can form no idea of this 
branch of industry at the sea-ports and especially at New 
York ; one should almost be able to read the hearts of these 
men if one wishes to be secure from paying toll in some form 
or another to this host of unofficial officers. 

What I learned to know of the busy world in the ports, 
and particularly New York, compelled me to recognize the 
necessity of waiting for the arrival of our ships but also 
caused me to long ardently for the glad tidings of their 
arrival, when I should be able to proceed on the journey 
inland. Finally the glad tidings were telegraphed to me 
that one of our ships had reached Baltimore and later that 
the others were in sight. I hastened by rail to the place 
where I could rejoice in the safe arrival of those with whom 
I should henceforth live in common. St. Louis was made 
the general meeting-place. 

In a long time Americans had seen no foreigners who 
made so good an impression and brought so much property 
with them. Various newspapers spread the report of the 
arrival of the Hollanders, and some accounts were so exag- 


gerated that one [8] would almost believe the treasures of 
Peru had been transported to the New World in the boxes 
and baskets and bags of the people come from The Neth- 
erlands — a belief which was strengthened in many places 
since the Hollanders usually had to exchange gold in order 
to pay for things. This circumstance has created for us 
what is called credit, but it also caused people in some cases 
to charge us more than they were accustomed to take from 
Irish or Germans. 

Packed into railway carriages, canal-boats and steam- 
boats, the whole Association at length arrived at St. Louis. 
For so large a number not enough suitable dwellings were 
to be found, and those who could get no houses were pro- 
vided with sheds, for the construction of which space was 
willingly offered. After a brief breathing-spell from the 
fatiguing journey, the Committee of Investigation set out 
to look for a site for the settlement, while everyone at St. 
Louis looked for work, a search wherein some who like to 
work were very successful, while others who had formed of 
America a picture such as children have of Cocagne were 
less fortunate in finding what they did not seriously seek. 

During the sea voyage a few had died, on land only four 
so far as I remember. At St. Louis, however, the number of 
deaths was greater. The unusual experiences of the trip, 
the cramped quarters at St. Louis, the extraordinary heat 
in that daily growing city, the irregular and careless use of 
food and [9] drink, and the disregard by some of Dutch 
cleanliness caused illness and consequent death. Some who 
were not very sick at St. Louis or had partially recovered 
had to pay the toll of nature after arrival in our new settle- 
ment. Without judging those who departed this life, we can 
sincerely say of some that they died as Christians and testi- 
fied that death was their gain. 

Having arrived at this point, I must cast a glance back- 


ward to what surpasses everything in importance, namely, 
religious and social life. 

At Boston I stopped but a few days to give my family a 
rest from the very tiresome voyage. Particular persons I 
did not visit in that city; those in whom I was especially 
interested were absent. I quickly perceived that Americans 
were very much concerned about Dutch emigration and that 
they were frank in their friendliness.^ But common re- 
ligious ties I did not find in that capital of American ration- 
alism, while the Christians whose addresses I had were 
away traveling at that time. 

After a few days ' rest I departed to Albany, the capital of 
the State of New York. I at once found Christian friends, 
apprised of my arrival, awaiting me, and I was taken 
to a hotel such as I had not met with in Europe. The first 
thing to attract my attention in the rooms assigned to me 
was the printed list of hotel regulations and therein the 
notice that each evening [10] at 9 o'clock religious services 
were held by all guests in common. It was a unique ex- 
perience to find myself in a hotel where strong drink was 
never sold, and where also a great number of the guests 
finished the day listening together to God 's Word, praising 
the Lord with enthusiastic song and thanking God on their 
knees for all His blessings, humbly confessing their sins, 
and beseeching that their sins be forgiven and cleansed in 
the beloved blood of Christ. Sometimes when a minister 
was present, he was asked to lead, but ordinarily the re- 
spectable head of the house did so. My stay at this hotel 
was so pleasant that all the guests really seemed to be mem- 
bers of one large family. If any Christian ever comes to 
Albany from Holland and desires respectable Christian 
lodging, let him go to the Delavane House. 

At Albany I quickly found Rev. Wyckhoff, a man very 

1 See below Appendix B, p. 567. 


mucli interested in the Hollanders, who placed me at once 
in a po